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Bazarov: a lunatic or visionary?

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Vlad Elkis MOL 316-101 Dr. Elizabe h Gi zburg Oc ober 5, 2003Bazarov: a lu a ic or a visio ary?“A d he cas le made of sa d Mel s i o he sea, Eve ually.”- James Marshall He drix Iva urge ev’s a emp a crea i g a ew Russia co emporary “hero” has yielded a figure of ex remely high complexi y, co radic io , a d diverge ce. his charac er, a ma amed Evge y Bazarov a d he e igma of his perso have fueled limi less deba es o he rue esse ce of his figure, as i was i e ded by he au hor. As Socra es said, “Amid he argume a io , he ru h is fou d”, so le his modes co ribu io o he seemi gly e dless discussio of Bazarov bri g us perhaps o e small s ep closer o he ru h abou his mys erious ma a d his rue esse ce. Wha is Bazarov? Was he doomed o purga io of his heories, or was he a lumi ary wor hy of respec a d crede ce? Evge y Bazarov was bor i o a family of a modes provi cial doc or. urge ev provides o i forma io abou Bazarov’s life before his arrival i Maryi o, bu i ca be guessed ha he life of a less- ha -richly e dowed medical s ude i S . Pe ersburg mus have i volved i umerable hardships. Fyodor Dos oyevsky’s Crime a d Pu ishme has provided co siderable i sigh i o he life of you g scholars a ha ime, a d i is more ha reaso able o suspec ha Bazarov’s life was o less of a challe ge ha i was for Dos oyevsky’s Rodio Raskol ikov. his aus eri y of lifes yle, combi ed wi h his dedica ed academic pursui s, has made Bazarov i o a s ric empiricis , a s au ch prac icia , a d a merciless skep ic. Perso al experie ce became his o ly accep able form of discovery. His ac io s were gover ed by o hi g o her ha ra io al reaso i g; se ime s a d passio s were rampled by he iro fis ed behemo h of his u yieldi g i ellec . U for u a ely, he power of Bazarov’s mi d played a rude joke o he you g pseudo-philosopher. His refusal o ack owledge a y au hori y also mea his failure o recog ize ha perhaps he was o he wises perso i he world. “Whe I mee a ma who ca hold his ow beside me, he I’ll cha ge my opi io of myself,”- says Bazarov. Clearly, he is bli dly i fa ua ed wi h he idea of his ow grea ess. Pavel Kirsa ov remarks his rai i Bazarov’s charac er as “Sa a ic pride”. Perhaps, his super-ego is ic obsessio wi h self-righ eous ess was fueled by his compa io , Arkady. he you g Kirsa ov, barely we y- hree years of age, appare ly had o ye formed a sou d sys em of morals a d values a d was draw i o discipleship of ihilism primarily by he power of Bazarov’s charisma a d he “fresh ess” of he ihilis s’ ideas, ra her ha heir se sibili y. Arkady is a perso lacki g charac er a d devoid of a i depe de i ellec ual backbo e. He co s a ly eeds someo e’s suppor a d Bazarov jus happe s o be vivid e ough a perso ali y o a rac such a simple life form as Arkady. Over he course of heir frie dship, Arkady brea hes every word spoke by his se sei, seldom displayi g sig s of i depe de hough . He deligh fully rejec s au hori y, bu his ihilis ic fervor is o si cere; Arkady semi-co sciously follows his frie d, who sof ly a d ambiguously ridicules him as a pho y, for Bazarov k ows ha Arkady’s subscrip io o ihilism is very s ro gly co radic ed by his demea or, a d his freque displays of feeli gs a d emo io s.

Bu why does Bazarov o re ou ce his frie dship? Why does he olera e he compa y of Arkady, his dim hypocri e, a d why does he agree o ravel o Maryi o? Well, here was o reaso o o. As devo ed o work a d scie ce as Bazarov was, he saw o harm i spe di g a li le ime i he mellow a d pleasa cou ry es a e of his you g frie ds’ pare . Moreover, Bazarov ye agai pursues a selfish mo ive by agreei g o ravel o Maryi o: he dreads boredom, which would probably co sume him a his rue des i a io , his ow pare s’ homes ead. Al hough i appears o be u ders a dable why such a i ellige a d developed figure as Bazarov would ry o avoid ex e ded periods of exclusive co ac wi h simpler people – hey bore him. Bu i also seems ha Bazarov, i ge eral, feels mos comfor able arou d people who i here ly have o capabili y o co fro him a d ques io his maximalis ic sloga s. He e joys he compa y of he local kids i Maryi o a d deligh fully explai s his work i dissec i g frogs; Arkady is his frie d because he is harmless; he eve ries o seduce Fe echka, ha shy a d imid woma , duri g his fi al visi a he Kirsa ovs’. O e way o explai hese gravi a io al e de cies is by a hypo hesis ha Bazarov fel vul erable as a ihilis . he ordi ary people arou d him co s a ly challe ged his ideas, a d Bazarov’s wo rudime ary reac io s were o ei her wi hdraw a d avoid hese deba es, as i usually was i his e cou ers wi h Pavel Kirsa ov, or o e gage i all-ou verbal melees wi h his a ackers, who of e imes sou d more reaso able ha he belligere ihilis . Bazarov becomes co sumed by his ow lies. By so fiercely re ou ci g au hori y, pri ciples, a d orms, he co radic s himself. Accordi g o him, poe ry is a o hi g bu roma ic o se se, music is a was e of ime, admira io of a ure is ex o halluci a i g. Co sumed by his fic i ious heories, Bazarov fails (or refuses) o realize ha by arbi rarily de yi g hese a d o her a urally exis i g a ribu es of he socie y a d people, he disaffirms his ow dedica io o empiricism. Bazarov’s belief i chemis ry a es s o he exac opposi e of wha he asser s. Chemis ry is merely a scie ce ha exami es he i erac io be wee a oms; i does o wri e he laws of hese i erac io s. Similarly, he world is co s ruc ed wi h i s pri ciples of i erac io s be wee people wi hi he socie y. herefore, by refusi g o recog ize he u derlyi g order of he socie y a d becomi g a ihilis , Bazarov pu s himself i da ger of someday faci g a pai ful revela io . His rele less s ruggle agai s he ideals a d he idealis s has ra sformed his very self i o a idealis . By a acki g all pri ciples already so solidly embedded i he socie y, he makes himself a au hor of jus a o her se of ideals, values, a d pri ciples. “ hou shal o e joy he a ure, music, poe ry, or love! hou shal e joy S off u d Kraf a d chemis ry!” is a possible quo e rela able o Bazarov hrough paraphrasi g of his loud claims. Bu i is s ra ge ha such a i ellige ma as Bazarov could o u ders a d ha by deprivi g people of heir commo sources of e joyme a d happi ess, he was sermo izi g abou a world bou d for self-des ruc io .

For i is qui e clear ha he more harmless sources of happi ess every perso fi ds i his or her life, he be er a d safer he world will be for he socie y as a whole. S ro gly i oxica ed by his ow brillia ce a d wi hou u ders a di g his mis ake, Bazarov fou d he audaci y a d emeri y o ques io a d ridicule he a ural order of his socie y a he ime. His ques for reform esse ially was a rip o he daw of huma race, o he prehis oric imes of laissez-faire e hics (or abse ce hereof) a d a a emp o redesig he law of he world, he law ha co s ruc ed i self over he ce uries a d evolved as a e viro me al force much oo s ro g for a simple idealis like Bazarov o e gage. “Fa hers a d So s” is similar o a Sophoclea ragedy, i which he mai charac er, Bazarov, follows a li e ha i volves mos of he a ribu es of a real ragic hero, as ou li e i Greek drama: hubris, a a ag orisis, a d a ca harsis. His hubris was he i a ic pride a d co emp for oo ma y of he world’s pri ciples. His u successful rela io ship wi h Odi sova, however, forced him o ack owledge he foolish ess of his rash eva geliza io s. Co sis e wi h his ow previous s a eme ha “he will review his ow perso whe he fi ds someo e who ca face him”, Bazarov experie ces his a ag orisis whe he u dergoes a radical cha ge of philosophy af er all of his ihilis ic ideas are pu o doub . Bazarov he Empiricis wi esses empirically he disma li g of his lo g ime heories whe he falls i love wi h he firs perso capable of s a di g up o him, A a Odi sova. Bu ragically, he revela io comes o Bazarov o ly whe he is o his dea hbed, losi g grip of his migh y i ellec . oo la e! he ack owledges he ru h abou his feeble “cas le made of sa d ha mel ed i o he sea” whe he co fessed love o A a. Eve af er ye a o her versio of he i erpre a io of Bazarov’s s ory is prese ed, i is s ill u clear whe her Bazarov’s dea h was a accide or he u shakable ihilis ’s delibera e depar ure from he world he refused o respec a d recog ize as his. Bu wha would happe if he doc or whom Bazarov was assis i g duri g ha au opsy did have he a ibio ic o save Bazarov from he yphus i fec io ? Would he aba do his audacious ihilis ic ideals? he a swer, I believe, is yes. Bazarovism is a absolu ely u sus ai able school of hough i huma socie y, a d Bazarov’s ow example serves as solid evide ce for ha . hrough ex rapola io of Evge y’s perso a o o he backgrou d of he we ie h ce ury, i becomes eve clearer ha eleme s like Mr. Bazarov would fi d hemselves dysfu c io al a d rejec ed by he socie y. Moreover, a Bazarov-like perso who believes i o hi g bu he empirical would be exposed o oo ma y adverse a d des ruc ive i flue ces ha o ly our pare s’ guida ce ca help avoid: drugs, u pro ec ed sex, e c. herefore, if urge ev allowed Euge y o live as a equal member of he socie y, he jus like Dos oyevsky’s Raskol ikov, he, oo, would have aba do ed his you hful rage a d joi ed he socie y of reaso able people.

For people communicating "sideways" – i.e., to others at approximately the same level of organization – behave differently, operate under very different pressures, than those who must communicate up and down a hierarchy. To illustrate, let us look at a typical work setting in which a traditional bureaucratic hierarchy operates. While still a young man I worked for a couple of years as a millwright's helper in a foundry. Here, in a great dark cavern of a building, thousands of men labored to produce automobile crankcase castings. The scene was Dantesque – smoke and soot smeared our faces, black dirt covered the floors and filled the air, the pungent, choking smell of sulphur and burnt sand seared our nostrils. Overhead a creaking conveyor carried red hot castings and dripped hot sand on the men below. There were flashes of molten iron, the yellow flares of fires, and a lunatic cacophony of noises: men shouting, chains rattling, pug mills hammering, compressed air shrieking. To a stranger the scene appeared chaotic

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