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British monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

–учка "Ўприц", желта€.
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he I s i u e of Ecology, Li guis ics a d Low Degree work ЂBRI ISH MO ARCHY A D I S I FLUE CE UPO GOVER ME AL I S I U IO Sї Du aeva i a Moscow, 2003 Co e s Par O e I RODUC IO he U i ed ki gdom of Grea Bri ai a d o her Irela d4 Direc mea i g of he word Ђmo archyї6 he Bri ish co s i u io al mo archy7Par wo HIS ORY OF HE MO ARCHY Ki gs a d Quee s of E gla d9 he A glo-Saxo Ki gs9 he orma s23 he A gevi s30 Par hree HE MO ARCHY ODAY he Quee ’s role91 Quee ’s role i he moder S a e91 Quee a d Commo weal h91 Royal visi s92 he Quee ’s worki g day92 Ceremo ies a d pagea ry92 he Quee ’s ceremo ial du ies93 Royal pagea ry a d radi io s93 Royal successio 93 he Royal Household93 Royal Household depar me s94 Recrui me 94 A iversaries95 Royal fi a ces95 Head of S a e expe di ure 2000-0195 Sources of fu di g96 Fi a cial arra geme s of he Pri ce of Wales96 Fi a ces of he o her members of he Royal Family96 axa io 97 Royal asse s97 Symbols98 a io al a hem98 Royal Warra s99 Ba k o es a d coi age100 S amps102 Coa s of Arms103 Grea Seal104 Flags105 Crow s a d jewels105 ra spor 105 Cars106 Carriages107 he Royal rai 108 Royal air ravel109 Par Four HE ROYAL FAMILY Members of he Royal Family111 HM he Quee 111 HRH he Duke of Edi burgh111 HRH he Pri ce of Wales a d family112 HRH he Duke of York112 RH he Earl a d Cou ess of Wessex112 HRH Pri cess Royal112 HRH Pri cess Alice113 RH he Duke a d Duchess of Glouces er113 RH he Duke a d Duchess of Ke 113 RH Pri ce a d Pri cess Michael of Ke 114 HRH Pri cess Alexa dra114 Memorial Plaque HM Quee Elizabe h he Quee Mo her115 HRH he Pri cess Margare 115 Dia a, Pri cess of Wales115 Par Five AR A D RESIDE CES he Royal Collec io 116 Abou he Royal Collec io 116 he Royal Collec io rus 117 Royal Collec io E erprises117 Publishi g118 Royal Reside ces118 Royal Collec io Galleries118 Loa s119 he Royal Reside ces119 Abou he Royal Reside ces119 Bucki gham Palace120 he Quee ’s Gallery, Bucki gham Palace120 he Royal Mews121 Wi dsor Cas le121 Frogmore122 he Palace of Holyroodhouse122 Balmoral Cas le123 Sa dri gham House123 S James’s Palace124 Ke si g o Palace124 His oric reside ces124 Bibliography126U I ED KI GDOM OF GREA BRI AI A D OR HER IRELA D Sovereig : Quee Elizabe h II (1952) Gover me : he U i ed Ki gdom is a co s i u io al mo archy a d parliame ary democracy, wi h a quee a d a Parliame ha has wo houses: he House of Lords, wi h 574 life peers, 92 heredi ary peers, 26 bishops, a d he House of Commo s, which has 651 popularly elec ed members. Supreme legisla ive power is ves ed i Parliame , which si s for five years u less soo er dissolved. he House of Lords was s ripped of mos of i s power i 1911, a d ow i s mai fu c io is o revise legisla io . I ov. 1999 hu dreds of heredi ary peers were expelled i a effor o make he body more democra ic. he execu ive power of he Crow is exercised by he cabi e , headed by he prime mi is er. Prime Mi is er: o y Blair (1997) Area: 94,525 sq mi (244,820 sq km) Popula io (2003 es .): 60,094,648 (grow h ra e: 0.1%); bir h ra e: 11.0/1000; i fa mor ali y ra e: 5.3

/1000; de si y per sq mi: 636 Capi al a d larges ci y (2000 es .): Lo do , 11,800,000 (me ro. area) O her large ci ies: Birmi gham, 1,009,100; Leeds, 721,800; Glasgow, 681,470; Liverpool, 479,000; Bradford, 477,500; Edi burgh, 441,620; Ma ches er, 434,600; Bris ol, 396,600 Mo e ary u i : Pou d s erli g (£) La guages: E glish, Welsh, Sco s Gaelic E h ici y/race: E glish 81.5%; Sco ish 9.6%; Irish 2.4%; Welsh 1.9%; Uls er 1.8%; Wes I dia , I dia , Pakis a i, a d o her 2.8% Religio s: Church of E gla d (es ablished church), Church of Wales (dises ablished), Church of Sco la d (es ablished churchЧPresby eria ), Church of Irela d (dises ablished), Roma Ca holic, Me hodis , Co grega io al, Bap is , Jewish Li eracy ra e: 99% (1978) Eco omic summary:GDP/PPP (2000 es .): $1.36 rillio ; per capi a $22,800. Real grow h ra e: 3%. I fla io : 2.4%. U employme : 5.5%. Arable la d: 25%. Agricul ure: cereals, oilseed, po a oes, vege ables; ca le, sheep, poul ry; fish. Labor force: 29.2 millio (1999); agricul ure 1%, i dus ry 19%, services 80% (1996 es .). I dus ries: machi e ools, elec ric power equipme , au oma io equipme , railroad equipme , shipbuildi g, aircraf , mo or vehicles a d par s, elec ro ics a d commu ica io s equipme , me als, chemicals, coal, pe roleum, paper a d paper produc s, food processi g, ex iles, clo hi g, a d o her co sumer goods. a ural resources: coal, pe roleum, a ural gas, i , limes o e, iro ore, sal , clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable la d. Expor s: $282 billio (f.o.b., 2000): ma ufac ured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, obacco. Impor s: $324 billio (f.o.b., 2000): ma ufac ured goods, machi ery, fuels; foods uffs. Major radi g par ers: EU, U.S., Japa . Commu ica io s: elepho es: mai li es i use: 34.878 millio (1997); mobile cellular: 13 millio (yeare d 1998). Radio broadcas s a io s: AM 219, FM 431, shor wave 3 (1998). Radios: 84.5 millio (1997). elevisio broadcas s a io s: 228 (plus 3,523 repea ers) (1995). elevisio s: 30.5 millio (1997). I er e Service Providers (ISPs): 245 (2000). I er e users: 19.47 millio (2000). ra spor a io : Railways: o al: 16,878 km (1996). Highways: o al: 371,603 km; paved: 371,603 km (i cludi g 3,303 km of expressways); u paved: 0 km (1998 es .). Wa erways: 3,200 km. Por s a d harbors: Aberdee , Belfas , Bris ol, Cardiff, Dover, Falmou h, Felixs owe, Glasgow, Gra gemou h, Hull, Lei h, Liverpool, Lo do , Ma ches er, Pe erhead, Plymou h, Por smou h, Scapa Flow, Sou hamp o , Sullom Voe, ees, y e. Airpor s: 489 (2000 es .). I er a io al dispu es: or her Irela d issue wi h Irela d (his oric peace agreeme sig ed 10 April 1998); Gibral ar issue wi h Spai ; Arge i a claims Falkla d Isla ds (Islas Malvi as); Arge i a claims Sou h Georgia a d he Sou h Sa dwich Isla ds; Mauri ius a d he Seychelles claim Chagos Archipelago (UK-admi is ered Bri ish I dia Ocea erri ory); Rockall co i e al shelf dispu e i volvi g De mark a d Icela d; erri orial claim i A arc ica (Bri ish A arc ic erri ory) overlaps Arge i e claim a d par ially overlaps Chilea claim; dispu es wi h Icela d, De mark, a d Irela d over he Faroe Isla ds co i e al shelf bou dary ou side 200 M.

DIREC MEA I G OF HE WORD ЂMO ARCHYї Mo archy, form of gover me i which sovereig y is ves ed i a si gle perso whose righ o rule is ge erally heredi ary a d who is empowered o remai i office for life. he power of his sovereig may vary from he absolu e o ha s ro gly limi ed by cus om or co s i u io . Mo archy has exis ed si ce he earlies his ory of huma ki d a d was of e es ablished duri g periods of ex er al hrea or i er al crisis because i provided a more efficie focus of power ha aris ocracy or democracy, which e ded o diffuse power. Mos mo archies appear o have bee elec ive origi ally, bu dy as ies early became cus omary. I primi ive imes, divi e desce of he mo arch was of e claimed. Deifica io was ge eral i a cie Egyp , he Middle Eas , a d Asia, a d i was also prac iced duri g cer ai periods i a cie Greece a d Rome. A more modera e belief arose i Chris ia Europe i he Middle Ages; i s a ed ha he mo arch was he appoi ed age of divi e will. his was symbolized by he coro a io of he ki g by a bishop or he pope, as i he Holy Roma Empire. Al hough heore ically a he apex of feudal power, he medieval mo archs were i fac weak a d depe de upo he obili y for much of heir power. Duri g he Re aissa ce a d af er, here emerged “ ew mo archs” who broke he power of he obili y a d ce ralized he s a e u der heir ow rigid rule. o able examples are He ry VII a d He ry VIII of E gla d a d Louis XIV of Fra ce. he 16 h a d 17 h ce . mark he heigh of absolu e mo archy, which fou d i s heore ical jus ifica io i he doc ri e of divi e righ . However, eve he powerful mo archs of he 17 h ce . were somewha limi ed by cus om a d co s i u io as well as by he delega io of powers o s ro g bureaucracies. Such limi a io s were also fel by he “be evole despo s” of he 18 h ce . Cha ges i i ellec ual clima e, i he dema ds made upo gover me i a secular a d commercially expa di g socie y, a d i he social s ruc ure, as he bourgeoisie became i creasi gly powerful, eve ually weake ed he i s i u io of mo archy i Europe. he Glorious Revolu io i E gla d (1688) a d he Fre ch Revolu io (1789) were impor a la dmarks i he decli e a d limi a io of mo archical power. hroughou he 19 h ce . Royal power was i creasi gly reduced by co s i u io al provisio s a d parliame ary i cursio s. I he 20 h ce ., mo archs have ge erally become symbols of a io al u i y, while real power has bee ra sferred o co s i u io al assemblies. Over he pas 200 years democra ic self-gover me has bee es ablished a d ex e ded o such a ex e ha a rue fu c io i g mo archy is a rare occurre ce i bo h Eas a d Wes . Amo g he few remai i g are Bru ei, Morocco, a d Saudi Arabia. o able co s i u io al mo archies i clude Belgium, De mark, Grea Bri ai , Japa , he e herla ds, orway, Swede , a d haila d. Co s i u io al mo archy: Sys em of gover me i which a mo arch has agreed o share power wi h a co s i u io ally orga ized gover me . he mo arch may remai he de fac o head of s a e or may be a purely ceremo ial head. he co s i u io alloca es he res of he gover me 's power o he legisla ure a d judiciary.

Lisowski, A Brief History of Chinese Medicine and Its Influence (Singapore: World Scientific, 1998) Hobsbawn, Eric, The Age of Empire 1875- 1914 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1987) вАФ¬†Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century 1914- 1991 (London: Michael Joseph, 1994) вАУ¬†вАШ America вАЩs Neo-conservative World Supremacists Will FailвАЩ, Guardian, 25 June 2005 вАФ¬†Globalisation, Democracy, and Terrorism (London: Little, Brown, 2007) Howell, Jude, ed., Governance in China (Oxford: Roman and Littlefield, 2004) Hu Angang, вАШFive Major Scale Effects of China вАЩs RiseвАЩ, unpublished seminar paper, East Asia Institute, National University of Singapore, 2005 вАУ¬†вАШGreen Development: The Inevitable Choice for China, Parts One and TwoвАЩ, posted on www.chinadialogue.net (accessed 2/6/08) Huang Ping, вАШвАЬBeijing ConsensusвАЭ, or вАЬChinese ExperiencesвАЭ, or What?вАЩ, English-language unpublished paper, 2005 Huang Ping and Cui Zhiyuan, eds, China and Globalization: вАШ Washington ConsensusвАЩ, вАШ Beijing

1. British monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

2. British slang and its classification

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4. Survey of the British Geography and Life

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12. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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15. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

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43. Music and Ballet

44. Continuity and change in Stravinskiy`s ballets. —травинский и его балеты

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