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Analysis of Sufism Through Art of Sufi Poetry

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asawuf, or Sufism is he eso eric school of Islam, fou ded o he pursui of spiri ual ru h as a defi i e goal o a ai : he ru h of u ders a di g reali y as i ruly is, as k owledge. Whe Sufism speaks of u ders a di g of i sigh ha refers o he perfec self-u ders a di g ha e chai s he u ders a di g of he Divi e. Sufis believe ha i is he u ique huma righ a d privilege o be able o fi d he way owards u ders a di g a d reali y of he Divi e. he origi s of Sufism s ill are a highly deba ed opic amo gs scholars. Some accou s refer he rise of he mys ical school duri g reig of Abu Bakr a d la er, Usma , o her sources poi a he flourishi g i a si ful abu da ce of weal h Umayyads’ regime, whe Islam ceased prac ici g spiri ual, me al a d physical rigors. However, a o her versio sugges s he Prophe Muhammad o be he fou der of Sufism. he mys erious ime he spe i mou ai s co empla i g a d, perhaps, medi a i g before he e cou er wi h divi i y alo g wi h cer ai quo a io s from Hadi h, he compe dium of s ories a d sayi gs of he Prophe , permi s a legi ima e presump io ha Muhammad, a leas i direc ly correla es o he es ablishme of he eso eric school of Islam. “A hour of co empla io is be er ha a year of prayer” (Ch.7, p.92) direc ly co radic s he cus om of radi io al prayi g a mosque. Sufis cul iva e he seed of a school of spiri ual prac ice based o k owledge of he self. Avoidi g persuasive public prayers, heir ga heri gs were held i priva e. I s ead of preachi g i public, hese pious i dividuals were searches of ru h a d o rhe orical oppo e s – “ he firs s age of worship is sile ce”(Ch.7. p.89.) As he percep ive ools of ordi ary me al logic are limi ed i heir abili y o comprehe d such a grea a d all-embraci g subjec based o la guage alo e ca o ope a y door o u ders a di g such reali y. I s ead such a pa h of u ders a di g dema ds spiri ual s rivi g, he u ders a di g a d he k owledge of he hear , i i s ques o realize he exis e ce of he Divi e. Become a perso of he hear , or a leas he devo ee of o e; Or else, you will remai Like a do key s uck i he mud. (Rumi, Ch.9, p.103) Be wee God a d a huma lies o hi g, excep for ar ificial obs acles o he u ifyi g crea ed by huma i y. his veil hi ders a seeker from asce di g o he level of Reali y (Bayazid Bis ami, Ch.10, p.111 op.) If people were free from he limi a io s of he ma erial a d physical ools ha huma ki d possesses; hus, he imme se a d e er al u i y of all he Bei g, he Crea or a d His crea io s would become ra spare . Accordi g o Sufis, here is a cha ce for huma i y o asce d o such a level of u ders a di g, a pa h ha ca be raced hrough purifica io a d medi a io o he realiza io of i s achieveme . As al-Ghazzali believes, whe o e’s hear is purified, he “ligh of divi e secre s” is reflec ed i he mirror of he hear (Al-Ghazzali, Ch.9, p. 102.) Alo g wi h purifica io of he hear , o e has o remember God as he firs a d o ly priori y i life i order o u ify wi h Reali y (Sheikh Muzaffer, Ch.8, p.98 op.) Sufi compare rela io ship wi h God as be wee lovers, who live o ly by each o her a d heir love. o hi g else exis s i heir world (Jami, Ch.8

, p.99.) Sufis’ way of life does o exhibi he mos accura e i s a ce of severe asce icism a d a prac ice of physical rigors. he perfec Sufi lives i accorda ce wi h Qu’ra a d “ ever forge s God for a si gle mome .”(Abu Sa’id, Ch.1, p.40) he esse ce of he mys ic’s life correspo ds o co s a remembra ce of God. Islamic mys ics are aware of he rue value a d fu c io of every hi g i he world; hus hey acce ua e Reali y as he major co cer of a huma life. hey advoca e modera io i food a d physical comfor s as a profou d co di io o libera e hear s a d mi ds from every hi g ha is peripheral a d ra si ory, a d s ay focused o God (Al-Ghazzali, Ch.1, p.37.) he e er al pa h of Sufis comme ces wi h heir approach o daily life. Soul remai s he primary ool i search of Reali y. Body serves o ly as mea s of e suri g physical heal h, a d he care for i is provided as o a camel i a carava – wi hou adora io a d co empla io , for camel is merely a device o reach he des i a io (al-Ghazzali, Ch.2, p.47.) Sufis’ des i a io is he u i y wi h God, he ru h a d k owledge exposed whe he “veil” is eleva ed. Muslim mys ics each ha o hi g is perpe ual a d every hi g is perishable i he world (A ar, Ch.6, p.80.) Every hi g has a begi i g, a purpose a d a e d, a d af er comple i g he cycle re ur s o i s origi al pa er . “ he e d is ma uri y, a d he goal is freedom. he circle is comple e. Comple i g he circle of exis e ce is freedom” ( asaf , Ch.2, p.53.) Sufis each ha o he pa h of spiri uali y o e mus firs lear o draw he fu dame al dis i c io be wee decep io a d ru hful ess. “You may follow o e s ream. K ow ha i leads o he Ocea , bu do o mis ake he s ream for he ocea ” (Ja -Fisha , Ch.6, p.81.) I is easy o fall i o falsehood by hi ki g ha o e may appropria e he k owledge of o hers as o e’s ow . Such mere i forma io should o be mis ake for ac ual k owledge of Reali y. he percep io s of se ses ca be misleadi g a d eve more so, he judgeme s ha are derived from hem. he superficial k owledge acquired hrough huma se ses ca o develop i o a fou da io , from which huma ki d ca asce d o he level of u ders a di g he k owledge of Reali y. A Sufi avoids falli g i o falsehood by lear i g how o o mis ake imagi a io a d assump io for he ru h of reali y (Dhu-l- u , Ch.10, p.110.) Sufis, similar o Ze mas ers believe ha o hi g ex er al should be a source of dis rac io o he pa hway o Reali y. O e has o co ce ra e o his/her ow wi hi . Sufis s ro gly oppose i flue ce of a public opi io . “If someo e remarks, ‘Wha a excelle ma you are!” a d his pleases you more ha his sayi g, “Wha a bad ma you are!” k ow you are s ill a bad ma ” (Sufya al- hawri, Ch.3, p. 61.) Also, mys ics each ha people should o disguise heir deeds as ac s do e for he cause of God, whe i reali y hey are commi ed i order o ear applause, seek praise of he people, be called chari able or brave (al-Ghazzali, Ch.3, pp.62-63.) U less o e frees o eself from he lower self, o e will o arrive a he ga eway, separa i g huma i y from Ul ima e Reali y. o ame o e’s lower self e ac s avoidi g he i ferior quali ies ha ca overcome he hear a d mi d of he seeker a d hi der he perso from progressi g o he spiri ual pa h (Kasha i, Ch.4

, op p.68.) Lower self ex i guishes he ligh of divi e love i he hear of a seeker. A perso searchi g for a spiri ual pa h has o remai s able a d s ro g so o o become mo iva ed by he lower quali ies such as jealousy, greed, a d ego ism. I s ead, o e should develop “prac ice of remembra ce, aware ess, a d heedful ess”(Sheikh osu Bayrak, Ch.4, p.71.) I he mys ical radi io s of Islam, Sufism, God is imma e versus God bei g a remo e e i y i Islam i self. Accordi g o Sufis he world i self is a mirror of he divi i y. All he beau y a d perfec io of i , eve hough emporary, allows huma s o se se he impeccable sple dor of Paradise, while he hideous ess a d ugli ess of he same world co veys he gloomi ess of Hell. However, he u derlyi g message of such co cep io is ha “i is God who is real a d so forever” (Jami, Ch.5, p.74.) a ure, he ear h, which huma s behold a d feel is he subjec ive visio s of God, sugges ed o huma mi ds by he Crea or. he mos beau iful, se suous a d eloque crea io s i he world are merely pale shadows of he grea es i i s perpe ui y beau y of God (Moi uddi , Ch.5, p.78.) hroughou he world of Sufism, love is a e er al heme, which Sufis i all eras have gracefully glorified i exubera poe ry. I is love ha refi es, e ha ces, a d bri gs beau y o he world. I Sufism he reasure of love has bee like ed o fire: i bur s a d hrough such bur i g lo gi g i purifies a d i e sified. he me aphor of fire expresses he ru h of search for reali y. If fire did o bur or would i purify a d illumi a e (Sheikh Muzaffer, Ch.11, p.119.) A beau iful a d profou dly mea i gful arra ive abou Caliph Haru al-Rashid’s favori e co cubi e, who refused all he riches whe , offered by he Caliph o his mis resses o ake he mos precious amo gs he jewels he prese ed a d o walk away free. She s ayed u il i was o ly wo of hem lef i he emp y hall. All she wa ed was he Caliph himself a d o gold or gems could subs i u e her love for Haru al-Rashid. ha was wha be, he real Sufi, wa ed – o he palace, or power, or a y of he jewels a d o her gif s of he Caliph – bu he Caliph himself (Sheikh Muzaffer, Ch.11, pp.123-24.) ariqah, he word for mys ic pa h i Sufism mea s he pa h i he desser ha he Bedoui akes o ravel from oasis o oasis. o fi d he way i he rackless deser o e eed o k ow he area i ima ely. “Whoever ravels wi hou a guide eeds wo hu dred years for a wo-day jour ey” (Rumi, Ch.12, p.145.) Sufi eachers are hose who k ow he area i ima ely. hey are reliable guides o he ariqah ha crosses he deser of he Absolu e a d ake heir s ude s from oasis o oasis of g osis a d revela io wi h a as o ishi g effor less ess. “O all pa hs of spiri ual rai i g, he eacher is of ce ral impor a ce. He or she embodies he eachi g as a livi g represe a io of he radi io . He or she helps he s ude o grow beyo d he bou daries of self” (Ozelsel, Ch.12, p.128.) Worship ha is based o radi io al cus oms such as prayi g a d mea i gless imi a io s is deprived of ru h. I is he hear of he believer ha mus become ope o fai h, so ha i may see a d hear ru h u il i ca believe he reali y of he Divi e (Rumi, Ch.1

While patriotic considerations might set bounds to criticism in reference to the native chronicles, Lucilius at any rate directed very pointed shafts against "the dismal figures from the complicated expositions of Pacuvius"; and similar severe, but not unjust criticisms of Ennius, Plautus, Pacuvius - all those poets "who appeared to have a licence to talk pompously and to reason illogically" - are found in the polished author of the Rhetoric dedicated to Herennius, written at the close of this period. People shrugged their shoulders at the interpolations, with which the homely popular wit of Rome had garnished the elegant comedies of Philemon and Diphilus. Half smiling, half envious, they turned away from the inadequate attempts of a dull age, which that circle probably regarded somewhat as a mature man regards the poetical effusions of his youth; despairing of the transplantation of the marvellous tree, they allowed the higher species of art in poetry and prose substantially to fall into abeyance, and restricted themselves in these departments to an intelligent enjoyment of foreign masterpieces

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