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География, Экономическая география География, Экономическая география

Scotland (Шотландия)

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Sco la d, admi is ra ive divisio of he ki gdom of Grea Bri ai , occupyi g he or her hird of he isla d of Grea Bri ai . Sco la d is bou ded o he or h by he A la ic Ocea ; o he eas by he or h Sea; o he sou heas by E gla d; o he sou h by Solway Fir h, which par ly separa es i from E gla d, a d by he Irish Sea; a d o he wes by or h Cha el, which separa es i from Irela d, a d by he A la ic Ocea . As a geopoli ical e i y Sco la d i cludes 186 earby isla ds, a majori y of which are co ai ed i hree groups— amely, he Hebrides, also k ow as he Wes er Isla ds, si ua ed off he wes er coas ; he Ork ey Isla ds, si ua ed off he or heas er coas ; a d he She la d Isla ds, si ua ed or heas of he Ork ey Isla ds. he larges of he o her isla ds is he Isla d of Arra . he area, i cludi g he isla ds, is 78,772 sq km (30,414 sq mi). Edi burgh (popula io , 1991, 421,213) is he capi al of Sco la d as well as a major i dus rial area a d seapor . he La d a d Resources Sco la d has a very irregular coas li e. he wes er coas i par icular is deeply pe e ra ed by umerous arms of he sea, mos of which are arrow submerged valleys, k ow locally as sea lochs, a d by a umber of broad i de a io s, ge erally called fir hs. he pri cipal fir hs are he Fir h of Lor e, he Fir h of Clyde, a d Solway Fir h. he major i de a io s o he eas er coas are Dor och Fir h, Moray Fir h, he Fir h of ay, a d he Fir h of For h. Measured arou d he various fir hs a d lochs, he coas li e of Sco la d is abou 3700 km (abou 2300 mi) lo g. Physiographic Regio s he errai of Sco la d is predomi a ly mou ai ous bu may be divided i o hree dis i c regio s, from or h o sou h: he Highla ds, he Ce ral Lowla ds, a d he Sou her Upla ds. More ha o e-half of he surface of Sco la d is occupied by he Highla ds, he mos rugged regio o he isla d of Grea Bri ai . Co sis i g of parallel mou ai chai s wi h a ge eral or heas er -sou hwes er re d a d broke by deep ravi es a d valleys, he Highla ds are o ed for heir sce ic gra deur. Precipi ous cliffs, moorla d pla eaus, mou ai lakes, sea lochs, swif -flowi g s reams, a d de se hicke s are commo o he Highla ds, he mos sparsely i habi ed sec io of Sco la d. he regio is divided i wo by a depressio , k ow as he Gle More, or Grea Gle , which ex e ds from Moray Fir h o Loch Li he. o he or hwes of his lie heavily eroded peaks wi h fairly u iform eleva io s ra gi g from 610 o 915 m (abou 2000 o 3000 f ). I he Highla ds sou heas of he Grea Gle he opography is highly diversified. his regio is raversed by he Grampia Mou ai s, he pri cipal mou ai sys em of Sco la d. he highes peak of he Grampia s is Be evis (1343 m/4406 f ), he highes summi i Grea Bri ai . o he sou h of he Highla ds lies he Ce ral Lowla ds, a arrow bel comprisi g o ly abou o e- e h of he area of Sco la d, bu co ai i g he majori y of he cou ry's popula io . he Ce ral Lowla ds are raversed by several chai s of hills, i cludi g he Ochil a d Sidlaw hills, a d by several impor a rivers, o ably he Clyde, For h, a d ay. he errai of he Sou her Upla ds, a regio much less eleva ed a d rugged ha he Highla ds, co sis s largely of a moorla d pla eau raversed by rolli g valleys a d broke by mou ai ous ou croppi gs.

O ly a few summi s i he Sou her Upla ds exceed 762 m (2500 f ) i eleva io , he highes bei g Merrick (843 m/2765 f ) i he sou hwes . Adjoi i g he Sou her Upla ds regio alo g he bou dary wi h E gla d are he Chevio Hills. Rivers a d Lakes Sco la d is charac erized by a abu da ce of s reams a d lakes (lochs). o able amo g he lakes, which are especially umerous i he ce ral a d or her regio s, are Loch Lomo d ( he larges ), Loch ess, Loch ay, a d Loch Ka ri e. Ma y of he rivers of Sco la d, i par icular he rivers i he wes , are shor , orre ial s reams, ge erally of li le commercial impor a ce. he lo ges river of Sco la d is he ay; he Clyde, however, is he pri cipal aviga io al s ream, si e of he por of Glasgow. O her chief rivers i clude he For h, weed, Dee, a d Spey. Clima e Like he clima e of he res of Grea Bri ai , ha of Sco la d is subjec o he modera i g i flue ces of he surrou di g seas. As a resul of hese i flue ces, ex reme seaso al varia io s are rare, a d empera e wi ers a d cool summers are he ou s a di g clima ic fea ures. Low empera ures, however, are commo duri g he wi er seaso i he mou ai ous dis ric s of he i erior. I he wes er coas al regio , which is subjec o he modera i g effec s of he Gulf S ream, co di io s are somewha milder ha i he eas . he average Ja uary empera ure of he eas er coas al regio is 3.9њ C (39њ F), a d he average Ja uary empera ure of he wes er coas al regio is 3.1њ C (37.5њ F); correspo di g July averages are 13.8њ C (56.8њ F) a d 15њ C (59њ F). he average Ja uary a d July empera ures for he ci y of Edi burgh are 3.5њ C (38њ F) a d 14.5њ C (58њ F), respec ively. Precipi a io , which is marked by regio al varia io s, ra ges from abou 3810 mm (abou 150 i ) a ually i he wes er Highla ds o abou 635 mm (abou 25 i ) a ually i cer ai eas er areas. Pla a d A imal Life he mos commo species of rees i dige ous o Sco la d are oak a d co ifers—chiefly fir, pi e, a d larch. Large fores ed areas, however, are rare, a d he o ly impor a woodla ds are i he sou her a d eas er Highla ds. Excep i hese wooded areas, vege a io i he eleva ed regio s co sis s largely of hea her, fer s, mosses, a d grasses. Saxifrage, mou ai willow, a d o her ypes of alpi e a d arc ic flora occur a eleva io s above 610 m (2000 f ). Prac ically all of he cul iva ed pla s of Sco la d were impor ed from America a d he Europea co i e . he o ly large i dige ous mammal i Sco la d is he deer. Bo h he red deer a d he roe deer are fou d, bu he red deer, whose habi a is he Highla ds, is by far he more abu da of he wo species. O her i dige ous mammals are he hare, rabbi , o er, ermi e, pi e mar e , a d wildca . Game birds i clude grouse, blackcock, p armiga , a d wa erfowl. he few preda ory birds i clude he ki e, osprey, a d golde eagle. Sco la d is famous for he salmo a d rou ha abou d i i s s reams a d lakes. Ma y species of fish, i cludi g cod, haddock, herri g, a d various ypes of shellfish, are fou d i he coas al wa ers. a ural Resources Sco la d, like he res of he isla d of Grea Bri ai , has sig ifica reserves of coal. I also possesses large deposi s of zi c, chiefly i he sou h.

he soil is ge erally rocky a d i fer ile, excep for ha of he Ce ral Lowla ds. or her Sco la d has grea hydroelec ric power po e ial a d co ai s Grea Bri ai 's larges hydroelec ric ge era i g s a io s. Begi i g i he la e 1970s, offshore oil deposi s i he or h Sea became a impor a par of he Sco ish eco omy. Popula io he people of Sco la d, like hose of Grea Bri ai i ge eral, are desce da s of various racial s ocks, i cludi g he Pic s, Cel s, Sca di avia s, a d Roma s. Sco la d is a mixed rural-i dus rial socie y. Sco s divide hemselves i o Highla ders, who co sider hemselves of purer Cel ic blood a d re ai a s ro ger feeli g of he cla , a d Lowla ders, who are largely of eu o ic blood. Popula io Charac eris ics he popula io of Sco la d was (1991 prelimi ary) 4,957,289. he popula io de si y was abou 64 perso s per sq km (167 per sq mi). he highes de si y is i he Ce ral Lowla ds, where early hree-quar ers of he Sco s live, a d he lowes is i he Highla ds. Abou wo- hirds of he popula io are urba dwellers. Pri cipal Ci ies he mos populous ci y i Sco la d (654,542) is Glasgow. he co urba io of Clydeside, which i cludes he ci ies of Glasgow a d Clydeba k, is he larges shipbuildi g a d mari e e gi eeri g ce er i Grea Bri ai . O her impor a i dus rial ci ies are Du dee (165,548) a d Aberdee (201,099). Religio a d La guage he Church of Sco la d, a Presby eria de omi a io , is he official s a e church. he Roma Ca holic church is seco d i impor a ce. O her leadi g de omi a io s are he Episcopal Church i Sco la d, Co grega io alis , Bap is , Me hodis , a d U i aria . Jews are a small mi ori y. E glish is ge erally spoke ; fewer ha 100,000 Sco s (mai ly i habi a s of he Highla ds a d isla d groups) also speak he Sco ish form of Gaelic. Educa io Schools i Sco la d are admi is ered by he Sco ish Educa io Depar me a d by local educa io au hori ies. Eleme ary a d Seco dary Schools I he mid-1980s some 879,000 pupils were a e di g publicly mai ai ed schools a d abou 31,900 were i priva e schools. he ra sfer from eleme ary o seco dary schools ge erally akes place a he age of 12. For a discussio o specialized schools. U iversi ies a d Colleges Sco la d has abou 66 i s i u io s providi g programs of s udy beyo d he seco dary level for hose s ude s who do o go o o he u iversi ies. hese i clude colleges of agricul ure, ar , commerce, a d scie ce, a d i he mid-1980s he o al e rollme was more ha 81,000. eacher- rai i g colleges umbered seve , wi h approxima ely 3000 s ude s. Of he eigh u iversi ies i Sco la d, he oldes (U iversi y of Aberdee , U iversi y of Edi burgh, U iversi y of Glasgow, a d U iversi y of S . A drews) were fou ded i he 15 h a d 16 h ce uries. Four u iversi ies have received heir char ers si ce 1960. o al u iversi y e rollme was abou 43,100 i he early 1980s. Cul ure Cla s, he radi io al keys o e of Sco ish socie y, are o lo ger powerful. Origi ally, he cla , a groupi g of a e ire family wi h o e head, or laird, was also impor a as a figh i g u i . he solidari y associa ed wi h cla membership has bee expa ded i o a s ro g a io al pride.

Холинолитические средства .   Ю. П. Ведерников. Холиншед Рафаэль Хо'линшед (Holinshed, Hollingshead) Рафаэль (умер около 1580), английский хронист. Составил свод «Хроник Англии, Шотландии и Ирландии», известных как «Хроники» Х. (т. 1—3, 1577), к работе над которыми привлек большую группу историков и антикваров — У. Харрисона (в «Хрониках» Х. впервые опубликовано его «Описание Англии»), Дж. Стоу и др. Самому Х. принадлежат разделы по истории Англии (до 1575), Шотландии (до 1509) и Ирландии (до 1547), в которых использованы исторические сочинения Т. Мора , Полидора Вергилия , Э. Холла и др. Близкие по методологии средневековой хронистике (компилятивный характер большинства разделов, погодное изложение событий и т.д.), «Хроники» Х. вместе с тем отмечены определённым влиянием гуманистических идей и английской политической мысли 16 в. Они получили широкую известность у современников, послужили источником сюжетов для исторических пьес Шекспира и др. «Хроники» Х. насыщены обильным фактическим материалом, в том числе справочным (таблицы, тексты официальных документов и др.).   Соч.: The Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, v. 1—6, L., 1807—08.   Лит.: Boswell-Stone W. G., Shakespeare's Holinshed, N. Y., [1968]

1. Scotland (Шотландия)

2. Обычаи и традиции Шотландии

3. "Давний союз" 1295-1560 годов между Шотландией и Францией и его культурологические последствия

4. Обычаи и традиции Шотландии

5. Шотландия

6. How Scotland fought for its independence
How Scotland fought for its independence
8. Scotland

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