Библиотека Рефераты Курсовые Дипломы Поиск
Библиотека Рефераты Курсовые Дипломы Поиск
сделать стартовой добавить в избранное
Кефирный гриб на сайте za4eti.ru

История История     История История

Great Britain during and after the Napoleonic wars

Ночник-проектор "Звездное небо и планеты", фиолетовый.
Оригинальный светильник - ночник - проектор. Корпус поворачивается от руки. Источник света: 1) Лампочка (от карманных фонариков) 2) Три
330 руб
Раздел: Ночники
Мыло металлическое "Ликвидатор".
Мыло для рук «Ликвидатор» уничтожает стойкие и трудно выводимые запахи за счёт особой реакции металла с вызывающими их элементами.
201 руб
Раздел: Ванная
Пакеты с замком "зиплок" (гриппер), комплект 100 штук.
Быстрозакрывающиеся пакеты с замком "зиплок" предназначены для упаковки мелких предметов, фотографий, медицинских препаратов и
160 руб
Раздел: Гермоупаковка

I roduc io he period from 1799 o 1815 is of e referred o as he “ apoleo ic Wars”. hese years a d he wo followi g decades became o e of he mos difficul episodes of he Bri ish his ory. ha was he ime whe Grea Bri ai had o figh a lo , a d had o recover from figh i g. he purpose of his survey is o give a brief descrip io of Bri ish domes ic a d foreig policy, eco omic a d social si ua io hroughou he me io ed period a d o provide esse ial i forma io abou he role ha Grea Bri ai played duri g so-called “ apoleo ic Wars”. 1. Grea Bri ai duri g he “ apoleo ic Wars” I he 1790's, he wars of he Fre ch Revolu io merged i o he apoleo ic Wars, as apoleo Bo apar e ook over he Fre ch revolu io ary gov­er me . Grea Bri ai , as he mos of he Europea a io s, was e gaged i o he se of co flic s. A firs he war did o go well for Bri ai . he Firs Coali io wi h Prussia, Aus ria, a d Rus­sia agai s he Fre ch col­lapsed i 1796, a d i 1797 Bri ai was bese by aval defea a d by aval mu i­ y. he Ba le of he ile i 1798, however, was o e of he hours of he Bri ish avy brigh es glory. apoleo Bo apar e was climbi g o power i Fra ce, by direc ­i g her successful arms agai s he world. He had bea ­e Germa y a d co quered I aly; he had hrea e ed E gla d, a d his dream was of he co ques of he Eas . Like a o her Alexa der, he hoped o subdue Asia, a d over hrow he ha ed Bri ish power by deprivi g i of I dia. Hi her o, his dreams had become ear es by he force of his marvellous ge ius, a d by he ar­dour which he brea hed i o he whole Fre ch a io . A d whe he se sail from oulo , wi h 40,000 ried a d vic orious soldiers a d a mag ifice flee , all were filled wi h vague expec a io s of almos fabulous glo­ry. He swep away he K igh s of S . Joh from heir rock of Mal a, a d sailed for Alexa dria i Egyp , i he e d of Ju e, 1798. His i e io s had o become k ow , a d he E glish Medi erra ea flee was wa chi g he course of his grea armame . Sir Hora io elso was i pur­sui , wi h he E glish vessels, a d wro e o he Firs Lord of he Admiral y: &quo ;Be hey bou d o he A ipo­des, your lordship may rely ha I will o lose a mo­me i bri gi g hem o ac io &quo ;. elso had, however, o ships e ough o be de­ ached o reco oi re, a d he ac ually overpassed he Fre ch, whom he guessed o be o he way o Egyp . He arrived a he por of Alexa dria o he 28 h of Ju e, a d saw i s blue wa ers a d fla coas lyi g s ill i heir su y orpor, as if o e emy were o he seas. He we back o Syracuse, bu could lear o more here. He ob ai ed provisio s wi h some difficul y, a d he , i grea a xie y, sailed for Greece, where a las , o he 28 h of July, he lear ha he Fre ch flee had bee see from Ca dia, s eeri g o he sou h-eas , abou four weeks si ce. I fac , i had ac ually passed by him i a hick haze, which co cealed each fee from he o her, a d had arrived a Alexa dria o he 1s of July hree days af er he had lef i . Every sail was se for he sou h, a d a four o'clock i he af er oo of he 1s of Augus a very differe sigh was see i Aboukir Bay, so soli ary a mo h ago. I was crowded wi h shippi g.

Grea cas le-like me -of-war rose wi h all heir proud calm dig i y ou of he wa er, heir dark por holes ope i g i he whi e ba ds o heir sides, a d he ricoloured flag floa i g as heir e sig . here were hir ee ships of he li e a d o e, ower­i g high above he res , wi h her hree decks, was L'Orie , of 120 gu s. he Bri ish had o ly four ee li le ships, o o e carryi g more ha 74 gu s, a d o e o ly 50. Why apoleo had kep he flee here was ever k ow . I his usual way of disavowi g wha ever ur ed ou ill, he laid he blame upo his aval officers. Bu , hough dead me could o ell ales, his papers made i plai ha he ships had remai ed i he obedie ce o comma ds, hough hey had o bee able o e er he harbour of Alexa dria. Large rewards had bee offered o a y pilo who would ake hem i , bu o e could be fou d who would ve ure o s eer i o ha por a vessel drawi g more ha we y fee of wa er. hey had, herefore, remai ed a a chor ou side, i Aboukir Bay, draw up i a curve alo g he deepes of he wa er, wi h o room o pass hem a ei her e d, so ha he comma ders repor ed ha hey could bid defia ce o a force more ha double heir umber. he Fre ch believed ha elso had o ve ured o a ack hem whe hey had passed by o e a o her a mo h before, a d whe he E glish flee was sig­ alled, hey s ill supposed ha i was oo la e i he day for a a ack o be made. elso had, however, o soo er lear ha he Fre ch were i sigh ha he sig alled from his ship, he Va guard, ha prepa­ra io s for ba le should be made, a d i he mea ime summo ed up his cap ai s o receive his orders duri g a hurried meal. He ex­plai ed ha , where here was room for a large Fre ch ship o swi g, here was room for a small E glish o e o a chor, a d, herefore, he desig ed o bri g his ships up o he ou er par of he Fre ch li e, a d s a io hem close below heir adver­saries. I he flee we , hrough he fierce s orm of sho a d shell from a Fre ch ba ery i a isla d i ad­va ce. elso 's ow ship, he Va guard, was he firs o a chor wi hi half-pis olsho of a Fre ch ship, he Spar ia e. he Va guard had six colours flyi g, i case a y should be sho away; a d such was he fire ha was direc ed o her, ha i a few mi u es every ma a he six gu s i her forepar was killed or wou ded, a d his happe ed hree imes. elso himself received a wou d i he head, which was hough a firs o be mor al, bu which proved bu sligh . He would o allow he surgeo o leave he sailors o a e d o him ill i came o his ur . Mea ime his ships were doi g heir work glori­ously. he Belleropho was, i deed, overpowered by L'Orie , 200 of her crew killed, a d all her mas s a d cables sho away, so ha she drif ed away as igh came o . Bu he Swif sure came up i her place, a d he Alexa der a d Lea der bo h poured i heir sho . he Fre ch admiral received hree wou ds, bu would o qui his pos , a d a le g h a four h sho almos cu him i wo. He desired o o be carried below, bu ha he migh die o deck. Abou i e o'clock he ship ook fire, a d blazed up wi h fearful brigh ess, ligh i g up he whole bay, a d showi g five Fre ch ships wi h heir colours hauled dow , he o her's s ill figh i g o . elso himself rose a d came o deck whe his fearful glow came shi ­i g from sea a d sky i o his cabi .

He gave orders ha he E glish boa s should immedia ely be pu off for L'Orie , o save as ma y lives as possible. he a hu deri g explosio shook dow o he very hold every ship i he harbour, a d bur i g frag­me s of L'Orie came falli g far a d wide, splashi g heavily i o he wa er, i he dead, awful s ill ess ha followed he fearful sou d. E glish boa s were plyi g busily abou , picki g up hose who had leap over­board i ime. Some were dragged i hrough he lower por holes of he E glish ships, a d abou seve y were saved al oghe her. By su rise he vic ory was comple e. ay, as el­so said, &quo ;I was o a vic ory, bu a co ques &quo ;. O ly four Fre ch ships escaped, a d apoleo a d his army were cu off from home. he des ruc io of apoleo 's flee lef his roops i a posi io from which o vic o­ries were likely o ex rica e hem. Wi h apoleo ou of he way William Pi was able o form he Seco d Coali io wi h Russia a d Aus ria. he Russia army drove he Fre ch ou of or h I aly, a d he ki g of aples effec ed a cou er­revolu io i he Sou h wi h he suppor of Hora io elso 's flee . I he au um of 1798 apoleo lef his army a d re ur ed o Paris. He over hrew he Direc­ ory a d es ablished himself as Firs Co sul. he war wi h revolu io ary Fra ce e ered i s seco d phase. A firs he Fre ch armies were welcomed as libera­ ors by bo h he middle a d lower classes of he cou ­ ries hey occupied. Prese ly he people of he co ­quered cou ries fou d ha heir i eres s were always subordi a ed o hose of Fra ce. he price of &quo ;libera­ io &quo ; was heavy axes a d he co scrip io of heir so s o fill he gaps i he ra ks of he Fre ch army. War was ecessary for he co i ued i er al s abili y of apoleo ic Fra ce, ye war could be carried o o ly by he progressive exploi a io of he &quo ;libera ed&quo ; er­ri ories. he resul was ha he very classes which had welcomed he Fre ch were gradually alie a ed. he Fre ch occupa io crea ed a burgeous a io al­ism ha ur ed agai s i s crea ors. apoleo had ma y years of vic ory before him i 1799. A shor a d brillia campaig reco quered I a­ly, a d he Seco d Coali io collapsed i he las days of 1800. I he years ha followed, wi h Bri ai alo e lef i he war a d o impor a la d opera io s, apoleo crea ed he Code apoleo a d a efficie civil service. I 1802 Bri ai had o make peace wi h apo­leo a Amie s, he rea y of Amie s was a mere ruce. I lef Fra ce i co rol of Holla d a d all he wes er ba k of he Rhi e. War broke ou agai he followi g year. Whe he war was resumed, apoleo had Spai a d Holla d as his allies, a d was maki g pla s o i vade Bri ai if he Fre ch a d Spa ish flee s could be co ce ra ed o cover he crossi g. hese pla s ever came rue, as bo h flee s were des royed i he glori­ous ba le of rafalgar. he aval ba le of rafalgar, o e of he mos cel­ebra ed aval e gageme s i Europea his ory, was fough o Oc ober 21, 1805, by a Bri ish flee a d a combi ed Fre ch a d Spa ish flee . he ba le ook place off Cape rafalgar o he sou her coas of Spai , where a Bri ish flee of 27 ships u der he comma d of Admiral elso had o figh agai s a sligh ly larger combi ed e emy flee comma ded by a Fre ch admiral.

It is only -in the last two hundred years, then, that the latitude-longitude gridwork on the earth became really accurate. Even after precise longitude determinations became pos sible, a problem remained. There is no natural reference base for longitude; nothing like the equator in the case of latitude. Different nations therefore used different systems, usually basing "zero longitude" on the meridian passing through the local capital. The use of different systems was confusing and the risk was run of rescue operations at sea being hampered, to say nothing of war maneuvers among allies being stymied. To settle matters, the important maritime nations of the world gathered in Washington, D.C. in 1884 and held the "Washington Meridian Conference." The logical de cision was reached to let the Greenwich observatory serve as base since Great Britain was at the very height of its maritime power. The meridian passing through Greenwich is, therefore, the "prime meridian" and has a longitude of 00. The degrees of longitude are then marked off to the west and east as "west longitirde" and "east longitude." The two meet again at the opposite side of the world from the prime meridian

1. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance

2. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

3. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.

4. The Economy of Great Britain

5. The great Britain

6. The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)
7. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life
The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life
8. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

9. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA

10. Climate and nature of Great Britain

11. The weather in Great Britain

12. The political system of Great Britain

13. Great Britain and Kazakhstan

14. Traditions and holidays of Great Britain

15. Great Britain: the Land of Traditions

16. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

Настольная детская игра "Хоккей" (новый сезон).
Настольный хоккей - игра для детей и взрослых, которая позволит увлекательно провести время в семье и с друзьями. Играйте в настольный
2646 руб
Раздел: Настольный футбол, хоккей
Фломастеры двухсторонние , 24 цвета.
Фломастеры изготовлены из материала, который обеспечивает прочность корпуса и препятствует испарению чернил, благодаря чему они имеют
311 руб
Раздел: 13-24 цвета
Дорожная игра "Голодные бегемотики".
Забавная игра «Голодные бегемотики» не даст соскучиться! Она рассчитана на двух человек, каждый из которых играет за голодного бегемота:
610 руб
Раздел: Игры на ловкость

17. Great Britain (Великобритания)

18. Public holydays in Great Britain

19. High education in Great Britain

20. Great Britain

21. Climate of Great Britain

22. Great Britain
Great Britain
23. History of Great Britain
History of Great Britain
24. Youth organizations in Great Britain
Youth organizations in Great Britain

25. 4 capitals of Great Britain

26. System of education of Great Britain

27. National Health Service in Great Britain

28. World War I and the Armenian Genocide

29. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

30. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)

31. Rome and the Roman Empire

32. Substance abuse: Alcohol Consumption and alcohol dependence among the youth (Социологическое исследование проблемы алкоголизма среди студентов)

Набор "Френч-пресс со стаканами".
Набор френч-пресс со стаканами Rosenberg изготовлен из высококачественной нержавеющей стали и термостойкого стекла. Удобная
585 руб
Раздел: Наборы посуды
Доска магнитно-маркерная, 60x90 см.
Доска с лакированной поверхностью позволяет размещать презентационную информацию как с помощью магнитов, так и с помощью маркеров для
1236 руб
Раздел: Доски магнитно-маркерные
Фляга металлическая "Легендарный Т-14" (300 мл).
Выбор подарка для друга, коллеги или любимого мужчины всегда загоняет Вас в угол? Не стоит отчаиваться, подарите ему стильную флягу
456 руб
Раздел: Фляжки сувенирные

33. The Irish and South America

34. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

35. The history of Old English and its development

36. The Cinema World. Moden film festivals and film industry and stars

37. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

38. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание
39. Rome and the Roman Empire
Rome and the Roman Empire
40. Символ и таинство в богословии св. Максима исповедника (symbol and mystery in st.Maximus the confessor)

41. Russia and the international economy

42. Huey Lewis and the News


44. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

45. Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present

46. The Weather and Climate Fluctuations

47. Flora and Fauna of the USA

48. Judaism and the Jewish People

Набор ручек-роллеров "Triplus", 0,4 мм, 10 цветов.
Роликовая ручка с трехгранным корпусом и колпачком. Ширина линии: 0,4 мм. Материал корпуса: пластик. Цвет колпачка соответствует цвету
764 руб
Раздел: Ручки-роллеры
Палатка игровая "Мой домик".
Палатка много места не занимает, но детям этого более чем достаточно. Они получат много удовольствия придумывая себе разные игры, ходя в
1440 руб
Раздел: Без шаров
Карандаши цветные "Artberry", 24 цвета.
Шестигранные цветные карандаши с толщиной грифеля 3 мм, толщина самого карандаша 7 мм. Увеличенное количество цветовых пигментов для еще
249 руб
Раздел: 13-24 цвета

49. Robin Hood and The Sheriff

50. Usa. Howard h. Aiken and the computer

51. Biopolitics in Russia: History and Prospects for the Future

52. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?

53. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

54. The USA: its history, geography and political system
The USA: its history, geography and political system
55. The war of the roses
The war of the roses
56. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks
A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

57. Survey of the British Geography and Life

58. The Great Gatsby

59. The Medieval Tower: A refuge and a base for royal power

60. Customs and Traditions in Britain

61. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

62. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century

63. Sport and recreation in the United States

64. Summary on the subject: Gender Issues and Hopewell Culture

Аккумулятор портативный "Брелок", черный.
Все современные смартфоны с огромными яркими экранами имеют одну общую слабость: при таком тонком и компактном размере просто не остается
385 руб
Раздел: Внешние аккумуляторы
Комплект постельного белья 1,5-спальный "Мармелад. Большие гонки", с наволочкой 50х70 см.
"Мармелад" — качественное постельное белье для девочек и мальчиков от 4 до 12 лет, которое помогает родителям создать уютную
1499 руб
Раздел: Детское, подростковое
Фляга S.Quire 0,27 л, сталь, серебристый цвет с рисунком.
S.Quire - это коллекция модных, элегантных, стильных аксессуаров для мужчин, разработанная европейскими дизайнерами и отражающая все
836 руб
Раздел: Фляжки сувенирные

65. Changes and specimens of the English language

66. The British Character and English Humour

67. The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French

68. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using

69. The National Parks of Great Britan

70. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.
The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.
71. The role played by the german and scandinavian tribes on english language
The role played by the german and scandinavian tribes on english language
72. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

73. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

74. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

75. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

76. The life and work of the self-employed socialist intellectual, Humphrey McQueen

77. The Global Money Markets and Money Management

78. Stereotypes influences on economic relations between the European Union countries and Russian Federation

79. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

80. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

Кармашек в шкафчик "Самолетики".
Ваш малыш вырос и ходит в детский сад! Его вещи будут всегда на своем месте в шкафчике в детском саду, если у него есть "Кармашек в
602 руб
Раздел: Прочие
Сумка для обуви "Бемби".
Мешок для обуви - функциональная модель с фронтальным карманом на молнии и шнурками-лямками. Пошита из водонепроницаемого износостойкого
239 руб
Раздел: Сумки для обуви
Карандаши трехгранные цветные, 24 цвета с заточкой.
Карандаши цветные, 24 цвета, трехгранный корпус с заточкой, в картонной коробке с европодвесом.
305 руб
Раздел: 13-24 цвета

81. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

82. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

83. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

84. School Reform: Pros and Cons

85. The Church of England

86. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)
87. The history of railways (История железных дорог)
88. Economic and sociological analysis of suicide
Economic and sociological analysis of suicide

89. Personnel selection and choice

90. The enviromental problems which concern the Mankind

91. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

92. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact

93. Epistemology and methodology: main trends and ends. (Эпистемология и Методология)

94. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

95. Knowledge, Innovation and Development

96. My modern image of the United States

Сменный фильтр "Барьер-4" (3 штуки).
Сменная кассета Барьер-4 «для водопроводной воды» прекрасно подходит для использования на кухне в городской квартире. Высококачественный
540 руб
Раздел: Фильтры для воды
Подушка "Бориалис", 50x70 см.
Размер: 50x70 см. Материал: полиэстер. Наполнитель: бамбуковое волокно. Цвет: салатовый.
649 руб
Раздел: Размер 50х70 см, 40х60 см
Копилка пластиковая "Головоломка-лабиринт с металлическим шариком", розовая.
Оригинальная пластиковая копилка: головоломка-лабиринт. Размеры изделия: 9x9x9 см.
343 руб
Раздел: Копилки

97. Slang, youth subcultures and rock music

98. The basical macroeconomics indicators

99. The Castles of England

Поиск Рефератов на сайте za4eti.ru Вы студент, и у Вас нет времени на выполнение письменных работ (рефератов, курсовых и дипломов)? Мы сможем Вам в этом помочь. Возможно, Вам подойдет что-то из ПЕРЕЧНЯ ПРЕДМЕТОВ И ДИСЦИПЛИН, ПО КОТОРЫМ ВЫПОЛНЯЮТСЯ РЕФЕРАТЫ, КУРСОВЫЕ И ДИПЛОМНЫЕ РАБОТЫ. 
Вы можете поискать нужную Вам работу в КОЛЛЕКЦИИ ГОТОВЫХ РЕФЕРАТОВ, КУРСОВЫХ И ДИПЛОМНЫХ РАБОТ, выполненных преподавателями московских ВУЗов за период более чем 10-летней работы. Эти работы Вы можете бесплатно СКАЧАТЬ.