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Искусство, Культура, Литература
Rembra d was a Du ch baroque ar is who ra ks as o e of he grea es pai ers i he his ory of Wes er ar . His full ame was Rembra d Harme szoo va Rij , a d he possessed a profou d u ders a di g of huma a ure ha was ma ched by a brillia ech ique- o o ly i pai i g bu i drawi g a d e chi g- a d his work made a e ormous impac o his co emporaries a d i flue ced he s yle of ma y la er ar is s. Perhaps o pai er has ever equaled Rembra d 's chiaroscuro effec s or his bold impas o. Life Bor i Leide o July 15, 1606, Rembra d was he so of a miller. Despi e he fac ha he came from a family of rela ively modes mea s, his pare s ook grea care wi h his educa io . Rembra d bega his s udies a he La i School, a d a he age of 14 he was e rolled a he U iversi y of Leide . he program did o i eres him, a d he soo lef o s udy ar - firs wi h a local mas er, Jacob va Swa e burch, a d he , i Ams erdam, wi h Pie er Las ma , k ow for his his orical pai i gs. Af er six mo hs, havi g mas ered every hi g he had bee augh , Rembra d re ur ed o Leide , where he was soo so highly regarded ha al hough barely 22 years old, he ook his firs pupils, amo g hem Gerri Dou. Rembra d moved o Ams erdam i 1631; his marriage i 1634 o Saskia va Uyle burgh, he cousi of a successful ar dealer, e ha ced his career, bri gi g him i co ac wi h weal hy pa ro s who eagerly commissio ed por rai s. A excep io ally fi e example from his period is he Por rai of icolaes Ru s (1631, Frick Collec io , ew York Ci y). I addi io , Rembra d 's my hological a d religious works were much i dema d, a d he pai ed umerous drama ic mas erpieces such as he Bli di g of Samso (1636, S дdelsches Ku s i s i u , Fra kfur ). Because of his re ow as a eacher, his s udio was filled wi h pupils, some of whom (such as Carel Fabri ius) were already rai ed ar is s. I he 20 h ce ury, scholars have rea ribu ed a umber of his pai i gs o his associa es; a ribu i g a d ide ifyi g Rembra d 's works is a ac ive area of ar scholarship. I co ras o his successful public career, however, Rembra d 's family life was marked by misfor u e. Be wee 1635 a d 1641 Saskia gave bir h o four childre , bu o ly he las , i us, survived; her ow dea h came i 1642. He drickje S offels, e gaged as his housekeeper abou 1649, eve ually became his commo -law wife a d was he model for ma y of his pic ures. Despi e Rembra d 's fi a cial success as a ar is , eacher, a d ar dealer, his pe cha for os e a ious livi g forced him o declare ba krup cy i 1656. A i ve ory of his collec io of ar a d a iqui ies, ake before a auc io o pay his deb s, showed he bread h of Rembra d 's i eres s: a cie sculp ure, Flemish a d I alia Re aissa ce pai i gs, Far Eas er ar , co emporary Du ch works, weapo s, a d armor. U for u a ely, he resul s of he auc io -i cludi g he sale of his house- were disappoi i g. hese problems i o way affec ed Rembra d 's work; if a y hi g, his ar is ry i creased. Some of he grea pai i gs from his period are he Jewish Bride (1632), he Sy dics of he Clo h Guild (1661, Rijksmuseum, Ams erdam), Ba hsheba (1654, Musйe du Louvre, Paris), Jacob Blessi g he So s of Joseph (1656, S aa liche Gemдldegalerie, Kassel, Germa y), a d a self-por rai (1658, Frick Collec io ).
His perso al life, however, co i ued o be marred by sorrow, for his beloved He drickje died i 1663, a d his so , i us, i 1668. Eleve mo hs la er, o Oc ober 4, 1669, Rembra d died i Ams erdam. Early Pai i g Rembra d may have crea ed more ha 600 pai i gs as well as a e ormous umber of drawi gs a d e chi gs. he s yle of his earlies pai i gs, execu ed i he 1620s, shows he i flue ce of his eacher, Pie er Las ma , i he choice of drama ic subjec s, crowded composi io al arra geme s, a d empha ic co ras s of ligh a d shadow. he oble Slav (1632, Me ropoli a Museum of Ar , ew York Ci y) shows Rembra d 's love of exo ic cos umes, a fea ure charac eris ic of ma y of his early works. A mag ifice ca vas, Por rai of a Ma a d His Wife (1633, Isabella S ewar Gard er Museum, Bos o ), shows his early por rai s yle-his preoccupa io wi h he si ers' fea ures a d wi h de ails of clo hi g a d room fur ishi gs; his careful re deri g of i eriors was o be elimi a ed i his la er works. Members of Rembra d 's family who served as his models are some imes por rayed i o her guises, as i Rembra d 's Mo her as he Prophe ess A a (1631, Rijksmuseum), or he wis ful Saskia as Flora, (1634, he Hermi age, Sai Pe ersburg). Perhaps o ar is ever pai ed as ma y self-por rai s (abou 60), or subjec ed himself o such pe e ra i g self-a alysis. o every early por rayal, however, ca be i erpre ed as objec ive represe a io , for hese pic ures freque ly served as s udies of various emo io s, la er o be i corpora ed i o his biblical a d his orical pai i gs. he self- por rai s also may have served o demo s ra e his comma d of chiaroscuro; hus, i is difficul o ell wha Rembra d looked like from such a self- por rai as he o e pai ed abou 1628 (Rijksmuseum, o loa from he Daa Ceva Collec io , E gla d), i which deep shadows cover mos of his face, barely reveali g his fea ures. O he o her ha d, i o e of hese you hful self-por rai s did he a emp o disguise his homely fea ures. Biblical subjec s accou for abou o e- hird of Rembra d 's e ire produc io . his was somewha u usual i Pro es a Holla d of he 17 h ce ury, for church pa ro age was o exis e a d religious ar was o regarded as impor a . I Rembra d 's early biblical works, drama was emphasized, i keepi g wi h baroque as e. Amo g Rembra d 's firs major public commissio s i Ams erdam was he A a omy Lesso of Dr. ulp (1632, Mauri shuis, he Hague). his work depic s he rege s of he Guild of Surgeo s ga hered for a dissec io a d lec ure. Such group por rai s were a ge re u ique o Holla d a d mea subs a ial i come for a ar is i a cou ry where ei her church or royal y ac ed as pa ro s of ar . Rembra d 's pai i g surpasses commemora ive por rai s made by o her Du ch ar is s wi h i s i eres i g pyramidal arra geme of he figures, le di g a uralism o he sce e. Middle Period Ma y of Rembra d 's pai i gs of he 1640s show he i flue ce of classicism i s yle a d spiri . A 1640 self-por rai ( a io al Gallery, Lo do ), based o works by he I alia Re aissa ce ar is s Raphael a d i ia , reflec s his assimila io of classicism bo h i formal orga iza io a d i his expressio of i er calm.
I he Por rai of he Me o i e Preacher A slo a d His Wife (1641, S aa liche Musee , Berli -Dahlem), quie er i feeli g ha his earlier work, he i erplay be wee he figures is mas erfully re dered; he preacher speaks, perhaps explai i g a biblical passage o his wife, who quie ly lis e s. A umber of Rembra d 's o her works depic dialogues a d, like his o e, represe o e specific mome . I he movi g Supper a Emmaus (1648, Musйe du Louvre), Rembra d 's use of ligh immedia ely co veys he mea i g of he sce e. His group por rai ure co i ued o develop i rich ess a d complexi y. he so-called igh Wa ch-more accura ely i led he Shoo i g Compa y of Cap ai Fra s Ba i g Cocq (1642, Rijksmuseum)-por rays he bus li g ac ivi y of a mili ary compa y, ga hered behi d i s leaders, prepari g for a parade or shoo i g co es . I depar i g from he cus omary s a ic mode of pai i g rows of figures for he corpora e por rai , Rembra d achieved a powerful drama ic effec . Despi e he popular my h ha he pai i g was rejec ed by hose who commissio ed i , a d led o a decli e i Rembra d 's repu a io a d for u e, i was ac ually well received. Ma y of Rembra d 's la dscapes i his middle period are roma ic a d based o his imagi a io ra her ha recordi g specific places. he i clusio of a cie rui s a d rolli g hills, o a par of he fla Du ch cou ryside, as i River Valley wi h Rui s (S aa liche Gemдldegalerie, Kassel), sugges s a classical i flue ce derived from I aly. La e Period Rembra d 's grea es pai i gs were crea ed duri g he las wo decades of his life. Baroque drama, ou ward sple dor, a d superficial de ails o lo ger ma ered o him. His self-por rai s, por rayals of si gle figures a d groups, a d his orical a d religious works reveal a co cer wi h mood a d wi h spiri ual quali ies. His pale e grew richly coloris ic a d his brushwork became i creasi gly bold; he buil hick impas os ha seem miraculously o floa over he ca vas. I Por rai of he Pai er i Old Age (1669?, a io al Gallery, Lo do ), Rembra d 's fea ures be ray a sligh ly sarcas ic mood. O e of his fi es si gle por rai s (1654, S ich i g Ja Six, Ams erdam) is ha of Ja Six. Six, weari g a deeply colored red, gold, a d gray cos ume, is show pu i g o a glove. he por rai is pai ed i a semiabs rac s yle ha demo s ra es Rembra d 's dari g ech ical bravura. Six's quie , medi a ive mood is expressed by he sub le play of ligh o his face. I such la e biblical works as Po iphar's Wife Accusi g Joseph (1655, S aa liche Musee , Berli -Dahlem), a d he very movi g Re ur of he Prodigal So (1669?, he Hermi age) Rembra d co ce ra ed o he i here psychological drama ra her ha o he exci eme of he arra ive as he had i works of his early period. I ge eral, af er his early period, Rembra d was o par icularly i eres ed i allegorical a d my hological subjec s. Graphic Work For Rembra d , drawi g a d e chi g were as much major vehicles of expressio as pai i g. Some 1400 drawi gs, recordi g a wide ra ge of ou ward a d i er visio s, are a ribu ed o him, works mos ly do e for heir ow sake ra her ha as prepara ory s udies for pai i gs or pri s.
Современники называли К. "русским ван-Дейком", но это название определяет характер его таланта не вполне точно. Начав свою деятельность с подражания учителям своим, Угрюмову и Левицкому, он потом взял себе за образцы Рубенса и Рембрандта и старался, в своих работах, слить воедино лучшие качества их живописи; но вскоре оставил этих мастеров и создал собственный стиль, в котором стремился возможно полно передавать природу в жизнь не только строгой правильностью рисунка и естественностью колорита, но и, главным образом, тщательностью отделки, различной, смотря по роду изображаемого вещества, - такой, чтобы совершенно скрадывалась работа кисти и получалась полная иллюзия действительности. Во многих случаях К. разрешал эту задачу превосходно; однако, не все его произведения имеют одинаковое достоинство. Особенно силен он был по части портретов, которых написано им очень много и которые, сверх других качеств, вообще отличаются замечательным сходством. Что же касается до его исторических картин, то они свидетельствуют о том, что, при всем своем мастерстве, он не обладал большим даром композиции. Кроме живописи, К. занимался рисованием на камне и издал несколько литографий
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