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Should be press liable or not
Rece years have i creased legal accou abili y of producers a d adver isers for providi g SAFE produc s a d RELIABLE i forma io o cus omers. A gover me i flue ces a wide ra ge of marke opera io s from lice si g requireme s o co rac ac io s. ha co rol a ou ces a d e forces de ermi ed orms of quali y. Each of hese regula io s is desig ed o pro ec co sumers from bei g hur or CHEA ED by defec s i he goods a d services hey buy. his ma er, whe producers look o he law ra her ha o he marke o es ablish a d mai ai ew s a dards of quali y (of heir goods), shows, ha moder marke has a abili y of selfregula io . Bu i also shows a o her u believable fea ure: co sumers are bo h i capable of ra io ally assessi g risks a d u aware of heir ow ig ora ce. Compa ies a d corpora io s all over he world are sys ema ically i cli ed o SHIRK o quali y a d ha wi hou he hrea of legal liabili y may subjec heir cus omers or o her people o serious risk of harm from heir produc s if i could save mo ey by doi g so. Accordi g o his poi of view, for mos goods a d services, co sumers are POWERLESS o ge producers o sa isfy heir dema d for safe, high-quali y produc s! he u regula ed marke le s u fair producers o pass o o hers he cos s of heir mis akes. Legal liabili y is ready o correc hese "marke failures" by crea i g a special mecha ism (feedback), regula i g rela io s be wee producers a d cus omers. U fair producers should be pu ished a d heir exposure is i creasi g. O e marke ,however, has comple ely ESCAPED he imposi io of legal liabili y. he marke for poli ical i forma io remai s ge ui ely 2 free of legally imposed quali y obliga io s. he elec ro ic mass media are subjec o more ex e sive gover me regula io ha paid media, bu i heir role as suppliers of poli ical i forma io , o hi g is required o mee a y ex er ally es ablished quali y s a dards. I fac , hose, who ga her a d repor he ews, have o legal obliga io s o be compe e , horough or disi eres ed. A d hose, who publish or broadcas i , have o legal obliga io o warra i s ru hful ess, o guara ee i s releva ce, o assure i s comple e ess. he hi g is: Should he poli ical i forma io hey provide fail, for example, o be ru hful, releva , or comple e, he cos s of his failure will o be paid by press. I s ead hey will be bor e by he ci ize s. Should he i forma io i rude he privacy of a i dividual or des roy wi hou jus ifica io a i dividual's repu a io agai , he cos will o be bor e by producer of i . his side of "ac ivi y" of producers of harmful or defec ive i forma io (goods, services, e c) prac ically is o ack owledged. Producers of mos goods a d services are co sidered worlds APAR from he press i ki d, o jus i degree. Holdi g producers i ordi ary marke s o ever higher s a dards of liabili y is see as PROCOMSUMER. Proposi g holdi g he press o a y s a dard of liabili y for poli ical i forma io is see as A IDEMOCRA IC. he press is co s i u io ally obliga ed o check o he gover me . Mos of policymakers jus ify legal liabili y for harms, caused by goods a d services a d qui e limi ed liabili y for harms, caused by i forma io .
Liabili y for defec ive co sumer produc s is PREDICA ED o a marke failure. As for "u fair" producers, power of possible profi s PREVE co sumers from ra sla i g heir rue prefere ces for safe y a d quali y i o effec ive dema d. So, cus omer prefere ces remai ou side he safe y a d quali y decisio -maki g process of producers. oday, i 'll be a ew mecha ism o force producers o follow cus omers rue prefere ces. Lack of liabili y for defec ive or harmful poli ical i forma io ca be predica ed o ly o a differe ki d of supposed marke failure o a failure of he marke o SUPPLY he LEVEL of safe y ha cus omers wa bu i s failure o supply he amou of poli ical i forma io ha socie y should have. Some exper s say, ha free marke has e de cy o produce " oo li le" correc i forma io , especially poli ical i forma io . he hi g is: poli ical i forma io is a public good a d i has ma y charac eris ics of a public good. ha is a produc ha ma y people value a d use bu o ly few will pay for. Fac ual(real) i forma io ca o easily be res ric ed o direc purchasers. Ma y people be efi who do o pay for i because he marke ca o fi d he way o charge hem. As you ca see, providers of poli ical i forma io ry o ge as much profi as possible spreadi g i , so hey HAVE O supply " oo li le" i fo. O herwise he marke FAILS! Here is a o her reaso . Some a alys s co sider ha he marke also fails because of low dema d. Eve if suppliers could "ear all heir mo ey", hey would ' provide he socially op imal amou of i fo! Priva e dema d for poli ical i fo will ever be he same as social dema d. A d i will ever reflec i s full social value. If i were rue, ha poli ical i forma io was regularly u derproduced by he marke , here would be cause for serious co cer ha migh well jus ify ge erous sibsidies i he form of freedom from liabili y for he harms hey cuase for i forma io providers. Bu a proper look a moder marke shows ha producers of poli ical i forma io have developed a wide ra ge of s ra egies for i creasi g he be efi s of heir effor s o solve he public good problem. he mos obvious example of a spo a eously ge era ed marke solu io o he public good problem is ADVER ISI G. By providi g reve ue i propor io o he rela ive size of he audie ce (for radio & V) or he readership (for magazi es & ewspapers), adver isers play a SIG IFICA role i he i er alizi g process. I effec , he sale of adver isi g a a price ha varies accordi g o he umber of recipie s permi s i forma io producers o appropria e he be efi s of providi g a produc ha ma y people value bu few would pay for direc ly. Adver isi g has a effec of ra sformi g i forma io from a public i o a priva e good. I makes possible for i forma io providers o make profi s by sa isfyi g he as es of large audie ces for whose desire o co sume i forma io hey are u able o charge direc ly. hus, cus omer of goods or services a d ci ize of a y cou ry are i he same co di io s. Like cus omers ci ize s may have (a d hey have) differe prefere ces for poli ical i forma io , bu ci ize s do o value i forma io abou poli ics o ly because i co ribu es o heir abili y o vo e i ellige ly a d cus omers do.
Like cus omers ci ize s' as es differ i ma y ways a d ha ge era e wide varia io s i he i e si y of heir dema d for poli ical i forma io . Si ce i does o appear o be rue, ha poli ical i forma io marke is blocked by a o goi g problem of u dersupply, he co ve io al jus ifica io for gra i g he press broad freedom from legal liabili y for he harms i causes mus give away! I does o ecessarily mea ha he eco omic case for legal sa c io s has bee made. Al hough i seems he marke could be relied upo o supply "e ough" i forma io . So ha subsidies i he form of pro ec io from legal liabili y are o eeded. Perso al respo sibili y a d legal accou abili y would be 100% if he i forma io marke could i er alize o producers o o ly he be efi s bu also he cos s of heir ac ivi ies & failures. As for vic ims, hey'll ge o e more cha ce o avoid he harms happe ed from he produc io of defec ive i forma io . Legal accou abili y for harm is desirable i a marke ha sys ema ically fails o pu ish "u fair" producers for defec ive produc s. his ki d of failure occurs i wo qui e differe cases: ) he firs occasio has o do wi h he marke 's respo sive ess o he dema ds of co sumers. he failure occurs whe cus omers are u able o de ec defec s before purchase or o pro ec hemselves by aki g appropria e precau io s af er purchase, whe hey are u able o ra sla e heir willi g ess o pay for o defec ive produc s i o a dema d ha some producers will sa isfy a d profi from. I also occurs whe suppliers are u able o gai a y compe i ive ad va age ei her by exposi g defec s i heir rivals' produc s or by ou i g he rela ive meri s of heir ow . 2) he seco d ki d of marke failure is a i abili y o i er alize harm o bys a ders hird par ies who have o deali gs wi h he producers bu who jus happe o be i he wro g place a he wro g ime whe a produc malfu c io s. Eve whe hese ki ds of failures occur, legal accou abili y is problema ic if i i ur e ails i evi able error i applica io or requires he aki g of such cos ly precau io s ha hey cover up all be efi s. Co ceivi g of quali y as a fu c io of accuracy, releva ce a d comple e ess, co sumers of poli ical i forma io are o i a s ro g posi io whe i comes o de ec i g quali y defec s i he poli ical i forma io hey receive. Revela ce may well be wi hi heir ke , bu si ce hey are qui e u able o verify for hemselves ei her he accuracy or he comple e ess of a y par icular accou of poli ical eve s. I addi io , si ce poli ical i forma io usually comes bu dled wi h o her e er ai me a d ews fea ures ha sus ai heir loyali y o par icular suppliers, co sumers are o i cli ed o pu ish i forma io producers by avoidi g fu ure pa ro age eve whe hey commi a occasio al gross error. ever heless, compe i io amo g jour alis s a d publishers of poli ical i forma io e ds o crea e a e viro me ha is i ge eral more co duc ive o accuracy ha o lies or half- ru hs. Jour alis ic careers ca be made by exposi g o hers' errors, a d hey ca be rui ed whe a jour alis is revealed o be careless abou ru h. hese reali ies crea e i ce ives for jour alis s o o make mis akes. Moreover, he i ves me ha mai s ream publishers a d broadcas ers make i heir repu a io s for horough ess a d accuracy a es s o he marke 's perceived abili y o de ec a d reward suppliers of co sis e ly highquali y i forma io .
The shell travelled faster than the speed of sound; one heard it explode before one heard it coming. But the American .50-calibre machine gun, mounted on tanks, had no equal in penetrating power, and the American M-l Garand was the best all-purpose military rifle in the world. Overall, however, GIs in Normandy gladly would have traded weapons with the Germans. Especially the tankers. There was a barely suppressed fury among American tankers about the inferiority of the Sherman tank (32 tons) to the German Panther (43 tons) and the Tiger (56 tons). German tanks had heavier armour, too heavy for the Sherman's 75-mm cannon to penetrate, while the Panther and Tiger, armed with 88s, easily penetrated the Sherman. But one thing about the Shermans-there were a lot more of them than there were Panthers or Tigers. Quantity over quality and size was General Marshall's deliberate choice. He wanted more and faster (and thus lighter) tanks, in accord with American doctrine, which held that tanks should exploit a breakthrough, not fight other tanks
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