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География, Экономическая география География, Экономическая география

The Economy of Great Britain

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Федеральное агентство по образованию Государственное образовательное учреждение Высшего профессионального образования &quo ;Волгоградский государственный технический университет&quo ; Камышинский технологический институт (филиал) Волгоградского государственного технического университета Кафедра английского языкаРеферативная работа По дисциплине: &quo ;Английский язык&quo ; На тему: he Eco omy of Grea Bri ai Выполнил: студент гр. КЭЛ-051(с) Ермаков М.М. Проверила: Бурдоленко Л.М. Камышин 2005 PLA Bri ish i dus ry as a eleme of eco omy. he Eco omy of Grea Bri ai ra sla e Vocabulary Bri ish i dus ry as a eleme of eco omyPeople i cou ries ou side he Bri ish Isles of e call he i habi a s ' of he U i ed Ki gdom E glish. his is i correc , for here are a leas four mai a io ali ies, he E glish, he Sco s, he Welsh a d he Irish. hese four a io ali ies each have heir ow la guage a d cul ure. he popula io of he U i ed Ki gdom of Grea Bri ai a d or her Irela d is almos fif y-six millio . A li le more ha seve millio people live i he Lo do area. Bri ai is mai ly a i dus rial cou ry, a d mos of he people live i large ow s. he la ds which produce o hi g, especially he hilly cou ry i or her Sco la d, have almos o popula io . Grea Bri ai is highly i dus rialized, his was he cou ry i which he earlies developme s of moder i dus ry ook place. Lo do , he capi al, is o e of ma y impor a i dus rial ce ers. Lo s of hi gs such as clo hes, food, pla es a d cars are made i a d arou d Lo do . Birmi gham is he bigges ow i a impor a i dus rial area ear he ce re of E gla d. Machi es, cars a d lorries are made i his area. V se s a d radios are also produced here. Ma ches er i he or h-wes of E gla d is he ce re of he co o ex ile i dus ry, o e of Bri ai 's mos impor a producers of compu ers a d elec ro ic equipme . Coal-mi i g is impor a i Sou h Wales, bu ma y of he mi es5 here have bee closed. here is much u employme i Sou h Wales oday. A smaller i dus rial area is si ua ed i or h Wales, where s eel6 a d chemicals are produced. Ship-buildi g is a impor a i dus ry i he U i ed Ki gdom. he mai ship-buildi g ce ers are Lo do , Glasgow i Sco la d, Belfas i or her Irela d a d some o hers. Sheep ca be see i ma y par s of E gla d a d Sco la d, a d here are a lo of ca le-farms a d farms where milk, bu er a d cheese are produced. Bu o ly half of he food he cou ry eeds is produced by Bri ish agricul ure. Whea is grow i he eas of E gla d. Vege ables are grow i all par s of E gla d, especially i he sou h. Po a oes are grow everywhere o he Bri ish Isles. Some ki ds of frui , especially apples, ca grow i he sou h where he empera ure is higher a d here are more hours of su shi e ha i he or her regio s. he Eco omy of Grea Bri ai Li le more ha a ce ury ago, Bri ai was ' he workshop of he world'. I had as ma y mercha ships as he res of he world pu oge her a d i led he world i mos ma ufac uri g i dus ries. his did o las lo g. By 1885 o e a alysis repor ed, &quo ;We have come o occupy a posi io I which we are o lo ger progressi g, bu eve falli g bock. . We fi d o her a io s able o compe e wi h us o such a ex e as we have ever before experie ced.

&quo ; Early i he we ie h ce ury Bri ai was over ake eco omically by he U i ed S a es a d Germa y. Af er wo world. wars a d he rapid loss of i s empire, Bri ai fou d i i creasi gly difficul o mai ai i s posi io eve i Europe. Bri ai s ruggled o fi d a bala ce be wee gover me i erve io i he eco omy a d a almos comple ely free-marke eco omy such as exis ed i he U i ed S a es. ei her sys em seemed o fi Bri ai 's eeds. he former seemed compromised be wee wo differe objec ives: pla ed eco omic prosperi y a d he mea s of e suri g full employme , while he la er promised grea er eco omic prosperi y a he cos of pover y a d u employme for he less able i socie y. ei her Labour or he Co serva ives doub ed he eed o fi d a sys em ha sui ed Bri ai 's eeds, bu ei her seemed able o break from he co se sus based o Key esia eco omics. People seemed complace abou Bri ai 's decli e, reluc a o make he pai ful adjus me s ha migh be ecessary o reverse i . Prosperi y I creased duri g he la e 1950s a d i he 1960s, diver i g a e io from Bri ai 's decli e rela ive o i s mai compe i ors. I 1973&quo ; he Co serva ive Prime Mi is er Edward Hea h war ed, &quo ; he al er a ive o expa sio is o , as some occasio ally seem o suppose, a E gla d of quie marke ow s li ked o ly by s eam rai s puffi g slowly a d peacefully hrough gree meadows. he al er a ive is slums, da gerous roads, old fac ories, cramped schools, s u ed lives. &quo ; Bu i he years of world-wide recessio , 1974-79, Bri ai seemed u able o improve i s performa ce. By he mid 1970s bo h Labour a d Co serva ive eco omis s were begi i g o recog ise he eed o move away from Key esia eco omics, based upo s imula i g dema d by I jec i g mo ey i o he eco omy. Bu , as described i he I roduc io , i was he Co serva ives who decided o break wi h he old eco omic formula comple ely. Re ur i g o power i 1979, hey were de ermi ed o lower axes as a i ce ive o i dividuals a d busi esses o I crease produc ivi y; o leave he labour force o regula e i self ei her by prici g i self ou of employme or by worki g wi hi he amou of mo ey employers could afford; a d, fi ally, o limi gover me spe di g levels a d use mo ey supply ( he amou of mo ey i circula io a a y o e ime) as a way of co rolli g i fla io . As Prime Mi is er Margare ha cher argued i he Commo s, &quo ;If our objec ive is o have a prosperous a d expa di g eco omy, we mus recog ise ha high public spe di g, as a propor io of G P gross a io al produc ;, very quickly kills grow h. . We have o remember ha gover me s have o mo ey a all. Every pe y hey ake is from he produc ive sec or of he eco omy i order o ra sfer i o he u produc ive par of i . &quo ; She had a poi : be wee 1961 a d 1975 employme ou side I dus ry i creased by over 40 per ce rela ive o employme i i dus ry. Duri g he 1980s he Co serva ives pu heir ew ideas i o prac ice, i come ax was reduced from a basic ra e of 33 pe ce o 25 per ce . (For higher i come groups he reduc io was grea er, a he op ra e from S3 per ce o 40 per ce ) his did o lead o a y loss i reve ue, si ce a he lower ra es fewer people ried o avoid ax.

A he same ime, however, he gover me doubled Value Added ax (VA ) o goods a d services o 15 per ce . he mos o able success of ' ha cherism' was he priva isa io of previously wholly or par ly gover me -ow ed e erprises. I deed, o her cou ries, for example Ca ada, Fra ce, I aly, Japa , Malaysia a d Wes Germa y, followed he Bri ish example. he gover me believed ha priva isa io would i crease efficie cy, reduce gover me borrowi g, i crease eco omic freedom, a d e courage wide share ow ership. By 1990 20 per ce of he adul popula io were share ow ers, a higher propor io ha i a y o her Wes er i dus rialised cou ry. here was o ques io of aki g hese e erprises back i o public ow ership, eve by a Labour gover me . Despi e such cha ges, however, by 1990 Bri ai 's eco omic problems seemed as difficul as ever. he gover me fou d ha reduci g public expe di ure was far harder ha expec ed a d ha by 1990 i s ill co sumed abou he same propor io of he G P as i had e years earlier. I fla io , emporarily co rolled, rose o over 10 per ce a d was o ly checked from risi g fur her by high i eres ro es which also had he side effec of discouragi g eco omic grow h. I spi e of reduci g he power or he rade u io s, wage dema ds (mos o ably se ior ma ageme salaries) rose fas er ha prices, i dica i g ha a free labour marke did o ecessarily solve he wages problem. By 1990 he ma ufac uri g I dus ry had barely recovered from he major shri kage i he early 1980s. I was more efficie . bu i he mea ime Bri ai 's share of world rade I ma ufac ured goods had shru k from 8 per ce i 1979 o 6.5 per ce e years la er. Bri ai 's bala ce of payme s was u heal hy oo. I 1985 i had e joyed a small surplus of Ј3.5. billio , bu i 1990 his had cha ged o a defici of Ј20.4 billio . Ma y small busi esses fail o survive, mai ly as a resul of poor ma ageme , bu also because, compared wi h almos every o her Europea Commu i y member, Bri ai offers he leas e couragi g co di io s. Bu such small busi esses are impor a o o ly because large busi esses grow from small o es, hu also because over half he ew jobs i Bri ai are crea ed by firms employi g fewer ha 100 s aff. I is o as if Bri ai is wi hou i dus rial s re g h. I is o e of he world leaders i he produc io of microprocessors. Wi hou grea er i ves me a d gover me e courageme i is doub ful whe her Bri ai will hold o o i s lead i his area. However, i has already led o he crea io of 'hi- ech' i dus ries i hree mai areas, wes of Lo do alo g he M4 mo orway or 'Golde Corridor', he lowla ds be wee Edi burgh a d Du dee, ick amed 'Silico Gle ', a d he area be wee Lo do a d Cambridge. I he mid 1980s Silico Gle was produci g 70 per ce of Bri ish silico wafers co ai i g he microchips esse ial for he ew i forma io ech ology - he Cambridge Scie ce Park, symbolised by i s Moder is Schlumberger Buildi g, is he flagship of hi- ech Bri ai . Begi i g i 1969, by 1986 he Park co ai ed 322 hi- ech compa ies. I he words of a co sul a , &quo ; he Cambridge phe ome o . represe s o e of he very few spo a eous grow h ce res i a a io al eco omy ha has bee depressed for all of a decade.

Article sur Lucien Pissarro, peintre. ""The, Studio", 15 nov. 1916. 9. Clement-Janin. Peintres-Graveurs contemporains - Lucien Pissarro. "Gazette des Beaux-Arts", nov. - dec. 1919, pp. 337-351. 10. Marriott C. Modem Movements in Painting. London, 1920. 11. Rutter F. Some Contemporary Artists. London, 1922. 12. Каталоги двух выставок Люсьена Писсарро: "Memorial Exhibitions", Leicester Galleries. London. 13. Sickert W. R. A Free House, изложение O. Sitwell. London, 1947. 14. Robb B. The Wood-Engravings of Lucien Pissarro. "Signature", n° 6, 1948. 15. Rewa1d J. Lucien Pissarro - Letters from London, 1883-1891. "Burlington Magazine", july, 1949. 16. Pissarro Camille. Lettres a son fils Lucien. Paris, 1950. 17. Gwynn F. L. Sturge Moore and the Life of Art. London, 1952. 18. Rothenstein J. Modem English Painters - Sickert to Smith. London, 1952. 19. Каталог выставки "Designs and Engravings for the Eragny Press", Arts Council of Great Britain. 20. Каталог выставки "Retrospective of the Works of Lucien Pissarro", Ohana Gallery. London, nov. 1954. 21. Pissarro Lucien

1. The Queen of the UK

2. Population of the UK

3. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

4. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

5. The New-York City, Places of interest

6. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”
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8. London - the capital of Great Britain
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9. The UK education system

10. The climate of Great Britain

11. The political system of Great Britain

12. Sport in the UK

13. The political role of Great Britain in modern world

14. American Literature: An Overview Of The Development From The 17th To The 20th Centu-ries

15. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

16. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

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20. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

21. The collection of French art in the Hermitage

22. The models of atom’s nucleus and table of elements.
23. The great Britain
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24. The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)

25. The weather in Great Britain

26. The Catcher in the Rye

27. The Tower in the 19th Century: From fortress to ancient monument

28. National Sports of Great Britain

29. Climate of Great Britain

30. Customs and traditions of Great Britain

31. Traditions and holidays of Great Britain

32. Model of atom’s nucleus and table of elements

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33. System of education of Great Britain

34. Quantification of osteocyte lacunar density and anisotropy of vascular canals in compact bone

35. Economy of the Republic of Ireland

36. Russia and the international economy

37. Russia and the international economy

38. The government role in the market economy
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39. Would lower oil prices be good or bad news for the world economy
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40. Economy of Russia and Economic crisis
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41. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

42. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

43. The Church of England

44. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

45. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

46. The history of railways (История железных дорог)

47. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

48. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

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49. The Castles of England

50. The fastest computers of the world

51. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)

52. The Tower of London

53. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

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55. The History of English
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56. The profile of an effective manager
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57. The Tower of London

58. The Hero of Our Time

59. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

60. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

61. Ways of exploring the world

62. The role of art in our life

63. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

64. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

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68. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

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70. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")
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74. THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY SINCE THE END OF SECOND WORLD WAR

75. The dark side of the moon

76. Creating Market Economy in Eastern Europe

77. History of the USA

78. The United States of America

79. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

80. The United States of America

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82. Culture of the youth

83. Problems of the youth

84. The 8th of March

85. Discovery of the New World

86. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University
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87. The library of our institute
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88. The commonwealth of Australia
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89. The Commonwealth of Australia

90. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

91. Washington is the capital of the USA

92. Flora and Fauna of the USA

93. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

94. The constitution of Ukraine

95. The history of Christmas

96. Bosch, Hieronymus: The Temptation of St Anthony

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