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A A MAGERKO FRE CH REPOR MADAGASCAR WHERE: 1. MICROSOF E CAR A E CYCLOPEDIA 2. I ER E : 1) I FOPEDIA 2) HERI AGE 3. WORLD BOOK 1993 4. COLLIER'S E CYCLOPEDIA 5. ACADEMIC AMERICA E CYCLOPEDIA 6. E CYCLOPEDIA BRI A ICA 7. I FO RAC 8. WORLD ALMA AC A D BOOK OF FAC SMadagascar By: A a Magerko Fre ch 1 Mrs. ewsome 11/15/97MadagascarMy repor is o Madagascar. Madagascar is a isla d of he co i e of Africa. I is he four h larges isla d i he world. I is i he I dia Ocea . Madagascar is formed by o e large isla d a d several small isla ds. he cou ry’s o al area is 226,658 square miles. I is abou he size of exas. he ce ral par of his large isla d is made of a mou ai ous pla eau. his separa es he sides of he isla d. Madagascar is par ly volca ic i origi . he sides of he mou ai rise abou 2,876 fee o he op. Maromoko ro is loca ed ear he or h of he isla d. he massive A kara ra Mou ai s, ear he capi al ci y of A a a arivo, rise o he heigh of 2,643 miles. he la d slopes s eeply o a small or arrow lowla d borderi g he I dia Ocea i he eas . here is a somewha wider coas al plai ex o he Mozambique Cha el i he wes . he bes soil i he cou ry is fou d alo g he coas , a d i river valley’s of he ce ral pla eau. he major rivers of Madagascar are Be siboka, Ma goky a d O ilahy. All rivers s ar o he eas side of he cou ry, a d flow wes owards he Mozambique Cha el. he larges lake is ear oamasi a. I is called Alao ra. he eas er par of Madagascar ge s a lo of rai , which is brough o shore by wi ds comi g from he sou heas erly direc io . A ual precipi a io i some areas o he eas er coas is abou 120 i ches. he ce ral pla eau does ’ ge as much rai . Areas i he sou h a d sou hwes ge abou 15 i ches of rai . Mos of he rai falls be wee ovember a d April. Coas al regio s remai a a warm or ho empera ure hroughou he year. he ce ral pla eau has a clima e of warm summers a d cool wi ers. ropical rai fores s are also i Madagascar. he Sava a woodla ds a d grassla ds grow i he drier wes er regio s. Deser vege a io occurs i he ex reme sou hwes . A imal life is u commo i Madagascar. Lemur, is a a imal ha is fou d almos always i Madagascar. All he a imals ha are i Madagascar share charac eris ics wi h a imals i Africa. he differe ces i dica e hey evolved o Madagascar duri g a lo g period of isola io . hey have mi erals i Madagascar like he o es we have i U i ed S a es of America. hey have coal a d ickel. O her impor a mi eral resources i clude bauxi e, chromium, graphi e, iro ore, pe roleum a d copper deposi s, as well as small amou s of sal , gar e s, a d mica. Madagascar has a e h ically diverse popula io of 13,005,989. he umber of people livi g here is growi g a a compara ively high a ual ra e of 3.2 perce . Some major e h ic groups are he Meri a, who makes up 27 perce of he o al popula io , a d he Be silo who are rela ed o he Meri a. Bo h groups desce ded mos ly from Malaya a d I do esia abou 2,000 years ago. he coas al areas are i habi ed mai ly by a group of mixed people. he a ces ries amo g hese people are Malayo-I do esia , black Africa , a d Arab.

he e h ic groups are simihe y , a d A aiska . O ly 22 perce of he o al popula io is classified as urba . A a a arivo he capi al, is he larges ci y wi h a popula io of 703,000. O her impor a ci ies are oamasi a , Mahaja ga , a d A sira a a . he wo official la guages of Madagascar are he Meri a dialec of Malagasy, a la guage of Malayo-I do esia origi , a d he o her is Fre ch. Approxima ely 41 perce of he religio i Madagascar is Chris ia . Fif y- wo perce follows radi io al beliefs a d 7 perce is Muslim. I 1976 he gover me passed legisla io maki g six years of school ma da ory. By he middle of he 1980s he li eracy ra e was up 67 perce . Vir ually all childre i he age group of six o eleve a e ded eleme ary school, a d 21 perce of hose be wee he ages of welve a d seve ee were e rolled i seco dary school. he cou ry’s mai source of higher educa io is a he U iversi y of A a a arivo. Mos of higher educa io ce ers are loca ed i A a a arivo. Madagascar’s radio a d elevisio broadcas i g is provided by Radio- elevisio Malgasy a d Radio Madagasikara. Bo h s a io s are s a e ow ed. o everybody has a radio or elevisio , so he gover me ow s a ewspaper, Madagascar- ribu e. here is o e o her ewspaper i is he Imo go Vaovao. Bo h of he ewspapers are made i A a a arivo. I 1975, Madagascar’s gover me said, u der he co s i u io , ha he cou ry was ruled by a preside who was elec ed for seve years. hey have a we y- wo member Supreme Revolu io ary Cou cil, which is appoi ed by he preside . hey also have a Cou cil of Mi is ers ha is lead by he Prime Mi is er. hey have ye a o her cou cil i is called he People’s a io al Assembly. I is a 137 member assembly, elec ed by he people. he members serve a five year erm. Madagascar’s Judicial sys em is based upo ha of Fra ce. I i cludes a supreme cour , loca ed i A a a arivo, a cour of appeal, eleve cour s of firs i s a ce, a d special eco omic a d crimi al ribu als. Madagascar’s mili ary has 21,000 members. Madagascar is a member of he U i ed a io s. I also is a par of he Orga iza io of Africa U i y, a d several o her orga iza io s. Madagascar is o e of he poores cou ries i he world. he cou ry remai s, like i colo ial imes, mos ly agricul ural. Eigh y perce of he cou ry’s labor force is e gaged i agricul ural ac ivi ies. he mai food crops i Madagascar are rice, cassava, bea s, ba a as, cor , swee po a oes, a d aro. he produc io of goods has o kep up wi h he growi g popula io . Also, he impor a io of large amou s of food, ca ’ keep up wi h i ei her. he cash crops are coffee, cloves, sugarca e, sisal, obacco, a d eigh y perce of he world’s supply of va illa. Lives ock i cludes 10.6 millio ca le, o e poi o e millio goa s, a d o e poi four millio pigs. o a lo of commercial fishi g is do e i Madagascar. Mos of he fish caugh is co sumed locally. Effor s o reple ish he fores la ds are u derway. hey are pla i g o do his because i he middle 1980s 7.3 millio cubic fee of fores la d was cu . Public ra spor a io i Madagascar is o very high. he cou ry has o ly 549 miles of railroad rack.

hey have some 11,560 miles of road. hir y perce of he roads are paved. O ly abou 36,000 cars are i use. oamasi a is he mai por ha dli g 35 perce of he a io ’s foreig rade. Mahaja ga, oliara, a d A sira a a are some o her por ci ies. Madagascar o ly has four major airpor s. he i er a io al airpor is loca ed i A a a arivo. Madagascar has i s ow airli e, which is called Air Madagascar. Foreig rade i Madagascar ge erally has a ega ive bala ce. I he la e 1980's impor a d expor values have i creased. Coffee has made up 28 perce of all expor s by value, followed by va illa , a d cloves a d clove oil . Expor s i clude Chemicals , crude pe roleum , mo or vehicles a d par s . he major radi g par ers of Madagascar are Fra ce, U i ed S a es, Germa y, a d Japa . Of course Madagascar has i s ow mo ey. he mo ey i Madagascar is called Malagasy fra c. O e dollar i US curre cy is equal o 1846.87 Malagasy fra cs. he his ory of Madagascar, firs Europea o sigh he isla d was Diogo Dias. Dias was from Por ugal. He fou d he isla d some ime i he 1500s. Duri g he 17 h ce ury, he Por uguese, he E glish, a d he Fre ch successively a d u successfully ried o colo ize Madagascar. he Fre ch go a emporary hold o he isla d i 1642. hey were drive ou i 1674. hey fi ally acquired radi g places alo g he eas coas i he followi g ce ury. From 1810 o 1828, duri g he reig of he Meri a ki g, Radama I, who did ’ like he Fre ch, allowed he E glish o come a d live here. Bri ish officers rai ed Meri a roops, a d Bri ish missio aries i roduced Chris ia i y. Af er he dea h of Radama I, a s ro g reac io owards Europea cul ure developed. Reforms were abolished, he missio aries were persecu ed, a d rade rela io s wi h Grea Bri ai were severed. Radama II reig ed from 1861 o 1863. He was a ge erally a progressive ruler. He go alo g wi h he Fre ch. Radama II was killed because of his fac . here was a period of ime whe hey’re argui g wi h he Fre ch. Af er ha period of ime, Quee Ra avalo a III ook over ruli g Madagascar, i 1895. I 1896, because of popular uprisi gs, Madagascar was proclaimed a colo y of Fra ce. he mili ary rule was i s i u ed, a d he quee was se ou of he cou ry a d was o allowed o re ur . ow Madagascar has i s ow gover me , a d is progressi g well. hey have a sys em similar o he U i ed S a es. hey have a co gress, a co s i u io , a d a preside . heir preside is elec ed for a seve year erm. U like our preside ’s erm ha is o ly for four years. he official ame for Madagascar is Democra ic Republic of Madagascar. I chose o do my repor o Madagascar because i is a isla d. I love isla ds. I have always wa ed o live o a isla d. A o her reaso I choose Madagascar was because I had heard of Madagascar bu ever really fou d ou where i was u il I did my repor .

Les Trente premiers anees de L'Etat d'Alger (1510 — 1541). Alger, 1988. Clowes W. L. The Royal Navy. A history from the earliest times to the present. 5 vol. L, 1897. Corbett J. S. 1) Englishmen in Mediteranean. L., 1892; 2) Drake and the Tudor navy. 2 vol. N. J., 1899. Grouse N. M. The French struggle for the West Indies. 1665 — 1713. N. J., 1943. Currey E. H. Sea-wolves of the Mediterranean. The grand period of the moslem corsaires. L., 1910. De Joinville. Histoire generale de la marine. 4 vol. P., 1887. Deshamps H. Histoire de Madagascar. P., 1961. Elliot J. H. Spain and its world, 1500 — 1700. L., 1989. Ellul J. 1565. The great siege of Malta. Malta, 1992. Farrere C. Histoire de la marine francaise. P., 1956. Func-Brentano F. L'je de la Tortue. P., 1902. Gosse Ph. The History of piracy. N. Y, 1932. Guida T. Dorgouth Raris, le magnifique seigneur de la mer. Tunis, 1974. Hanotaux G., Martineau A. Histoire des colonies francaise et de L'expansion de la France dans le monde. T. 1 — VI. P., 1933. Haring C. H. The Spanish Empire in America. N. Y., 1947. Hughson S.C

1. Madagascar

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