Библиотека Рефераты Курсовые Дипломы Поиск
Библиотека Рефераты Курсовые Дипломы Поиск
сделать стартовой добавить в избранное
Кефирный гриб на сайте za4eti.ru

Иностранные языки Иностранные языки

Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

Гуашь "Классика", 12 цветов.
Гуашевые краски изготавливаются на основе натуральных компонентов и высококачестсвенных пигментов с добавлением консервантов, не
170 руб
Раздел: 7 и более цветов
Наклейки для поощрения "Смайлики 2".
Набор для поощрения на самоклеящейся бумаге. Формат 95х160 мм.
19 руб
Раздел: Наклейки для оценивания, поощрения
Фонарь садовый «Тюльпан».
Дачные фонари на солнечных батареях были сделаны с использованием технологии аккумулирования солнечной энергии. Уличные светильники для
106 руб
Раздел: Уличное освещение

he i e ded ques io o be posed i his essay rela es o he Arme ia Ge ocide of 1915 a d i s evide co ec io o he massacres of Arme ia mi ori y i Azerbaija i 1988-89. he pa h I have chose o a swer his ques io leads hroughou he his ory of Ge ocide i 1915. He ce, he ragedy a he ou se of he we ie h ce ury provoked he slaugh er of he same prosecu ed e h ical mi ori y by he same perpe ra i g e h ic majori y o ly seve y years la er. Accordi g o he heory i roduced by sociologis Alfred Schul s, a y eve by i s ow a ure has o mea i g. His view is ha a mea i g is some hi g ascribed o eve s or objec s a d is based o wo co cep s fu c io i g eve ly: he sedime of pas experie ce a d a o her o e projec ed i fu ure. hese wo fac ors es ablish wha he calls he sys em of releva ces ha e ables o i erpre a curre eve ou of dual perspec ive based o pas a d fu ure.1 By all mea s his heory is applicable o massacre of 1915 a d he pogroms i 1988. he ou li ed parallels be wee he wo series of eve s de o e a much more disas rous circums a ce u der which all he Arme ia popula io i Azerbaija was jeopardized by “ he urks.” I his case he Schu z’s heory i dica es ha he sig ifica ce of pas eve s ( he various massacres a d ge ocide) became evide i i erpre a io of he pogroms ha occurred i 1988-90.2 o crime carries as much des ruc io a d cruel y as ge ocide. I aims a loss of e h ic ide i y of a vic imized par y. Ge ocide i e ds o jus o kill, maim, or viola e people; he ul ima e purpose is o deprive he vic im of i s fu ure as a s ro g a io al e i y. A y massive crime has impac o co emporary a d/or possible prospec ive rela io s of he vic im a d he perpe ra or o global poli ical are a. O e well-docume ed massive crime agai s huma i y is he Arme ia Ge ocide of 1915 whe umber of casual ies was es ima ed from 600 000 o 2 000000 people. he bloody eve i his ory of Arme ia caused o o ly huma loses, bu deprived Arme ia par ially of a ces ral erri ory. O he 9 h of December 1948, he U i ed a io s adop ed he Ge ocide Co ve io , compili g he followi g defi i io i Ar icle II: I he prese Co ve io , ge ocide mea s a y of he followi g fac s commi ed wi h i e o des roy, i whole or i par , a a io al, e h ical, racial or religious group, as such: Killi g members of he group; Causi g serious bodily or me al harm o members of he group; Delibera ely i flic i g o he group co di io s of life calcula ed o bri g abou i s physical des ruc io i whole or i par ; Imposi g measures i e ded o preve bir hs wi hi he group; Forcibly ra sferri g childre of he group o a o her group. he defi i io of ge ocide accep ed by U i ed a io s has caused a grea deal of co roversy, for i excluded social a d poli ical groups. hereaf er, i he 1980’s Hele Fei developed a broader a d more profou d defi i io of ge ocide, from which she excluded killi g as a ma da ory a ribu e of warfare, a d o he opposi e, i cluded groups bei g persecu ed based o heir social a d poli ical belo gi g: Ge ocide is a sus ai ed purposeful ac io by a perpe ra or o physically des roy a collec ivi y direc ly or i direc ly, hrough i erdic io of he biological a d social reproduc io of group members, sus ai ed regardless of he surre der or lack of hrea offered by he vic im.3

I he case of he Arme ia Ge ocide of 1915 he gover me al a roci y agai s i s ow people was ’ specified a ywhere i he scrolls of I er a io al Law. I co ai ed cer ai regula io s o accou of a civilia , o comba a popula io duri g war ime, bu his i cide became firs of i s ki d for which i er a io al law had o s ipula io . Whe he legisla ive defi i io of ge ocide was accep ed by he U i ed a io s i 1948, i ur ed ou o be ha Arme ia ge ocide fell u der each of he five ca egories of i .4 Al hough he pogroms i Sumgai a d Baku of 1988-90 resemble more he pogroms i O oma Empire i 1890’s ra her ha ac ual ge ocide which occurred i 1915 a d culmi a ed i 1921 i he figh a d expulsio of survivors who re ur ed o Celicia, he a alogy be wee 1915 a d 1988-90 is appare . Arme ia s were a mi ori y popula io i bo h Azerbaija a d urkey, hus clearly ide ifiable for persecu io . Arme ia s were more upwardly mobile ha he majori y popula io , he ce crea i g he possibili y of po e ial social co flic . he overarchi g poli ical co di io s were u s able i bo h he Sovie U io a d he O oma Empire – revolu io ary cha ge of e bei g a prerequisi e of ge ocide. Arme ia s were scapegoa ed for poli ical eve s ou side he borders of he cou ry i which hey were residi g.5 Arme ia ge ocide is o e of he firs ge ocide of he we ie h ce ury. I became a model for he “poli ical” ype of ge ocide. he majori y of he curre ge ocides followed his pa er . I order o exami e o wha degree he Ge ocide of 1915 is rela ed o he pogroms i Azerbaija i 1988-90 some his ory of Arme ia s is o be exami ed. Arme ia s have popula ed he highla d regio be wee he Black, Caspia a d Medi erra ea seas for ce uries lo g. his area prese ed a crossroad be wee Eas a d Wes . As a resul of he geographic loca io Arme ia was ’ gover by i s ow dy as ies co s a ly. he s a e has experie ced direc foreig rule as well as payi g fees o he surrou di g s a es. Besides he geography, Arme ia had a o her disadva age. I was he o ly Chris ia s a e surrou ded by Muslim e i ies, his aspec kep Arme ia apar from o hers. Such dis i c differe ce referred Arme ia s as seco d-class ci ize s af er he O oma Empire a exed he erri ory ha had molded a cie a d medieval Arme ia ki gdoms, i he six ee h ce ury. he O oma Empire es ablished o i s erri ory co fessio al-based Muslim, Jewish, Greek Or hodox, a d Arme ia mille s. hrough hese es ablishme s he O oma admi is ra ive sys em legalized he social i equali y wi hi a s ruc ure of he socie y. he mille sys em e abled Arme ia s o preserve heir cul ural-religious ide i y, bu kep hem poli ically a d mili arily i efficacious. Arme ia s did ’ pose a y hrea o o he mul i a io al, u equal socie y a d re ai ed i accord o cer ai degree wi h he domi a Muslim mille as lo g as hey paid he ribu es o he gover me a d remai ed poli ically i ac ive. I he eigh ee h a d i e ee h ce uries a wi d of cha ges came across he O oma Empire a d caused ex er al challe ges a d i er al i s abili y. I capable of compe i g wi h he Wes eco omically a d mili ary, he ruli g au hori y los a umber of provi ces a d e ded up i deb .

Such immedia e breakdow of law a d co seque ve ali y frac ured he fou da io s of O oma mul i a io al socie y. Due he i creasi g hrea s o co i ued exis e ce of he O oma Empire, he sul a s, u der he pressure of Grea Bri ai , lau ched a program of remodeli g ha broke away from he radi io al sociopoli ical heocracy. he a zima period, s re chi g from 1839 o 1876, was desig ed o comme ce heore ical equali y of all O oma subjec s. However, while he decree we i o power, he sys em of mille s mai ai ed, a d he equali y wi hi i correspo di gly. Duri g he poli ical i er al a d ex er al orme s Arme ia s e deavored o uphold a d o follow he reforms i order o secure life a d proper y. hey had o i e io s o develop a ask of separa io or acquiri g i depe de ce from he O oma Empire. he followed he Russia - urkish War, i which urkey los severely. he mili ary a d diploma ic failure of he sul a Abdul-Hamid II a ribu ed o he break away of he mos of Balka provi ces. hus, he a e io of he Europea commu i y was draw o he “Arme ia Ques io .” However, he fac of Europea pro ec ora e, explici ly expressed verbally i regard o he domes ic policy of he crumbli g O oma Empire o ly aggrava ed he co di io of Arme ia s i urkey. Arme ia s’ ques for securi y a d equali y resul ed i bru al pogroms ordered by Abdul-Hamid, which were carried ou by armed Kurdish briga ds i almos every provi ce i habi ed by Arme ia s. he ul ima e purpose of Abdul-Hamid was ’ o ex ermi a e he Arme ia popula io , bu ra her o poi ou ha hey have o follow he policies of he O oma Empire. Par icularly, o look up a Europe was a forbidde ac . His successors aimed a crea i g a e irely socio a io alis ic frame of he s a e, free from Arme ia s, ra her ha jus preservi g a poli ical s a us quo.6 he o ly way o achieve he goal was o whip ou he e ire Arme ia popula io from he O oma Empire erri ory. I early 1913 he You g urk gover me was over hrow by i s mili aris ic a d a io alis ic wi g, wi h E ver, aala , a d Jemal Pashas i head of i . his hreesome i volved he cou ry i o WWI as he ally of Germa y. La er i 1915 he same gover me ou li ed a d pu i o effec a pla for he elimi a io of Arme ia s, es ima ed be wee wo a d hree millio s subjec s. he pla was carried ou i phases. I April 1915 people represe ed he Arme ia religious, poli ical, educa io al, a d i ellec ual au hori y i he Wes er radi io , variously o e housa d i dividuals, were jailed hroughou he e ire Empire, a d co seque ly killed wi hi few days. he ex phase co sis ed of liquida io of he you g male adul popula io , which mai ly were recrui s of he urkish army. he umber approxima ed 200,000. hey were purged hrough mass burials, i ci era io , execu io s a d weak ess i labor ba alio s. he lef overs of hose who survived hose phases were primarily childre , wome a d aged people. All of hem were o be depor ed o dis a regio s of Empire. Wi hi six mo hs of depor a io half of hose who survived firs wo phases were killed, buried alive or hrow i o he sea or he rivers alo g he way.7 he murder of Arme ia s was charac erized like he war agai s E e e, as a jihad or holy war.

War Stars: The Superweapon and the American Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988. Fredrickson George M. The Arrogance of Race: Historical Perspectives on Slavery, Racism, and Social Inequality. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1988. --- The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character, 1817–1914. New York: Harper & Row, 1971. — 829- Fribert Lucy M., and Barbara A. White, eds. Hidden Hands: An Anthology of American Women Writers, 1790–1870. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988. Friedman Ellen G., and Miriam Fuchs, eds. The Review of Contemporary Fiction: Kathy Acker, Christine Brook-Rose, Marguerite Young Number 9.3 (Fall 1989). Fussell Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory. London: Oxford University Press, 1975. Gardiner Jane. "Form and Reform in Looking Backward." American Transcendental Quarterly 2.1 (March 1988): 69–82. Gass William H. "A Fiesta for the Form." The New Republic (October 25, 1980): 33–39. Gaston Edwin W., Jr. The Early Novel of the Southwest

1. Presents in Russia and America

2. Homonyms in English and their specific features

3. The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French

4. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character

5. Lexicography as a science of dictionary-making

6. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)
7. Historical measurement of the science of governing
Historical measurement of the science of governing
8. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

9. Internet helps in development of education and democracy

10. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

11. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

12. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

13. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

14. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

15. Quantification of osteocyte lacunar density and anisotropy of vascular canals in compact bone

16. Спецподразделения Армии Израиля: "Голани" (Special forces in Army of Israel Golani)

Пепельница S.Quire круглая c откидной крышкой, сталь, покрытие никель и черная краска, 67 мм.
Материал: нержавеющая сталь, покрытие никель, черная краска. Диаметр 67 мм, высота 102 мм.
350 руб
Раздел: Пепельницы
Антистрессовая подушка под шею "Микс".
Удобная подушка под шею создана специально для поездок и перелётов. Её можно использовать и на работе, чтобы приятно расслабиться во время
330 руб
Раздел: Дорожные пледы, подушки
Игра настольная "7 на 9 multi".
Настольная игра "7 на 9 Multi" позволит увлекательно провести время за веселой игрой. В комплект входят 61 карточка и подробная
333 руб
Раздел: Викторины

17. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

18. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

19. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

20. Economic and sociological analysis of suicide

21. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact

22. Regulation in telecommunications industries: Why, What and How to Regulate?
Regulation in telecommunications industries: Why, What and How to Regulate?
23. The role of art in our life
The role of art in our life
24. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

25. Lexicology. Different dialects and accents of English

26. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

27. The history of Old English and its development

28. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

29. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

30. Continuity and change in Stravinskiy`s ballets. Стравинский и его балеты

31. The role of art in our life

32. Navruz - A Celebration of Life. Public holidays in Uzbekistan

Дорожная косметичка, 21x15x12 см, арт. 82629.
Стильная косметичка выполненная из современных полимерных материалов, станет отличным современным подарком и займет достойное место среди
324 руб
Раздел: Дорожные наборы
Детский велосипед Jaguar трехколесный (цвет: розовый).
Детский трехколесный велосипед колясочного типа, для малышей от 10 месяцев до 3 лет. Модель с удлиненной рамой, что позволяет подобрать
1440 руб
Раздел: Трехколесные
Карандаши цветов "Color Emotion", трехгранные, 36 цветов.
Карандаши цветные, трехгранные. Количество цветов: 36. Материал корпуса: липа.
692 руб
Раздел: Более 24 цветов

33. Continuity and change in Stravinskiy`s ballets. Стравинский и его балеты

34. Символ и таинство в богословии св. Максима исповедника (symbol and mystery in st.Maximus the confessor)

35. Poland and Hungary are in Transition

36. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

37. Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

38. Quality of life and management of living resources
Quality of life and management of living resources
39. The City of London and its role as a financial centre
The City of London and its role as a financial centre
40. Protectionnism and Free Trade in Economical Doctrines
Protectionnism and Free Trade in Economical Doctrines

41. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

42. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society

43. Customs and traditions of English speaking countries

44. Climate and nature of Great Britain

45. Advantages and disadvantages of television

46. Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland

47. Legal and linguistic aspects of translating english legal terminology

48. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

Кондиционер для белья Cj Lion "Porinse Aroma Capsule", с ароматом розы, 2,1 л.
Кондиционер для белья Cj Lion "Porinse Aroma Capsule" наполнит ваши вещи нежным цветочным ароматом и надолго сохранит его на
346 руб
Раздел: Ополаскиватели, кондиционеры
Мозаика с прозрачным полем, 40 мм, 100 деталей.
Прозрачное поле + 5 картинок-шаблонов.
490 руб
Раздел: Пластмассовая
Трехколесный велосипед Funny Jaguar Lexus Trike Original Volt (цвет: серебро).
Трехколесный велосипед подходит для детей от 1 года. Велосипед Volt заряжает своей энергией, зовет в дорогу. Характеристики: - удобное
2400 руб
Раздел: Трехколесные

49. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

50. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism

51. Places of interest in Ukraine

52. Conflicts of interest in corporate transactions

53. Internal Structure of a Proton and New Method of Receiving of Energy

54. Customs and traditions of Great Britain
Customs and traditions of Great Britain
55. Linguistic Pecularities Of Contracts in English
Linguistic Pecularities Of Contracts in English
56. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution
The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

57. The political role of Great Britain in modern world

58. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

59. Role of Women in Society

60. Holidays in Russia, Britain and the USA

61. Colonization and Development of Pennsylvania

62. Model of atom’s nucleus and table of elements

63. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

64. Customs and Traditions in Britain

Набор посуды "Peppa Pig".
Яркая фарфоровая посуда с героями из самого популярного мультфильма "Peppa Pig". Набор, несомненно, привлечет внимание вашего
547 руб
Раздел: Наборы для кормления
Настольная игра "Скажи, если сможешь!".
Это веселая игра на артикуляцию. Вам нужно объяснить как можно больше слов своей команде, но задача не так проста. Вам нужно вставить в
910 руб
Раздел: Игры на ассоциации, воображение
Глобус детский зоогеографический, с подсветкой, 210 мм.
Глобус детский зоогеографический, на пластиковой подставке, с подсветкой. Диаметр: 210 мм.
985 руб
Раздел: Глобусы

65. Effects of Divorce On Children and Parents

66. HOW SIGNIFICANT WAS ALEXANDER DUBCEK IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF REFORMIST COMMUNISM?

67. Islam in the eyes of the West

68. Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century

69. The role of deuterium in molecular evolution

70. Economic bases of innovative activity in public health services
Economic bases of innovative activity in public health services
71. Economy of Russia and Economic crisis
Economy of Russia and Economic crisis
72. Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation
Equivalents of gerund are in Russian translation

73. Internal diagnostics company, identification of strengths and weaknesses

74. Life and creation of A.K. Tolstoy

75. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

76. Problem of meaning ambiguity in a language

77. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

78. Romeo and Juliet - immortal tragedy of W.S.

79. Specificity of sociology and sociological knowledge

80. Stages and types of an applied sociological research. Sociological research process

Ранец жесткокаркасный для начальной школы "Динозавр", 18 литров, 36x26x14 см.
Ранец жесткокаркасный для начальной школы, вместительное основное отделение и дополнительные карманы, светоотражающие полосы. Форма ранца:
1247 руб
Раздел: Без наполнения
Салатники "Хлеб", 2 штуки.
Салатники, 2 штуки. Диаметр: 13,5/16,5 см. Высота: 6/7 см. Объем: 350/650 мл. Материал: керамика.
362 руб
Раздел: Наборы
Вакуумные пакеты с вешалкой 3 штуки: 70х105 см (2 штуки), 70х145 см (1 штука).
Характеристики: - уменьшают объём мягких предметов в 3-4 раза; - надежно защищают вещи от моли, грязи и сырости; - очень износоустойчивы и
529 руб
Раздел: Вакуумные пакеты

81. Stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms in modern English

82. The development of sustainable tourism in Turkey

83. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using

84. The origin and history of the English language

85. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

86. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
87. What strategy are most effective in the conditions of globalization
What strategy are most effective in the conditions of globalization
88. Significance of translation in contemporary life
Significance of translation in contemporary life

89. Ghandi and the myth of non-violent action

90. The life and work of the self-employed socialist intellectual, Humphrey McQueen

91. The collection of French art in the Hermitage

92. Attaction of foreign inflows in East Asia

93. Application of angstorm level resolution in nanotechnology

94. The models of atom’s nucleus and table of elements.

95. Private sector and human-resource development in Georgia

96. Строительные Нормы и Правила (СНиП 2.08.02-89*)

Доска магнитно-маркерная, А3, 342x484 мм.
Размер: 342x484 мм. Белое лаковое покрытие. Материал рамки: МДФ. Размер внутри рамки: 302х444 мм. Для формата А3. В комплекте: магниты и
405 руб
Раздел: Доски магнитно-маркерные
Средство дезинфицирующее "Аламинол 1", 1 литр, концентрат.
Средство дезинфицирующее. Объем: 1 литр. Концентрат.
481 руб
Раздел: Для сантехники
Магическая кружка-мешалка, зеленая.
Оригинальная кружка с двойными металлическими стенками (нержавеющая сталь). Сохраняет напиток горячим в течение дольшего времени (в
554 руб
Раздел: Кружки

97. Impact of Evolution on Human Thought. Testosterone

98. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

99. Short Overview of African Countries


Поиск Рефератов на сайте za4eti.ru Вы студент, и у Вас нет времени на выполнение письменных работ (рефератов, курсовых и дипломов)? Мы сможем Вам в этом помочь. Возможно, Вам подойдет что-то из ПЕРЕЧНЯ ПРЕДМЕТОВ И ДИСЦИПЛИН, ПО КОТОРЫМ ВЫПОЛНЯЮТСЯ РЕФЕРАТЫ, КУРСОВЫЕ И ДИПЛОМНЫЕ РАБОТЫ. 
Вы можете поискать нужную Вам работу в КОЛЛЕКЦИИ ГОТОВЫХ РЕФЕРАТОВ, КУРСОВЫХ И ДИПЛОМНЫХ РАБОТ, выполненных преподавателями московских ВУЗов за период более чем 10-летней работы. Эти работы Вы можете бесплатно СКАЧАТЬ.