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Искусство, Культура, Литература Искусство, Культура, Литература     Культурология Культурология

Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries

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I. Bri ai rou d he cale dar.PUBLIC HOLIDAYS A D CELEBRA IO S here are o ly six public holidays a year i Grea Bri ai , ha is days o which people eed o go i o work. hey are: Chris mas Day, Boxi g Day, Good Friday, Eas er Mo day, Spri g Ba k Holiday a d La e Summer Ba k Holiday. I Sco la d, he ew Year’s Day is also a public holiday. Mos of hese holidays are of religious origi , hough i would be righ o say ha for he grea er par of he popula io hey have lo g los heir religious sig ifica ce a d are simply days o which people relax, ea , dri k a d make merry. All he public holidays, excep Chris mas Day a d Boxi g Day observed o December 25 h a d 26 h respec ively, are movable, ha is hey do o fall o he same day each year. Good Friday a d Eas er Mo day depe d o Eas er Su day which falls o he firs Su day af er a full moo o or af er March 21s . he Spri g Ba k Holiday falls o he las Mo day of May or o he firs Mo day of Ju e, while he La e Summer Ba k Holiday comes o he las Mo day i Augus or o he firs Mo day i Sep ember, depe di g o which of he Mo days is earer o Ju e 1s a d Sep ember 1s respec ively. Besides public holidays, here are o her fes ivals, a iversaries a d simply days, for example Pa cake Day a d Bo fire igh , o which cer ai radi io s are observed, bu u less hey fall o a Su day, hey are ordi ary worki g days. EW YEAR I E gla d he ew Year is o as widely or as e husias ically observed as Chris mas. Some people ig ore i comple ely a d go o bed a he same ime as usual o ew Year’s Eve. Ma y o hers, however, do celebra io i i o e way or a o her, he ype of celebra io varyi g very much accordi g o he local cus om, family radi io s a d perso al as e. he mos commo ype of celebra io is a ew Year par y, ei her a family par y or o e arra ged by a group of you g people. his usually begi s a abou eigh o’clock a d goes o u il he early hours of he mor i g. here is a lo of dri ki g, mai ly beer, wi e, gi a d whisky; some imes he hos s make a big bowl of pu ch which co sis s of wi e, spiri s, frui juice a d wa er i varyi g propor io s. here is usually a buffer of cold mea , pies, sa dwiches, savouries, cakes a d biscui s. A mid igh he wireless is ur ed o , so ha everyo e ca hear he chimes of Big Be , a d o he hour a oas is dru k o he ew Year. he he par y goes o . A o her popular way of celebra i g he ew Year is o go o a ew Year’s da ce. Mos ho els a d da ce halls hold a special da ce o ew Year’s Eve. he hall is decora ed, here are several differe ba ds a d he a mosphere is very gay. he mos famous celebra io is i Lo do rou d he s a ue of Eros i Piccadilly Circus where crowds ga her a d si g a d welcome he ew Year. I Holidays a d radi io s i E glish – speaki g cou ries. rafalgar Square here is also a big crowd a d someo e usually falls i o he fou ai . hose who have o desire or o oppor u i y o celebra e he ew Year hemselves ca si a d wa ch o her people celebra i g o elevisio . I is a i dica io of he rela ive u impor a ce of he ew Year i E gla d ha he elevisio producers seem u able o fi d a y radi io al E glish fes ivi ies for heir programmers a d usually show Sco ish o es.

Ja uary 1s , ew Year’s Day, is o a public holiday, u for u a ely for hose who like o celebra e mos of he igh . Some people se d ew Year cards a d give prese s bu his is o a widespread cus om. his is he radi io al ime for maki g “ ew Year resolu io s”, for example, o give up smoki g, or o ge up earlier. However, hese are ge erally more alked abou ha pu i o prac ice. Also o ew Year’s Day he “ ew Year Ho ours Lis ” is published i he ewspapers; i.e. a lis of hose who are o be give ho ours of various ypes – k igh hoods, e c. I Ca ada ew Year’s Day has a lo g radi io of celebra io . ew Year’s Eve i Fre ch Ca ada was (a d s ill is) marked by he cus om of groups of you g me , o dress i COLOURful a ire a d go from house o house, si gi g a d beggi g gif s for he poor. ew Year’s Day was (a d is) a ime for payi g calls o frie ds a d eighbours a d for aski g he blessi g of he head of he family. he early Gover ors held a public recep io for he me of he commu i y o ew Year’s mor i g, a cus om preserved dow o he prese day. While ew Year’s Day is of less sig ifica ce i E glish Ca ada ha i Fre ch Ca ada, i ’s a public holiday hroughou he cou ry. Wide spread merry-maki g begi s o ew Year’s Eve wi h house par ies, di er da ces a d special hea re e er ai me . A cus omary fea ure of he occasio ha sugges s he Sco ish co ribu io o he observa io is he especially hose ha could ’ be arra ged for Chris mas, are held o ew Year’s Day. ew Year is ’ such impor a holiday i E gla d as Chris mas. Some people do ’ celebra e i a all. I USA ma y people have ew Year par ies. A par y usually begi s a abou 8 o’clock a d goes o u il early mor i g. A mid igh hey lis e o he chimes of Big Be , dri k a oas o he ew Year a d Si g Auld La g Sy e. I Lo do crowds usually ga her rou d he s a ue of Eros i Piccadilly Circus a d welcome he ew Year. here are some radi io s o ew Year’s Day. O e of hem is he old Firs Foo i g. he firs ma o come i o he house is very impor a . he E glishma believes ha he bri gs luck. his ma ( o a woma ) mus be heal hy, you g, pre y looki g. He bri gs prese s-bread, a piece of coal or a coi . O he ew Year’s Day families wa ch he old year ou a d he ew Year i . Holidays a d radi io s i E glish – speaki g cou ries. I Sco la d he ew Year’s Day is also a public holiday. Some people ig ore i comple ely a d go o bed a he same ime as usual o ew Year’s Eve. Ma y o hers, however, do celebra e i i o e way or a o her, he ype of celebra io varyi g very much accordi g o he local cus om, family radi io a d perso al as e. he mos commo ype of celebra io is a ew Year par y, ei her a family par y or o e arra ged by a group of you g people. his usually begi s a abou eigh o’clock a d goes o u il he early hours of he mor i g. here is a lo of dri ki g, mai ly beer, wi e, gi a d whisky; some imes he hos s make a big bowl of pu ch which co sis s of wi e, spiri s, frui juice a d wa er i varyi g propor io s. here is usually a buffe supper of cold mea , pies, sa dwiches, savories, cakes a d biscui s.

A mid igh he wireless is ur ed o , so ha everyo e ca hear he chimes of Big Be , a d o he hour a oas is dru k o he ew Year. he he par y goes o .Hogma ay Celebra io sHogma ay is a Sco ish ame for ew Year’s Eve, a d is a ime for merrymaki g, he givi g of prese s a d he observa ce of he old cus om of Firs – Foo i g. O e of he mos i eres i g of Sco ish Hogma ay celebra io s is he Flambeaux Processio a Comrie, Per hshire. Such processio s ca be raced back o he ime of he a cie Druids. here is a processio of ow sfolk i fa cy dress carryi g large orches. hey are led by pipers. Whe he processio has comple ed i s our, he flambeaux ( orches) are hrow i o a pile, a d everyo e da ces arou d he blaze u il he orches have bur ed ou . he igh of Hogma ay owhere else i Bri ai is he arrival of he ew Year celebra ed so wholehear edly as i Sco la d. hroughou Sco la d, he prepara io s for gree i g he ew Year s ar wi h a mi or “spri g-clea i g”. Brass a d silver mus be gli eri g a d fresh li e mus be pu o he beds. o rou i e work may be lef u fi ished; s ocki gs mus be dar ed, ears me ded, clocks wou d up, musical i s rume s u ed, a d pic ures hu g s raigh . I addi io , all ou s a di g bills are paid, overdue le ers wri e a d borrowed books re ur ed. A leas , ha is he idea! Mos impor a of all, here mus be ple y of good hi gs o ea . I umerable homes “reek of celes ial grocery” – plum puddi gs a d curra bu s, spices a d cordials, apples a d lemo s, a geri es a d offee. I ma sio a d farmhouse, i suburba villa a d ci y e eme , he able is spread wi h fes ive fare. Esse ial o Hogma ay are “cakes a d kebbuck” (oa cakes a d cheese), shor bread, a d ei her black bu or curra loaf. here are fla ked wi h bo les of wi e a d he “mou ai dew” ha is he poe ic ame for whisky. Holidays a d radi io s i E glish – speaki g cou ries. I he ci ies a d burghs, he ew Year receives a commu al welcome, he radi io al ga heri g-place bei g he Merca Cross, he hub a d symbol of he old burgh life. I Edi burgh, however, he crowd has slid a few yards dow he hill from he Merca Cross o he ro Kirk – bei g lured hi her, o doub , by he four-faced clock i he ower. As he igh adva ces, Pri ces S ree becomes as hro ged as i ormally is a oo , a d here is growi g exci eme i he air. owards mid igh , all s eps ur o he ro Kirk, where a lively, swayi g crowd awai s “ he Chapli o’ he wal” ( he s riki g of 12 o’clock). As he ha ds of he clock i he ower approach he hour, a hush falls o he wai i g hro g, he a mosphere grows e se, a d he sudde ly here comes a roar from a myriad hroa s. he bells for h, he sire s scream – he ew Year is bor ! Ma y families prefer o bri g i he ew Year a home, wi h music or da ci g, cards or alk. As he eve i g adva ces, he fire is piled high – for he brigh er he fire, he be er he luck. he members of he household sea hemselves rou d he hear h, a d whe he ha ds of he clock approach he hour, he head of he house rises, goes o he mai door, ope s i wide, a d holds i hus u il he las s roke of mid igh has died away.

Test results are valid for two years. * Applicants from U.S. possessions and territories are considered out of country. Interpreters (for non-English-speaking and hearing-impaired applicants) An approved foreign language interpreter is: * A full-time faculty member of a college or university in the United States , who displays a current identification card issued by that college or university * A priest, minister, rabbi or other religious leader of a recognized organization, who displays credentials showing his/her association in such an organization * An individual with an interpreter identification card issued by the U.S. Department of State, Office of Language Services An approved hearing-impaired interpreter is: * An interpreter certified by the National Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf and listed with the New Jersey Division of the Deaf * An interpreter who has been evaluated by the Division of the Deaf and is on the approved list of professional interpreters The MVC will pay the interpreter fees for hearing-impaired applicants

1. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries

2. Customs and traditions of English speaking countries

3. An English Speaking Country - New Zealand

4. Customs and Traditions in Britain

5. English speaking countries

6. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
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7. Homonyms in English and their specific features
Homonyms in English and their specific features
8. Syntax and semantics of verbals in English
Syntax and semantics of verbals in English

9. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

10. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

11. Liaison between Board and CEO in Russian Oil Companies

12. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)

13. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)

14. Символ и таинство в богословии св. Максима исповедника (symbol and mystery in st.Maximus the confessor)

15. Композиторы in English

16. Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland

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21. Sport and recreation in the United States

22. The Borrowed Words Process Development in English
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23. Word stress in English
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24. Traditions and holidays of Great Britain
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25. Holidays in Russia, Britain and the USA

26. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

27. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

28. British traditional holidays

29. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

30. Traditional Meals in Mexico

31. Lexicology. Word structure in Modern English

32. Indirect speech acts in modern English discourse. - Косвенные речевые акты в современном английском дискурсе

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34. Lexicology. Word structure in Modern English

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37. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA

38. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language
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39. Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present
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40. Problems of city and country life
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41. English country-side

42. Holidays, Travel and Tourism

43. Traditions and customs

44. Biopolitics in Russia: History and Prospects for the Future

45. All English proverbs and sayings

46. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?

47. English Painting and Art Galleries

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52. Double modals as single lexical items in American English

53. English Predicate and its Translation Properties into Uzbek

54. French Borrowings in the Modern English Language
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55. Grammar Games - Motivation in Teaching English
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56. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school
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57. Stylistic potential of tense-aspect verbal forms in modern English

58. The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages

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61. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

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73. Подготовка к TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language

74. My summer Holidays

75. American Federalism in 1990s

76. Business relation ships in japan

77. English Course Work on Newspaper Reading

78. English topics

79. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)

80. Irish and America

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81. Korea in Focus

82. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

83. Russia and the international economy

84. Socionical approach in studding of nations

85. The cinema in Russia today

86. The Irish and South America
The Irish and South America
87. Вордлисты из учебника "Oxford Intermediate English Course"
88. Шпаргалки по english

89. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

90. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

91. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)

92. Christmas in Britain (Рождество в Британии)

93. Mozart: Symphony #40 in G Minor, K.550 Моцарт: Симфония №40 в си-минор, К. 550

94. Punks and Punk Rock

95. English Literature books summary

96. "Career in hotel industry"

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97. The History of English

98. Urbanization and Urban Issues

99. Древняя aнглийская проза (Ancient English Prose)

100. Control in management


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