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Законодательство и право Законодательство и право     История государства и права зарубежных стран История государства и права зарубежных стран

The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA

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A IO AL PEDAGOGOC U IVERSI Y FOREIG PHILOLOGY DEPAR ME e Impac he Civil War 1861-1865 o Eco omic, Poli ic a d I dus ry Developme i he USA Wri e by 53- h group s ude a ia a Ryabchu Kyiv, 2000 Reco s ruc io (1865-77), i U.S. his ory, period duri g a d af er he America Civil War i which a emp s were made o solve he poli ical, social, a d eco omic problems arisi g from he readmissio o he U io of he 11 Co federa e s a es ha had seceded a or before he ou break of war. As early as 1862, Pres. Abraham Li col had appoi ed provisio al mili ary gover ors for Louisia a, e essee, a d or h Caroli a. he followi g year, i i ial s eps were ake o rees ablish gover me s i ewly occupied s a es i which a leas 10 perce of he vo i g popula io had ake he prescribed oa h of allegia ce. Aware ha he preside ial pla omi ed a y provisio for social or eco omic reco s ruc io , he Radical Republica s i Co gress rese ed such a le ie poli ical arra geme u der solely execu ive jurisdic io . As a resul , he s ric er Wade-Davis Bill was passed i 1864 bu pocke ve oed by he Preside . Af er Li col 's assassi a io (April 1865), Pres. A drew Joh so fur her alie a ed Co gress by co i ui g Li col 's modera e policies. he Four ee h Ame dme , defi i g a io al ci ize ship so as o i clude blacks, passed Co gress i Ju e 1866 a d was ra ified, despi e rejec io by mos Sou her s a es (July 28, 1868). I respo se o Joh so 's i empera e ou burs s agai s he opposi io as well as o several reac io ary developme s i he Sou h (e.g., race rio s a d passage of he repug a black codes severely res ric i g righ s of blacks), he or h gave a smashi g vic ory o he Radical Republica s i he 1866 co gressio al elec io . ha vic ory lau ched he era of co gressio al Reco s ruc io (usually called Radical Reco s ruc io ), which las ed 10 years s ar i g wi h he Reco s ruc io Ac s of 1867. U der ha legisla io , he 10 remai i g Sou her s a es ( e essee had bee readmi ed o he U io i 1866) were divided i o five mili ary dis ric s; a d, u der supervisio of he U.S. Army, all were readmi ed be wee 1868 a d 1870. Each s a e had o accep he Four ee h or, if readmi ed af er i s passage, he Fif ee h Co s i u io al Ame dme , i e ded o e sure civil righ s of he freedme . he ewly crea ed s a e gover me s were ge erally Republica i charac er a d were gover ed by poli ical coali io s of blacks, carpe baggers ( or her ers who had go e i o he Sou h), a d scalawags (Sou her ers who collabora ed wi h he blacks a d carpe baggers). he Republica gover me s of he former Co federa e s a es were see by mos Sou her whi es as ar ificial crea io s imposed from wi hou , a d he co serva ive eleme i he regio remai ed hos ile o hem. Sou her ers par icularly rese ed he ac ivi ies of he Freedme 's Bureau, which Co gress had es ablished o feed, pro ec , a d help educa e he ewly ema cipa ed blacks. his rese me led o forma io of secre erroris ic orga iza io s, such as he Ku Klux Kla a d he K igh s of he Whi e Camelia. he use of fraud, viole ce, a d i imida io helped Sou her co serva ives regai co rol of heir s a e gover me s, a d, by he ime he las Federal roops had bee wi hdraw i 1877, he Democra ic Par y was back i power.

Abou 1900, ma y U.S. his oria s espoused a heory of racial i feriori y of blacks. he Reco s ruc io gover me s were viewed as a abyss of corrup io resul i g from or her vi dic ive ess a d he desire for poli ical a d eco omic domi a io . La er, revisio is his oria s o ed ha o o ly was public a d priva e disho es y widespread i all regio s of he cou ry a ha ime bu also ha a umber of co s ruc ive reforms ac ually were i roduced i o he Sou h duri g ha period: cour s were reorga ized, judicial procedures improved, public-school sys ems es ablished, a d more feasible me hods of axa io devised. Ma y provisio s of he s a e co s i u io s adop ed duri g he pos war years have co i ued i exis e ce. he Reco s ruc io experie ce led o a i crease i sec io al bi er ess, a i e sifica io of he racial issue, a d he developme of o e-par y poli ics i he Sou h. Scholarship has sugges ed ha he mos fu dame al failure of Reco s ruc io was i o effec i g a dis ribu io of la d i he Sou h ha would have offered a eco omic base o suppor he ewly wo poli ical righ s of black ci ize s. Wade-Davis Bill (1864), u successful a emp by Radical Republica s a d o hers i he U.S. Co gress o se Reco s ruc io policy before he e d of he Civil War. he bill, spo sored by se a ors Be jami F. Wade a d He ry W. Davis, provided for he appoi me of provisio al mili ary gover ors i he seceded s a es. Whe a majori y of a s a e's whi e ci ize s swore allegia ce o he U io , a co s i u io al co ve io could be called. Each s a e's co s i u io was o be required o abolish slavery, repudia e secessio , a d disqualify Co federa e officials from vo i g or holdi g office. I order o qualify for he fra chise, a perso would be required o ake a oa h ha he had ever volu arily give aid o he Co federacy. Preside Abraham Li col 's pocke ve o of he bill presaged he s ruggle ha was o ake place af er he war be wee Preside A drew Joh so a d he Radical Republica s i Co gress. Proper y law Ow ership as he absolu e righ o possessio O e may hus defi e ow ership i he same way ha he legal philosopher Felix Cohe defi ed proper y: " ha is proper y o which he followi g label ca be a ached: o he world: Keep off X u less you have my permissio , which I may gra or wi hhold. Sig ed: Priva e ci ize . E dorsed: he s a e." Cohe , however, goes o o war ha all he erms of he defi i io "shade off impercep ibly i o o her hi gs." Co sider, for example, he large ra ge of possibili ies e compassed i he phrase "permissio , which I may gra or wi hhold." I all Wes er legal sys ems here are a umber of si ua io s i which he law will ei her assume ha permissio has bee gra ed or will require he priva e ci ize o gra his permissio . he si ua io s e d o be drama ic: Firefigh ers, for example, are usually allowed o e er priva e proper y o preve he spread of a fire a d freque ly are au horized o des roy priva e proper y i order o preve he spread of a fire. I he 1960s a umber of U.S. Supreme Cour cases s arkly posed he co flic be wee he proper y ow er's righ o exclude a d civil righ s, i he co ex of "si -i s" i res aura s ha were excludi g cus omers o racial grou ds.

hese cases sugges ed, if hey did o qui e hold, ha i his co ex he possessory righ of he res aura ow er would have o yield o he civil-righ s claim of hose si i g i . I he same period a umber of cour s held ha ow ers of farms could o exclude visi ors from agricul ural migra labour camps. he co flic i hese cases be wee proper y righ s a d civil righ s was made s arker by he prac ice i he U i ed S a es of rea i g social issues as co s i u io al co roversies. he issue, however, of he use of proper y o discrimi a e agai s members of he socie y whom he proper y ow er disfavours is prese hroughou he Wes er world. Ul ima ely i he U i ed S a es he problem of res aura si -i s was resolved by a io al legisla io ha made i he du y of a yo e providi g food or lodgi g o serve all comers wi hou regard o race. Similar legisla io exis s i ma y Wes er cou ries, as does legisla io allowi g access o premises i which workers are employed. Black code i he U i ed S a es, a y of umerous laws e ac ed i he s a es of he former Co federacy af er he America Civil War, i 1865 a d 1866; he laws were desig ed o replace he social co rols of slavery ha had bee removed by he Ema cipa io Proclama io a d he hir ee h Ame dme o he Co s i u io , a d were hus i e ded o assure co i ua ce of whi e supremacy. he black codes had heir roo s i he slave codes ha had formerly bee i effec . he ge eral philosophy suppor i g he i s i u io of cha el slavery i America was based o he co cep ha slaves were proper y, o perso s, a d ha he law mus pro ec o o ly he proper y bu also he proper y ow er from he da ger of viole ce. Slave rebellio s were o u k ow , a d he possibili y of uprisi gs was a co s a source of a xie y i colo ies a d he s a es wi h large slave popula io s. (I Virgi ia duri g 1780-1864, 1,418 slaves were co vic ed of crimes; 91 of hese co vic io s were for i surrec io a d 346 for murder.) Slaves also ra away. I he Bri ish possessio s i he ew World, he se lers were free o promulga e a y regula io s hey saw fi o gover heir labour supply. As early as he 17 h ce ury, a se of rules was i effec i Virgi ia a d elsewhere; bu he codes were co s a ly bei g al ered o adap o ew eeds, a d hey varied from o e colo y, a d la er o e s a e, o a o her. All he slave codes, however, had cer ai provisio s i commo . I all of hem he colour li e was firmly draw , a d a y amou of egro blood es ablished he race of a perso , whe her slave or free, as egro. he s a us of he offspri g followed ha of he mo her, so ha he child of a free fa her a d a slave mo her was a slave. Slaves had few legal righ s: i cour heir es imo y was i admissible i a y li iga io i volvi g whi es; hey could make o co rac , or could hey ow proper y; eve if a acked, hey could o s rike a whi e perso . here were umerous res ric io s o e force social co rol: slaves could o be away from heir ow er's premises wi hou permissio ; hey could o assemble u less a whi e perso was prese ; hey could o ow firearms; hey could o be augh o read or wri e, or ra smi or possess "i flamma ory" li era ure; hey were o permi ed o marry. Obedie ce o he slave codes was exac ed i a varie y of ways.

She'd been only sixteen while he was twenty-four. That was the year after the war was over, and he'd just got out of the army and had come home to Quiggville to draw his veteran's unemployment benefits while he looked around for something to do. The Quigg twins, Lee and Lauralee, had been children when he went away… now they were seniors in high school and most of the town gossip revolved around the twins. Parents dead and being raised by their grandmother, a fool if there ever was one. Set out to make Lauralee a southern belle who would have done credit to the Civil War days-innocent, ladylike, sheltered-and naturally the girl had rebelled and turned out just the opposite. Wild! Smoking at thirteen, using words nobody could figure out where she'd learned, and from the age of about fourteen on, putting out to anything in pants. Lee, the boy, wasn't half as bad as his sister but they were both hellions. They were both spoiled rotten and when they turned sixteen that spring, Grandma had to rack her brains to come up with presents they didn't already have

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