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P. Kapi a, a ou s a di g Sovie physicis , was bor i Kro s ad i he family of a ge eral i 1894. He gradua ed from he Pe rograd Poly ech ic I s i u e i 1919. Kapi sa ook a grea i eres i physics while s ill a he i s i u e. I 1921 Kapi sa was se o E gla d o Le i 's i s ruc io s o re ew scie ific co ac s. He worked i he famous Cave dish Labora ory headed by Ru herford. Kapi sa was elec ed a member of he Royal Socia y for his ou s a di g scie ific work i he produc io of large mag e ic fields. I he middle of 1930s he orga ized he I s i u e of Physical Problems ear Moscow. I was here ha Kapi sa co ce ra ed his a e io o he research of superlow empera ures of liquid helium a d superco duc ivi y. He showed ha helium co duc ed hea so well becouse i flowed wi h remarkable ease. Af er he W.W.II his scie ific ac ivi y was direc ed o space research. I 1950s Kapi sa also ur ed his a e io o ball ligh i g - a phe ome o i which plasma exis s for a much lo ger period ha i was supposed. Kapi sa was awarded a obel Prize for his grea co ribu io o world scie ce i 1978. oday here are few ames i he his ory of phisics ha ca be placed ex o his.
Soviet spheres of influence: DDWX, 1996, no. 2, pp. 54БЂ“5; CWB nos. 6БЂ“7, p. 165 (Mao to Yudin, 31 Mar. 1956); cf. Ganshin & Zazerskaya, pp. 63ff. БЂњcoloniesБЂ«: Schram 1974, p. 101 (Mao, 10 Mar. 1958); Sino БЂ” Russian Relations Studies Society, p. 249. БЂњgrabbed halfБЂ«: Burr 1999a, p. 91 (Mao to Kissinger, 17БЂ“18 Feb. 1973). Gave Russia monopoly: Chou cable to Politburo, 8 Feb. 1950, in Jin Chongji et al. 1998, pp. 37БЂ“8; Wingrove 1995, pp. 327ff; Kapitsa interview. БЂњOf all the foreignБЂ«: quoted by Foreign Minister Qian Qichen, Foreign Ministry 1990ff, vol. 5, p. 11. Carefully erased: 14 Feb. 1950 cable, Mao 1987БЂ“98, vol. 1, pp. 262БЂ“3. 16 Liu 1996, vol. 2, p. 246. 17 At StalinБЂ™s insistence, secretly introduced: Arkhipov interview; cf. Wingrove 1995, p. 330; Shi Zhe 1991, pp. 415, 446 (E: Shi 1993, p. 86). БЂњWe do hopeБЂ«: Shi Zhe 1991, p. 463; Zhu Zhongli 1995, pp. 190БЂ“1. Flabbergasted guests: interview with Markus Wolf, who was present, 18 Nov. 1999; Wolf, pp. 42БЂ“3. StalinБЂ™s toast: Fedorenko 1989, p. 148; id. 1995, p. 89; Kapitsa interview; Shi Zhe 1991, p. 465