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Искусство, Культура, Литература
Max Li der (1883-1925) Repka ick form 11 ”B” Max Li der (1883-1925) Abou Li der As I have ever see a Max Li der film, I ca o wri e a y hi g abou him. I have hus reproduced here wo separa e ar icles. Suffice o say, Wal er Kerr i he Sile Clow s (see books page) ra es him as a rue pio eer of film comedy (e.g. he joke of bei g u veiled o a s a ue used by Kea o i he Goa a d Chapli i Ci y Ligh s was firs used by Li der). b. Gabriel-Maximilie Leuvielle Dec 16 1883, Caver e, Fra ce. d. 1925. A 17 he lef high school o s udy drama a d soo af er bega a ac i g career o he Bordeaux s age. He moved o Paris i 1904 a d s ar ed playi g suppor i g par s i melodramas. I 1905 he embarked upo a parallel career i Pa he films. For hree years he spe his days i he film s udios a d his eve i gs o he s age, usi g his real ame i he hea er a d he pseudo ym Max Li der o he scree . By 1908 he had give up he s age o co ce ra e o his i creasi gly successful scree career. By 1910 he was a i er a io ally popular comedia , possibly he bes -k ow scree comic o ei her side of he A la ic i he years before WW I. ypically playi g a dapper da dy of he idle class, he developed a s yle of slaps ick sile scree comedy ha a icipa ed Mack Se e a d Chapli a d se he premises of he ge re for years o come. Ferdi a d Zecca, Louis Gas ier, a d Alber o Capela i were amo g he direc ors of his earlies films. By 1910, Li der was wri i g a d supervisi g, a d from 1911 also direc i g, all his ow films. His populari y was a i s peak i 1914, whe he was called o arms. Early i he war he was a vic im of gas poiso i g a d suffered a serious breakdow . he i jury was o have a las i g effec o his physical a d me al well-bei g. He re ur ed briefly o Fre ch films, bu fi di g his populari y va ishi g, he accep ed a bid from Essa ay a d lef for he US la e i 1916. Co i uous ill heal h hampered he America phase of Li der's career from he s ar . I mid-1917, af er o ly hree films, he was felled by double p eumo ia a d spe early a year recoveri g i a Swiss sa i arium. Whe he re ur ed o he US i 1921, he formed his ow produc io u i , releasi g hrough U i ed Ar is s. Bu af er maki g o ly hree more America films, i cludi g he celebra ed parody (of Fairba ks’ he hree Muske eers) he hree Mus - Ge - heres, he re ur ed o Europe, where he married he daugh er of a Paris res aura eur i 1923. Li der made wo more film appeara ces: o e i Fra ce, he o her i Aus ria, bu realized his career was fi ished. I 1925 he e ered a suicide pac wi h his wife. heir bodies were discovered side by side i a Paris ho el. He remai ed forgo e for years, u il he 60s, whe ma y of his old films bega ur i g up, affordi g film his oria s a oppor u i y o evalua e his career a d his co ribu io s o he evolu io of scree comedy. Biography from Qui la ’s Film Comedy Ac ors Wi h his foxy brow eyes ma ched by a like mous ache, ca e, elega cu away coa , silk crava , kid gloves a d gleami g op ha , Max Li der could have bee every i ch he Fre ch boulevardier who “walked alo g he Bois de Boulog e wi h a i depe de air”--had o , i films, every hi g go e wro g for him.
Max Li der was Fra ce’s firs grea film comedia . Bu o for him a y ki d of dress ha smacked of he circus clow . Max was always debo air, eve i he face of disas er. His early films i Fra ce, of which he made scores, are cameos of ca as rophe, li le gems which work a varie y of gags o a si gle si ua io , such as aki g a ba h, ge i g dressed, or (qui e of e , as he wolfish Max pursued his prey) chasi g a damsel. He was e ormously popular i he early 1900s. A d, had o war i erve ed, he would perhaps have bee happily e er ai i g co i e al audie ces i o his six ies, compe i g wi h such ups ar s as Jacques a i a d Fer a dei. Li der spe he early par of his life i America, where his fa her had go e o pla vi eyards. Whe he busi ess failed he family re ur ed o Fra ce a d Max comple ed his educa io here. He was a a ural a hle e (o ce pole-vaul champio of Sou h Wes Fra ce), a abili y ha was o s a d him i good s ead i he more e erge ic of his comedy capers o scree . Leavi g high school i 1901, he s udied drama for wo years before begi i g a s age career u der his real ame. Bu by 1905 he was playi g mi or film roles as Max Li der, progressi g o comic leads by 1907 a d i er a io al fame by 1910. His s yle of comedy somewha foreshadowed ha of Chapli (o e of his grea es fa s) a d his dapper, disas er-pro e da dy would la er prove a useful pro o ype for Charley Chase. hese were he golde years for Li der, who direc ed all his ow work from 1911 o 1917. Bu he war cha ged every hi g. Li der o o ly received severe shrap el wou ds bu was he vic im of serious gassi g, which lef him wi h moods of black mela cholia i be wee pa ches of i spira io . Wi h his work ou pu a d his populari y i Fra ce dimi ishi g, a par ially recovered Li der accep ed a offer o work i America i 1916. Af er hree of a projec ed ru of 12 wo-reelers, however, his heal h broke dow agai . Re ur i g o he co i e af er a dire ba le wi h double p eumo ia, he aili g Max e ered a co valesce home i Swi zerla d for a year. Refusi g o re ire despi e co i ued fragile heal h, Li der re ur ed o America, formed his ow produc io compa y here a d made hree fea ure films which co ai much of his bes work. he firs , Seve Years Bad Luck, co ai s a ex e ded seque ce i volvi g a mirror wi h o glass which preda es several such sce es wi h o her promi e America comedia s, o ably he Marx Bro hers i Duck Soup. he las of he hree, he hree Mus -Ge - heres, a riumpha parody of Dumas’s famous swashbuckler, co ai s sus ai ed ac io omfoolery which makes he Richard Les er versio 50 years la er pale by compariso . Bu he films were o ly modera ely successful wi h America audie ces a d Li der fou d rouble ge i g his work dis ribu ed. Disco sola e af er a deal wi h Samuel Goldwy fell hrough, Max re ur ed o Fra ce. here was o e more film here a d o e i Aus ria bu he o ce-co fide Li der was becomi g a i creasi gly forlor figure. here was alk of a o her film bu Li der a d his you g wife e ered i o a suicide pac a d, a few weeks shor of his 42 d bir hday, were fou d dead oge her i a Paris ho el. For u a ely, i la er years his daugh er Maud lau ched a ba le o bri g his ge ius o a fresh audie ce, resul i g i wo compila io films, Laugh Wi h Max Li der i 1963, a d he Ma i he Silk Ha 20 years la er.
FilmographyYear i le 1905 La premiere sor ie d'u collegie 1906 Le premier cigare d'u collegie 1906 Le poiso 1906 Le pe du 1906 Les co reba diers 1907 Idee d'apache 1907 U e mauvaise vie 1907 La mor d'u oreador 1907 Sga arelle 1907 La vie de Polichi elle 1907 Les debu s d'u pa i eur 1908 La re co re imprevue 1908 U e co que e 1908 La res mou arde 1909 U mariage a l'americai e 1909 Le pe i jeu e homme 1909 See he pic ure! 1920 Le feu sacre 1921 Seve Years Bad Luck 1921 Be My Wife 1922 he hree Mus -Ge - heres 1923 Au secours! 1924 Clow aus Liebe/Le roi du cirques (GB a d US: Max, Ki g of he Circus)
Волхова, разделяющей город на две части: Софийскую, с "детинцем" (Кремлем), и Торговую, соединенные между собою постоянным мостом. Берега Волхова невысоки и многие части города нередко подвергаются весеннему наводнению. Абсолютная высота 171 фт. Н. соединен железною дорогой с гор. Старою Руссою и со ст. Чудовскою Николаевской ж. д.; в навигационное время по Волхову ежедневно ходят пароходы вниз до Гостинополя и вверх по оз. Ильменю в Старую Руссу. Климат Н. сырой и суровый; по местным метеорологическим наблюдениям (1878-88, 92 и 93 гг.) средняя температура по Ц.: лета 17,1, осени 4,8°, зимы - 7,7°, весны 2,9, годовая +4,3°; при этом замечались колебания: max. +31,9° и min. -35,6°. Высота барометра сред. 757,1 мм.; осадков 487,9; ясных дней в году 40, с осадками 177 (в том числе 84 со снегом); относительная влажность 79%. Население. С утратою своей самостоятельности и торгового значения Н. (имевший в XIV в. до 400 тыс. жит.) обезлюдел; в 1646 г. в нем было не более 50 тыс. жит. После шведской войны, по переписи 1627 г., в "детинце" было 150 дворов и 40 лавок, а в самом городе 729 жилых дворов, с 850 жит., и 150 дворов "опустелых". По ревизии 1719 г. податного населения считалось 2303 души. В 1805 г. 12056 жит., в 1843 г. 14100, в 1865 г. вместе с войском 15401, в 1894 г. 24590 (14390 мжч. и 10200 жнщ.), в том числе войска 3464
1. Zusammenspiel der Realiatete als eines der Hauptprinzipien des Sujetaufbaus im Roman "Stiller" von Max Frisch