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Por rai . Pe er I i armourJ. M. o ier ype,1720- h. he Collec io of he Ce ral aval Museum bega wi h ships' models collec io of zar Pe er he Grea a d Model Chamber of Sai Pe ersburg Admiral y, which is me io ed for he firs ime i Pe er's le er of 24 Ja uary 1709. he mai goal of he Model Chamber crea io was o keep ra spor ships a d warships draugh s a d models, co s ruc ed a he Admiral y shipyards for he Bal ic Flee . Admiral y Dockyard i S . Pe ersburg.E graver A. Ros ov sev, 1717 His orical valuable ma erials a d shipbuildi g i forma io were preserved i he Model Chamber. I s buildi g was ra her small for such a big collec io a d i 1805 a Mari ime Museum was fou ded. Some years la er e gravi gs a d pic ures o mari e hemes i addi io o draugh s a d ships models appeared i he Museum. Bu i spi e of his i 1827 he Museum was closed because of he lack of room. A d o ly i 1867 he Russia gover me ope ed he Museum agai , yielded o public opi io a d effor s of aval officers. I s collec io was e riched by ma y valuable objec s. Amo g hem were perso al hi gs of emperor Pe er I, he fou der of Russia avy, famous admirals a d officers; pai i gs a d e gravi gs, specime s of cold s eel a d fire-arms. he mai collec io of warships a d ra spor ships models was i creased oo. he res ored Mari ime Museum was loca ed i he wes wi g of he Admiral y buildi g. I was very popular amo g visi ors. I 1909 i was re amed as Emperor Pe er he Grea 's Mari ime Museum. he Revolu io of 1917 a d he Civil war i Russia 1918 - 1920 have brough esse ial correc ives he Museum's exhibi io . he mai goal for i became o demo s ra e he leadi g role of he Commu is Par y i res ora io a d developme of he avy. he collec io e riched wi h ma erials co cer i g he work of seame -commu is s, Flee 's Par y a d Comsomol orga iza io s. he Museum has received i ems from he museums, closed o ha ime, for example, museums of Guards aval Depo a d aval Cade Corps. he subjec s of a aval life, pai i gs wellk ow mari e pai ers as I. K. Aivazovskiy a d A. . Bogoliuboff, aval u iform, Russia awards a d marks were ob ai ed o auc io s a d he priva e perso s. Bu a he same ime, i 1920-30 h he large umber of subjec s of he Roma ov emperor's family, obiliary sur ames were a ihila ed i he Museum u der he pressure of ew circums a ces. his loss has become irreplaceable. A d o ly due o he rue devo ees of Museum i became possible o preserve he less, ha makes he pride of i s collec io oday. I 1939-1940 he Museum was re amed as he Ce ral aval Museum a d was ra sferred from i s his orical place - Admiral y - o a buildi g of former S ock excha ge a he spi e of he Vasilyevskiy isla d. his buildi g was co s ruc ed i 1805-1810 u der he projec of a k ow archi ec Jea Fra coise oma de omo . Si ce ha imes he Ce ral aval Museum has become o e of he mos favouri e a d a e ded museums of he ci y. Duri g he World War II a par of he collec io was evacua ed o Ulya ovsk ci y. Bu a umber of he employees had bei g worked i blocaded Le i grad, collec i g he u ique ma erials co cer i g he defe ders of Le i grad. Excursio &lec urer work was goi g o he ships a d i u i s of Red Ba er Bal ic Flee , a he e erprises a d i hospi als of he besieged ci y he mobile exhibi io s worked.
he pos -war period is charac erized by ac ive museum exhibi io ac ivi y. he employees of he Museum repea edly lef wi h mobile exhibi io s o all Flee s, carryi g ou large educa io al&cul ural ac ivi y. I he begi i g of 50- h he professio al S udio of mari e ar is s was crea ed u der he decisio of he avy's Goveri g body a d i i ia ive of he Museums' employees. I aimed o upda e he Museum's collec io by a ma erials illumi a i g hose pages of a his ory, which have o fou d sufficie represe a io i a exhibi io . oday he ale ed ar is s are worki g i S udio, amo g hem he Deserved ar is of Russia Federa io V. A. Pecha i , Z. G. Abashvili, M. A. Kuz e sov, S. V. Pe , V. P. Yarki a d o hers. he scie ific employees of he Museum work u der he crea io of he ew museum ca alogues. ha has allowed o i clude earlier u k ow docume s a d ma erials i scie ific use . he cha ges i Russia of he e d 1980- h - begi i g of 90- h have allowed he Museum o ur o he Museum's reserved collec io s a d o show o public he subjec s, docume s a d ma erials revealli g pre-revolu io ary his ory of he Russia avy. he Museum has developed wide exhibi io ac ivi y as i Russia a d abroad. Peoples of he ci ies akhodka, Kali i grad, Moscow, Archa gelsk, Pskov, Yal a, yume , Vyborg, Severodvi sk have go acquai ed wi h i s collec io s. Museum's assembly have received a high es ima io i De mark, Fra ce, Germa y, Grea Bri ai , Holla d, Hu gary, I aly, Japa , Spai , USA. he scie ific a d crea ive co ec io s wi h museums of Russia a d foreig cou ries have ex e ded. he i creasi g of C M's populari y a d scie ific au hori y has s irred up he firs wave emigra s a d heir desce da s. We were gif ed he i eres i g ma erials from Fra ce, Holla d, Japa , u is, USA. Ci ize s of Russia Federa io do o leave us wi hou a e io oo. Сollec io of he Museum o als abou 700'000 i ems oday. he Ce ral aval Museum repea edly par icipa ed i joi exhibi io s wi h S a e Hermi age, S a e re yakov Gallery, S a e Russia Museum, S a e museums-reserves «Moscow Kremli », «Pe ershoff», « sarskoye Selo», «Pavlovsk», «Ga chi a», S a e Museum of his ory of S . Pe ersburg, S a e Museum of Religio s his ory, Museum of a hropology a d e h ography (&quo ;Cabi e of curiosi ies&quo ;), A. A. Popov Ce ral Museum of commu ica io s, S a e Memorial Museum of A. V. Suvorov, Ce ral Museum of he Armed Forces of Russia Federa io , Mili ary His orical Museum of Ar illery, E gi eeri g a d I ercommu ica io al corps, Mili ary Medici e Museum a d o hers. For las years au hori y of he Museum has co siderably grow . I has become he member of he I er a io al Cou cil of Museums (ICOM) I er a io al Associa io of Mili ary Museums & Mili ary His ory (IAMAM), I er a io al Co gress of Mari ime Museums (ICMM), U io of he crea ive museum workers of S . Pe ersburg a d regio . Large populari y a d au hori y he C M is obliged for hose museum's pa rio s who works i i for ma y years. he proud of he Museum are: L. I. Berez i skaya, A. K. Belik, K. P. Kras opol'skiy, A. L. Lario ov, V. B. Morozova, L. S. Pe rova, L. G. Shus er, I. P. Sukha ov, . .
opor i a, A. A ro '. Rece ly he Museum has celebra ed i s 290 h a iversary. I s scie ific employees have he large crea ive pla s. Highly professio al collec ive, i s k owledge a d purposeful ess is he pledge, ha he Museum will keep radi io s of he oldes scie ific-educa io al i s i u io a d perfec ly will be he pride of Russia avy a d he reasury of mari ime glory of Russia. Museum's mai buildi g i Sai Pe ersburgPho o, 1996 Ki ds from a roof of a buildi g of he Ce ral aval MuseumPho o 2001 Shalimova Ja e 9 “G” he Museum of bilisi's His ory, a reasury of ma erial a d spiri ual values of Georgia people was fou ded i 1910. ha ime i was amed &quo ;Mu icipal Museum&quo ;, because i was es ablished by he Mu icipali y. Duri g 90 years more ha 50 housa d i ems have bee collec ed. his collec io was e abli g he Museum o expose he comple e hi s ory of he ow . he life a d cul ure begi i g from he IV mille ium B.C., si ce he firs i habi a s were se led here. his e abled he museum o prese he i cessa course of urba developme hrough i s impor a s ages. Up o he XIX ce ury bilisi was a ypical orie al ow wi h i s Carava serais a d bazaars, houses wi h vera dahs a d balco ies, wi h arrow la es. he co ac wi h Russia a d Europea cul ures gave Europea impri o he life fashio of bilisi a d o i s ex er al appeara ce. I he XIX ce ury i he old par of he ow , i he vici i y of Sio i Ca hedral, where here were rem a s of a Carava serai buil by he Ki g Ros om i XVII ce ury, a ew Carava serai was buil . I 1912 he facade of he buildi g was decora ed. Af er res ora io of 1980 his his orical buildi g became he reside ce for he Museum of bilisi's His ory. U ique archaeological, e h ographical, docume ary ma erial, ma y mas erpieces of folk a d applied ar s (carpe s, kilims, e c.) are kep here. he Museum holds he riches pho ograph-collec io which perfec ly shows he views of he ow , i s life a d i s i habi a s. he Museum keeps ma y pai i gs, pri i gs a d graphical works of Georgia a d foreig ar is s, depic i g bilisi a d i s ci ize s i heir ra her colorful spec ra. Alo gside wi h he ma erial depic i g he pas , he Museum of bilisi's His ory represe s moder ar oo. he moder Ar depar me was fou ded i 1986 a d is o he hird floor of he buildi g. he moder Ar depar me of bilisi his ory museum exhibi s he s a e of moder Georgia Ar . Back i he former sovie ime ra her bold, owadays His orical exhibi io s were arra ged, amely Georgia eoexpressio ism, ra sava gard, Free Figura io , I s alla io , Video-Ar , Performa ce a d o her re ds a d direc io s. ARME IA GE OCIDE MUSEUM he Museum of he Arme ia Ge ocide ope ed i 1995 i ime o commemora e he eigh ie h a iversary of he Ge ocide. he Museum s ruc ure is of u ique a d origi al desig . (archi ec s: S. Kalashia a d L. Mkr chia ). his wo-s ory buildi g is loca ed a a d i he side of a hill so as o o de rac from he imposi g prese ce of he Ge ocide Mo ume earby. he roof of he buildi g is fla a d covered by co cre e iles. I serves as a sce ic view poi overlooki g he Arara valley a d Mou Arara . he firs floor of he Museum is below grade a d houses admi is ra ive, e gi eeri g a d ech ical mai e a ce offices a d spaces, a 170-sea hall (Komi as Hall), s orage rooms for museum a d scie ific objec s, a library a d a readi g hall.
При таком празднике все присутствующие надевают М. из древесной коры, с длинным носом, и, обращаясь к трупу медведя, уверяют его, что он убит не вогулами или остяками, а русскими; при этом происходят пляски и сценические представления, отчасти комического, отчасти обличительного характера, так как замаскированные имеют право не стесняться и высказывать горькую правду всем сородичам и даже старшинам. Литература. "Masken" в Andree, "Elbn. Раrallelen und Vergleiche" (Neue Folge, Л., 1889); F. v. Helivvald, "Die Urgeschichfe der Maske" (в "Ethn. Rosselsprunge", Лонд., 1891);Dаll, "On Masks, Labrets etc." (в "Third ann. Report of the Bureau ol Ethnology"); Benndorf, "Antike Gesichtshelme und Sepulcralmasken" (в "Denkschr. d. k. Acad. d. Wiss. ph.-hist. Kl.", XXVIII. B., 1879); Krause und Schmeltz, "Die ethn.-anthr. Abth. d. Museum Godeffroy" (1881); "Americas Nordwestkuste etc." (1884); Mayer und Parkinson, "Schnitzereien und Masken vom Bismark-Archipel und Neu-Guinea" (с 19 табл., 1895). Д. A. Масканьи (Pietro Mascagni) - итальянский композитор, род. в 1863 г. в Ливорно
1. Museums and picture galleries