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Интонация

Ночник-проектор "Звездное небо и планеты", фиолетовый.
Оригинальный светильник - ночник - проектор. Корпус поворачивается от руки. Источник света: 1) Лампочка (от карманных фонариков) 2) Три
330 руб
Раздел: Ночники
Карабин, 6x60 мм.
Размеры: 6x60 мм. Материал: металл. Упаковка: блистер.
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Раздел: Карабины для ошейников и поводков
Чашка "Неваляшка".
Ваши дети во время приёма пищи вечно проливают что-то на ковёр и пол, пачкают руки, а Вы потом тратите уйму времени на выведение пятен с
222 руб
Раздел: Тарелки

Работу подготовила Леонова Наталья РГГУ, кафедра теоретической и прикладной лингвистики Москва, 2005 г. I o a io is he music of he la guage. I E glish, we use o e o sig al emo io , ques io i g, a d par s of he se e ce amo g ma y o her hi gs. I 's impor a o recog ize he mea i g behi d he o es used i everyday speech, a d o be able o use hem so ha here are o misu ders a di gs be wee he speaker a d he lis e er. I is ge erally rue ha mis akes i pro u cia io of sou ds ca be overlooked, bu mis akes i i o a io make a las i g impressio . I o a io has always bee a difficul hi g o defi e. Accordi g o radi io al descrip io s, i o a io is « he melody of speech», a d is o be a alysed i erms of varia io s i pi ch. I o a io is said o i dica e he a i udes a d emo io s of he speaker, so ha a se e ce like 'I hi k i 's ime o go ow' ca be said i a happy way, a sad way, a a gry way, a d so o . While his is cer ai ly rue, here is clearly more ha jus pi ch varia io i volved i co veyi g such hi gs, so he defi i io of i o a io becomes co siderably more complica ed. I is clear ha whe we are expressi g emo io s, we also use differe voice quali ies, differe speaki g ra es, facial expressio s, ges ures, a d so o . We mus i dica e wha ype of i forma io ye are prese i g a d how i is s ruc ured, a d a he same ime we mus keep our lis e ers' a e io a d heir par icipa io i he excha ge of i forma io . Commu ica ive i erac io would be much more difficul wi hou i o a io : hi k how ma y misu ders a di gs be wee people arise i he excha ge of e-mail messages, where i o a io ca o play a role. I I E glish, as i ma y o her la guages, pi ch is a impor a compo e of acce ua io , or promi e ce, bo h a he level of i dividual words a d a he level of lo ger u era ces. I ge eral, we dis i guish be wee pi ches which are rela ively s eady-s a e, i.e. which do o cha ge level percep ibly, a d hose which cha ge by s eppi g or slidi g up or dow o a o her pi ch level, as illus ra ed i he figure below. E glish i o a io charac eris ically slides or ra si io s gradually from o e pi ch level o he ex ra her ha s eppi g up or dow abrup ly from o e pi ch level o he ex . hus, E glish i o a io is bes represe ed by "humps" a d "waves" ra her ha by "a gles" a d "s eps". Slidi g co our S eppi g co our If we look a a ypical example, we would expec a falli g pi ch pa er o a s a eme like his: You are from Lo do bu a risi g pi ch pa er if he same words are used as a ques io : You are from Lo do ? O her examples of mea i g bei g cha ged by differe ces i i o a io are - he differe ce be wee She wo ` go ou wi h a yo e   a d She wo ` go ou wi h a yo e Is he firs o e (wi h a falli g moveme o «a y») says ha she will go ou wi h obody, while he seco d (wi h a falli g-risi g pi ch moveme ) says ha she is careful abou who she goes wi h. he pi ch of he voice is de ermi ed by he freque cy wi h which he vocal cords vibra e., he freque cy of vibra io of he vocal cords is i ur de ermi ed by heir hick ess heir le g h a d heir e sio . he modal pi ch of he voice, i.e. o e's a ural average pi ch level, depe ds o he size of he vocal cords.

I ge eral, me have hicker a d lo ger vocal cords ha wome a d childre do. As a resul , he modal pi ch of a ma 's voice is ge erally lower ha ha of a woma or a child. I addi io o i s modal pi ch, every i dividual voice has a pi ch ra ge which ca be achieved by adjus me s of he vocal cords. By igh e i g he vocal cords, a perso ca raise he pi ch of he voice (vocal pi ch); by loose i g hem, o e ca lower vocal pi ch. here is also a a ural varia io i pi ch associa ed wi h he amou of air ha is expe ded duri g speech. Whe he airflow hrough he glo is is grea , i causes he vocal cords o vibra e quickly. As airflow is reduced, he effec o he vocal cords is dimi ished, a d he freque cy of vibra io decreases. Al hough i is possible o override hese a ural effec s - e.g. by cha gi g he e sio of he vocal folds - i he u marked case, he pi ch of he voice will desce d a urally over a u era ce as he speaker's brea h is used up. his effec is called dow drif . As a resul of dow drif , here is a a ural ico ic associa io of falli g pi ch wi h fi ali y a d rela ed mea i gs such as assura ce or defi i- ive ess. Co versely, here is a a ural associa io of o -falli g (s eady-s a e or risi g) pi ch wi h o -fi ali y a d rela ed mea i gs such as lack of assura ce or o -defi i ive ess. he differe ce be wee falli g a d o -falli g or risi g i o a io is represe ed by Cru e de (1981) as ha be wee "closed" (asser ive) a d "ope " ( o -asser ive) mea i g. I dividual words or phrases may i some cases co s i u e a e ire u era ce i a ural speech, as ca be see i he differe i o a io co ours for okay i figure. Co our Mea i g Example Fall eu ral   O K A Y. (I accep his.) High Rise Co radic ory/ u believi g   Y? A  K O (I do ’ accep his.) Low Rise o -commi al/ u fi ished   KAY O (I’m lis e i g.) Fall - Rise u cer ai   O Y, KA (Bu I’m doub ful.) Rise - Fall Wi h commi me / defi i e/ empha ic   KA O Y! (Defi i ely.) he wo compou d pa er s combi e he mea i gs of falli g a d risi g i o a io i i eres i g ico ic mea i gs. he fall-rise pa er has he mea i g of bo h, i.e. bo h closed a d ope mea i g. his sig ifies bo h defi i e ess a d i defi i e ess simul a eously, i he se se ha a refere is i s a ia ed bu he u era ce is o ye comple ed or i he se se ha he speaker feels some hesi a cy, reserva io , doub or u cer ai y. he rise-fall pa er i corpora es he fall of comple io or assura ce of he firs pa er wi h he emo io al over o e of a high pi ch i he middle of he u era ce. his is a so-called swell o e used for empha ic mea i g: as he o e swells, he mea i g or emphasis i creases. Brazil, Coul hard a d Joh s (1980) poi ou he impor a ce of rela ive pi ch, i a discourse co ex , e.g. for i dica i g affec or emo io . Mos impor a ly, rela ive pi ch of a u era ce shows he speaker's a i ude oward he i forma io ha heshe is co veyi g. he eu ral, u marked, mid rela ive pi ch - which is he speaker's modal pi ch - is used o make a s a eme i a eu ral ma er. I co ras , high rela ive pi ch i dica es a i forma io al co ras , as show i example (a). Because high key implies a co ras eve whe o e is o explici ly prese i he discourse, i ca be used o si gle ou i dividual words for special a e io , as i example (b).

  Y H a ar 1 (a) I'm goi g o vard, o e !!!     e  v . (b) I'd er do ha Low key is used whe he speaker wa s o asser ha wo i ems i successive o e u i s are i some se se equivale , as i (c):   O I L D (c) you already, du mmy. Here he low key o dummy sig als ha i is o be i erpre ed as co fer-e ial o you. I some varie ies of E glish, e.g. hose spoke i Irela d, Liverpool a d Hawaii, he ermi al high rise i yes/ o ques io s is replaced by a earlier rise, wi h high pi ch mai ai ed u il he o ic word or phrase, followed by a fall as i Irela d: Would you like some ea? Liverpool: Did you go o he ew supermarke ? Hawaii: 1) You eed a ge eral ca alog?   You ge o e book? I Hawa iia E glish, ques io ags comprisi g yea wi h high risi g pi ch are freque / I Welsh E glish, ques io ags are emphasized by a swell- o e (rise-fall pa er ) o he ag, which makes i more defi i e or empha ic. S ylis ic use of i o a io Speech ypology I o a io al s yle Varie ies of la guage Forms of commu ica io Degree of speech prepared ess he umber of par icipa s he charac er of par icipa s` rela io ship Spoke Wri e Mo oloqoue Dialoque Prepared Spo a eous Pub lic o -public For-mal I for-mal I forma io al s yle - - Academic s yle Declama ory s yle - - Publicis ic s yle - Familiar s yle - - - - Co versa io al (familiar) - his ki d of E glish is a mea s for everyday commu ica io , heard i a ural co versa io al i erac io be wee speakers. his s yle occurs mai ly i i formal ex er al a d i er al rela io ships i speech of rela ives, frie ds, well - acquai ed people a d so o . So his is spo a eous, colloquial, i formal, everyday speech. I forma io al - i press repor i g, educa io al descrip ive ex s. May be represe ed i mo ologues, dialogues, polylogues. Pho os ylis ic charac eris ics: Loud ess ormal or i creased; pauses are ra her lo g; rhy hm is s able, properly orga ized; falli g o es o he sema ic ce res, falli g- risi g i he i i ial i o a io groups he followi g example illus ra es he use of his i o a io pa er i he speech of a radio a ou cer duri g ews coverage: A OU CER: Early `yes erday MOR I G he e gi e `depo a ROUE was he arge of `SABO EURS.   he heavy-MA CHI E shops were o ally GU ED a d e leve `LOCO`MO IVES com ple ely `DES ROYED. Boo h. « he Sky is Overcas ») Academic (scie ific) - s yle of lec ures (co fere ces, semi ars). he purpose of commu ica io as he speaker’s aim is o a rac he lis e er’s a e io , o es ablish close co ac s wi h he audie ce a d o direc he public a e io o he message carried i he co e s of he ex . Pho os ylis ic charac eris ics: Loud ess i creased; pauses are ra her lo g; rhy hm is properly orga ized; high propor io of compou d ermi al o es (high fall low rise, fall – rise, rise-fall-rise), a grea umber of high ca egoric falls. Example he various MEA I GS may be classified u der wo `ge eral HEADS - he op a ive SUB JU C IVE a d he PO` E IAL sub ju c ive. he `OP A IVE sub ju k ive repre se s `some hi g as DE SIRED, DE` MA DED, or RE`QUIRED (by a perso or by CIRCUMS A CES). he PO` E IAL sub je c ive marks `some hi g as a mere co `cap io of he `MI D, bu a he same ime repre` se s i as some hi g ha may PROBABLY or POSSIB LY `BE or BE` COME a reali y or o he `O HER ha des as SOME HI G ha is co rary o `FAC .

ПОПОВ Андрей Алексеевич (1918-83) - российский актер и режиссер, народный артист СССР (1965). Сын А. Д. Попова. С 1939 актер, в 1963-73 главный режиссер Центрального театра Советской Армии, с 1974 во МХАТе. Снимался в фильмах: "Отелло", "Несколько дней из жизни И. И. Обломова" и др. Профессор ГИТИСа (с 1973). Государственная премия СССР (1950). ПОПОВ Андрей Николаевич (1841-81) - российский историк, филолог, член-корреспондент Петербургской АН (1872). Труды о русских летописях и хронографах, по истории ересей. Публикации и описания рукописей. ПОПОВ Валерий Георгиевич (р. 1939) - русский писатель. В повестях и рассказах о жизни современного горожанина (сборники "Все мы не красавцы", 1970, "Нормативный ход", 1976, "Две поездки в Москву", 1985, "Новая Шехерезада", 1988) - алогизм и сюрреалистическая комичность обыденного, ироническая интонация, шутливые гиперболы, обыгрывание литературных оборотов, речевых штампов. ПОПОВ Виктор Сергеевич (р. 1932) - российский хоровой дирижер, народный артист СССР (1989). Основатель (1970), художественный руководитель и главный дирижер Большого детского хора Гостелерадио

1. Интонация как эффективная единица коммуникативистики

2. Отражение социокультурной трансформации в содержании и интонации рок-песни

3. Интонация как стилистическое средство выразительности


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