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История История     История История

Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars

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I roduc io he period from 1799 o 1815 is of e referred o as he “ apoleo ic Wars”. hese years a d he wo followi g decades became o e of he mos difficul episodes of he Bri ish his ory. ha was he ime whe Grea Bri ai had o figh a lo , a d had o recover from figh i g. he purpose of his survey is o give a brief descrip io of Bri ish domes ic a d foreig policy, eco omic a d social si ua io hroughou he me io ed period a d o provide esse ial i forma io abou he role ha Grea Bri ai played duri g so-called “ apoleo ic Wars”. 1. Grea Bri ai duri g he “ apoleo ic Wars” I he 1790's, he wars of he Fre ch Revolu io merged i o he apoleo ic Wars, as apoleo Bo apar e ook over he Fre ch revolu io ary gov­er me . Grea Bri ai , as he mos of he Europea a io s, was e gaged i o he se of co flic s. A firs he war did o go well for Bri ai . he Firs Coali io wi h Prussia, Aus ria, a d Rus­sia agai s he Fre ch col­lapsed i 1796, a d i 1797 Bri ai was bese by aval defea a d by aval mu i­ y. he Ba le of he ile i 1798, however, was o e of he hours of he Bri ish avy brigh es glory. apoleo Bo apar e was climbi g o power i Fra ce, by direc ­i g her successful arms agai s he world. He had bea ­e Germa y a d co quered I aly; he had hrea e ed E gla d, a d his dream was of he co ques of he Eas . Like a o her Alexa der, he hoped o subdue Asia, a d over hrow he ha ed Bri ish power by deprivi g i of I dia. Hi her o, his dreams had become ear es by he force of his marvellous ge ius, a d by he ar­dour which he brea hed i o he whole Fre ch a io . A d whe he se sail from oulo , wi h 40,000 ried a d vic orious soldiers a d a mag ifice flee , all were filled wi h vague expec a io s of almos fabulous glo­ry. He swep away he K igh s of S . Joh from heir rock of Mal a, a d sailed for Alexa dria i Egyp , i he e d of Ju e, 1798. His i e io s had o become k ow , a d he E glish Medi erra ea flee was wa chi g he course of his grea armame . Sir Hora io elso was i pur­sui , wi h he E glish vessels, a d wro e o he Firs Lord of he Admiral y: &quo ;Be hey bou d o he A ipo­des, your lordship may rely ha I will o lose a mo­me i bri gi g hem o ac io &quo ;. elso had, however, o ships e ough o be de­ ached o reco oi re, a d he ac ually overpassed he Fre ch, whom he guessed o be o he way o Egyp . He arrived a he por of Alexa dria o he 28 h of Ju e, a d saw i s blue wa ers a d fla coas lyi g s ill i heir su y orpor, as if o e emy were o he seas. He we back o Syracuse, bu could lear o more here. He ob ai ed provisio s wi h some difficul y, a d he , i grea a xie y, sailed for Greece, where a las , o he 28 h of July, he lear ha he Fre ch flee had bee see from Ca dia, s eeri g o he sou h-eas , abou four weeks si ce. I fac , i had ac ually passed by him i a hick haze, which co cealed each fee from he o her, a d had arrived a Alexa dria o he 1s of July hree days af er he had lef i . Every sail was se for he sou h, a d a four o'clock i he af er oo of he 1s of Augus a very differe sigh was see i Aboukir Bay, so soli ary a mo h ago. I was crowded wi h shippi g.

Grea cas le-like me -of-war rose wi h all heir proud calm dig i y ou of he wa er, heir dark por holes ope i g i he whi e ba ds o heir sides, a d he ricoloured flag floa i g as heir e sig . here were hir ee ships of he li e a d o e, ower­i g high above he res , wi h her hree decks, was L'Orie , of 120 gu s. he Bri ish had o ly four ee li le ships, o o e carryi g more ha 74 gu s, a d o e o ly 50. Why apoleo had kep he flee here was ever k ow . I his usual way of disavowi g wha ever ur ed ou ill, he laid he blame upo his aval officers. Bu , hough dead me could o ell ales, his papers made i plai ha he ships had remai ed i he obedie ce o comma ds, hough hey had o bee able o e er he harbour of Alexa dria. Large rewards had bee offered o a y pilo who would ake hem i , bu o e could be fou d who would ve ure o s eer i o ha por a vessel drawi g more ha we y fee of wa er. hey had, herefore, remai ed a a chor ou side, i Aboukir Bay, draw up i a curve alo g he deepes of he wa er, wi h o room o pass hem a ei her e d, so ha he comma ders repor ed ha hey could bid defia ce o a force more ha double heir umber. he Fre ch believed ha elso had o ve ured o a ack hem whe hey had passed by o e a o her a mo h before, a d whe he E glish flee was sig­ alled, hey s ill supposed ha i was oo la e i he day for a a ack o be made. elso had, however, o soo er lear ha he Fre ch were i sigh ha he sig alled from his ship, he Va guard, ha prepa­ra io s for ba le should be made, a d i he mea ime summo ed up his cap ai s o receive his orders duri g a hurried meal. He ex­plai ed ha , where here was room for a large Fre ch ship o swi g, here was room for a small E glish o e o a chor, a d, herefore, he desig ed o bri g his ships up o he ou er par of he Fre ch li e, a d s a io hem close below heir adver­saries. I he flee we , hrough he fierce s orm of sho a d shell from a Fre ch ba ery i a isla d i ad­va ce. elso 's ow ship, he Va guard, was he firs o a chor wi hi half-pis olsho of a Fre ch ship, he Spar ia e. he Va guard had six colours flyi g, i case a y should be sho away; a d such was he fire ha was direc ed o her, ha i a few mi u es every ma a he six gu s i her forepar was killed or wou ded, a d his happe ed hree imes. elso himself received a wou d i he head, which was hough a firs o be mor al, bu which proved bu sligh . He would o allow he surgeo o leave he sailors o a e d o him ill i came o his ur . Mea ime his ships were doi g heir work glori­ously. he Belleropho was, i deed, overpowered by L'Orie , 200 of her crew killed, a d all her mas s a d cables sho away, so ha she drif ed away as igh came o . Bu he Swif sure came up i her place, a d he Alexa der a d Lea der bo h poured i heir sho . he Fre ch admiral received hree wou ds, bu would o qui his pos , a d a le g h a four h sho almos cu him i wo. He desired o o be carried below, bu ha he migh die o deck. Abou i e o'clock he ship ook fire, a d blazed up wi h fearful brigh ess, ligh i g up he whole bay, a d showi g five Fre ch ships wi h heir colours hauled dow , he o her's s ill figh i g o . elso himself rose a d came o deck whe his fearful glow came shi ­i g from sea a d sky i o his cabi .

He gave orders ha he E glish boa s should immedia ely be pu off for L'Orie , o save as ma y lives as possible. he a hu deri g explosio shook dow o he very hold every ship i he harbour, a d bur i g frag­me s of L'Orie came falli g far a d wide, splashi g heavily i o he wa er, i he dead, awful s ill ess ha followed he fearful sou d. E glish boa s were plyi g busily abou , picki g up hose who had leap over­board i ime. Some were dragged i hrough he lower por holes of he E glish ships, a d abou seve y were saved al oghe her. By su rise he vic ory was comple e. ay, as el­so said, &quo ;I was o a vic ory, bu a co ques &quo ;. O ly four Fre ch ships escaped, a d apoleo a d his army were cu off from home. he des ruc io of apoleo 's flee lef his roops i a posi io from which o vic o­ries were likely o ex rica e hem. Wi h apoleo ou of he way William Pi was able o form he Seco d Coali io wi h Russia a d Aus ria. he Russia army drove he Fre ch ou of or h I aly, a d he ki g of aples effec ed a cou er­revolu io i he Sou h wi h he suppor of Hora io elso 's flee . I he au um of 1798 apoleo lef his army a d re ur ed o Paris. He over hrew he Direc­ ory a d es ablished himself as Firs Co sul. he war wi h revolu io ary Fra ce e ered i s seco d phase. A firs he Fre ch armies were welcomed as libera­ ors by bo h he middle a d lower classes of he cou ­ ries hey occupied. Prese ly he people of he co ­quered cou ries fou d ha heir i eres s were always subordi a ed o hose of Fra ce. he price of &quo ;libera­ io &quo ; was heavy axes a d he co scrip io of heir so s o fill he gaps i he ra ks of he Fre ch army. War was ecessary for he co i ued i er al s abili y of apoleo ic Fra ce, ye war could be carried o o ly by he progressive exploi a io of he &quo ;libera ed&quo ; er­ri ories. he resul was ha he very classes which had welcomed he Fre ch were gradually alie a ed. he Fre ch occupa io crea ed a burgeous a io al­ism ha ur ed agai s i s crea ors. apoleo had ma y years of vic ory before him i 1799. A shor a d brillia campaig reco quered I a­ly, a d he Seco d Coali io collapsed i he las days of 1800. I he years ha followed, wi h Bri ai alo e lef i he war a d o impor a la d opera io s, apoleo crea ed he Code apoleo a d a efficie civil service. I 1802 Bri ai had o make peace wi h apo­leo a Amie s, he rea y of Amie s was a mere ruce. I lef Fra ce i co rol of Holla d a d all he wes er ba k of he Rhi e. War broke ou agai he followi g year. Whe he war was resumed, apoleo had Spai a d Holla d as his allies, a d was maki g pla s o i vade Bri ai if he Fre ch a d Spa ish flee s could be co ce ra ed o cover he crossi g. hese pla s ever came rue, as bo h flee s were des royed i he glori­ous ba le of rafalgar. he aval ba le of rafalgar, o e of he mos cel­ebra ed aval e gageme s i Europea his ory, was fough o Oc ober 21, 1805, by a Bri ish flee a d a combi ed Fre ch a d Spa ish flee . he ba le ook place off Cape rafalgar o he sou her coas of Spai , where a Bri ish flee of 27 ships u der he comma d of Admiral elso had o figh agai s a sligh ly larger combi ed e emy flee comma ded by a Fre ch admiral.

It is only -in the last two hundred years, then, that the latitude-longitude gridwork on the earth became really accurate. Even after precise longitude determinations became pos sible, a problem remained. There is no natural reference base for longitude; nothing like the equator in the case of latitude. Different nations therefore used different systems, usually basing "zero longitude" on the meridian passing through the local capital. The use of different systems was confusing and the risk was run of rescue operations at sea being hampered, to say nothing of war maneuvers among allies being stymied. To settle matters, the important maritime nations of the world gathered in Washington, D.C. in 1884 and held the "Washington Meridian Conference." The logical de cision was reached to let the Greenwich observatory serve as base since Great Britain was at the very height of its maritime power. The meridian passing through Greenwich is, therefore, the "prime meridian" and has a longitude of 00. The degrees of longitude are then marked off to the west and east as "west longitirde" and "east longitude." The two meet again at the opposite side of the world from the prime meridian

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5. The great Britain

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89. Personnel selection and choice

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