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Rome and the Roman Empire

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by Alexa der Moiseev05.15.98Rome he accou s of he regal period have come dow overlaid wi h such a mass of my h a d lege d ha few s a eme s ca be accep ed as fac ual; he Roma his oria s of la er imes, lacki g au he ic records, relied o fabrica io s of a pa rio ic records, relied o fabrica io s of a pa rio ic fa cy. he Lege dary Period of he ki gs(753-510 BC) Rome was said o have bee fou ded by La i colo is s from Alba Lo ga, a earby ci y i a cie La ium. he lege dary da e of he fou di g was 753 BC; i was ascribed o Romulus a d Remus, he wi so s of Rhea Silvia, a ves al virgi a d he daugh er of umi or, ki g of Alba Lo ga. La er lege d carried he a ces ry of he Roma s back o he roja s a d heir leader Ae eas, whose so Asca ius, or lulus, was he fou der a d he firs ki g of Alba Lo ga. he ales co cer i g Romulus’s rule, o ably he rape of he Sabi e wome a d he war wi h he Sabi es u der he leader i us a ius, poi o a early i fil ra io of Sabi e peoples or o a u io of La i a d Sabi e eleme s a he begi i g. he hree ribes, he Ram es, i ieus, a d Luceres, ha appear i he lege d of Romulus as he par s of he ew commo weal h sugges ha Rome arose from he amalgama io of hree s ocks, hough o be La i , Sabi e, a d E rusca . he seve ki gs of he regal period a d he da es radi io ally assig ed o heir reg s are as follows: Romulus, from 753 o 715 BC; uma Pompilius, from 715 o 676 or 672 BC, o whom was a ribu ed he i roduc io of ma y religious cus oms; ullus Hos ilius, from 673 o 641 BC, a warlike ki g, who des royed Alba Lo ga a d fough agai s he Sabi es; A cus Marcius, from 641 o 616 BC, said o have buil he por of As ia a d o have cap ured ma y La i ow s, ra sferri g heir i habi a s o Rome; Lucius arqui ius Priscus, from 616 o 578 BC, celebra ed bo h for his mili ary exploi s agai s eighbori g peoples a d for his co s ruc io of public buildi gs a Rome; Servius ullius, from 578 o 534 BC, famed for his ew co s i u io a d for he e largeme of he bou daries of he ci y; a d Lucius arqui ius Superbus, from 534 o 510 BC, he seve h a d he las ki g, whose yra ical rule was over hrow whe his so ravished Lucre ia, he wife of a ki sma . arqui ius was ba ished, a d a emp s by E rusca or La i ci ies o rei s a e him o he hro e a Rome were u availi g. Al hough he ames, da es, a d eve s of he regal period are co sidered as belo gi g o he regal of fic io a d my h ra her ha o ha of fac ual his ory, cer ai fac s seem well a es ed: he exis e ce of a early rule by ki gs; he grow h of he ci y a d i s s ruggles wi h eighbori g peoples; he co ques of Rome by E ruria a d he es ablishme of a dy as y of E rusca pri ces, symbolized by he rule of he arqui s; he over hrow of his alie co rol; a d he aboli io of he ki gship. he exis e ce of cer ai social a d poli ical co di io s may also be accep ed, such as he divisio of he begi i g i o wo orders: he pa ricia s, who alo e possessed poli ical righ s a d co s i u ed he populus, or people; a d heir depe de s, k ow as clie s or he plebs, who had origi ally o poli ical exis e ce. he rex, or ki g, chose by he Se a e(se a us), or Cou cil of Elders, from he ra ks of he pa ricia s, held office for life, called ou he populus for war, a d led he army i perso ; he was preceded by officers, k ow as lic ors, who bore he faces, he symbols of power a d pu ishme , a d was he supreme judge i all civil a d crimi al sui s.

he se a us gave i s advice o ly whe he ki g chose o co sul i , bu he elders(pa res) possessed grea moral au hori y, i asmuch as heir e ure was for life. Origi ally o ly pa ricia s could bear arms i defe se of he s a e. A some s age i he regal period a impor a mili ary reform occurred, usually desig a ed as he Servia reform of he co s i u io , because i was decided ha all proper y a d weal h, i was ascribed o Servius ullius. As he plebs could by his ime acquire proper y a d weal h, i was decided ha all proper y holders, bo h pa ricia a d plebia , mus serve i army, a d each ook a ra k i accorda ce wi h his weal h. his arra geme , al hough i i ially mili ary, paved he way for he grea poli ical s ruggle be wee he pa ricia s a d he plebs i he early ce uries of he Republic. he Republic O he over hrow of arqui i us Superbus a republic was es ablished. Co ques of I aly(510-264 BC) I place of he ki g, wo chief execu ives were chose a ually by he whole body of ci ize s. hese were k ow as prae ors, or leaders, bu la er received he i le of co suls. he par icipa io of a colleague i he exercise of supreme power a d he limi a io of he e ure o o e year preve ed he chief magis ra e from becomi g au ocra ic. he charac er of he Se a e was al ered by he e rollme of plebeia members, k ow as co screip i, a d he ce he official desig a io of he se a ors hereaf er was pa res co scrip i(co scrip fa hers). As ye , o ly pa ricia s were aligible for he magis racies, a d he disco e of he plebs led o a viole s ruggle be wee he wo orders a d he gradual removal of he social a d poli ical disabili ies u der which he plebs had labored. I 494 BC a secessio of plebia soldiers led o he i s i u io of he ribu i plebis, who were elec ed a ually as pro ec ors of he plebs; hey had he power o ve o he ac s of pa ricia magis ra es, a d hus served as he leaders of he plebs i he s ruggles wi h he pa ricia s. he appoi me of he decemvira e, a commissio of a famous code of laws. I 445 BC, u der he Ca uleia law, marriages be wee pa ricia s a d members of he plebs were declared legally valid. By he Lici ia -Sex ia laws, passed i 367 BC, i was provided ha o e of he wo co suls should he cefor h be plebeia . he o her magis racies were gradually ape ed o he plebs: i 356 BC, he dic a orship, a ex raordi ary magis racy, he i cumbe of which was appoi ed i imes of grea da ger; i 350 BC, he ce sorship; i 337 BC, he prae orship; a d i 300 BC, he po ifical a d augural colleges. A World Power(264-133 BC) I 264 BC, 11 years af er he vic ory over Pyrrhus, Rome e gaged wi h Car hage i a s ruggle for he co rol of he Medi erra ea Sea. Car hage a his ime was he foremos mari ime power i he world, ruli g as absolu ely i he ce ral a d wes er Medi erra ea as did Rome o he I alia Pe i sula. he Empire Ceasar’s assassi a io by Republica obles o March 15, 44 BC, was followed by Cicero’s a emp o res ore he old Republica co s i u io , bu Mark A o y, who had bee appoi ed co sul wi h Marcus Aemilius Lepidus a d Caesar’s gra d ephew, he you hful Oc avia , la er Rmperor Augus us, o form he seco d riumvira e.

Oc avia received he i le of Augus us i 27 BC a d bega he ew regime by a appare res ora io of he Republic, wi h himself as pri ceps, or chief ci ize . Duri g he las 80 years of he Wes er Roma Empire he provi ces, drai ed by axes levied for he suppor of he army a d he bureacracy, were visi ed by i er al war a d by barbaria i vasio s. A firs he policy of co cilia i g he i vader wi h mili ary comma ds a d admi is ra ive offices succeded. Gradually, however, he barbaria s es ublished i he eas bega o aim a co ques i he wes , a d Alaric I, ki g of he Visigo hs, firs occupied illyricum, whe ce he ravaged Greece. I 410 he cap ured a d sacked Rome, bu died soo af er. His successor, A aulf(r. 410-15), drew off he Visigo hs o Gaul, a d i 419 a succeedi g ki g, Wallia, received formal permissio from Ho orius o se le i sou hwes er Gaul, where a oulouse he fou ded he Visigo hic dy as y. he las Wes er Roma emperor, Romulus Augus ulus, was over hrow by he merce ary Herulia leader Odoacer(c.435-93),who was proclaimed ki g of I aly by his roops. he his ory of Rome would subseque ly merge wi h ha of he papacy, he Holy Roma Empire, he Papal S a es, a d I aly. For he his ory of he Eas er Empire from he ime of heodosius he Grea .

DIESNER Die Vdlkerwauderung, Leipzig, 1976, Gutersloh, 1980 (translated as The Great Migration: The Movement of Peoples across Europe AD 300-700, Orbis, London, 1982). S. DILL Roman Society in the Last Century of the Western Empire, 1898; Meridian, 1958. E. R. DODDS Pagan and Christian in an Age of Anxiety, Cambridge University Press, 1965. G. DOWNEY The Late Roman Empire, Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1969. F. H. DUDDEN Life and Times of St Ambrose, 1935. V. DURUY Histoire des Remains depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu'a la wort de Constantin, Paris, 1879-85. F. DVORNIK Byzance et la primaute romaine, Corf, Paris, 1964 (translated as Byzantium and the Roman Primacy, Fordham University Press, 1966). D. EARL The Moral and Political Tradition of Rome, Thames and Hudson, 1967. W. ENSSLIN Die Religionspolitik des Kaisers Theodosius des Grosses, Munich, 1953. A. FERRILL The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation, Thames and Hudson, 1983, 1988. S. FISCHER-FABIAN Die Ersten Deutschen, Knaur Nachfolger, Munich and Zurich, 1975. E

1. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

2. Russia and the international economy

3. Huey Lewis and the News

4. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

5. Robin Hood and the Butcher

6. Judaism and the Jewish People
Judaism and the Jewish People
7. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR
The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR
8. Ireland and the Continent
Ireland and the Continent

9. Law Enforcement and the Youthful Offender

10. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

11. Holidays in Russia, Britain and the USA

12. The Sound and the Fury

13. World War I and the Armenian Genocide

14. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using

15. The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"

16. Ghandi and the myth of non-violent action

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18. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

19. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)

20. The Irish and Australia

21. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

22. The history of Old English and its development
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23. Entertainment outside the home: Pubs and clubs Leisure and sports
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24. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
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25. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

26. Символ и таинство в богословии св. Максима исповедника (symbol and mystery in st.Maximus the confessor)

27. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA

28. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

29. Sports in Great Britain, the USA and Russia

30. Flora and Fauna of the USA

31. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?

32. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

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33. Survey of the British Geography and Life

34. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

35. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

36. Sport and recreation in the United States

37. Summary on the subject: Gender Issues and Hopewell Culture

38. Changes and specimens of the English language
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39. Global and worldly Englishes Discommunities and subcultural empires
40. The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages
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41. The history of Germany and tourism

42. The origin and history of the English language

43. The political thinking of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau decisively shaped the western intellectual tradition

44. The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic "Towns and places"

45. The Architecture of Ancient Rome

46. The creation and activities of local organizations of the Bund Belarus

47. The Global Money Markets and Money Management

48. Stereotypes influences on economic relations between the European Union countries and Russian Federation

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Раздел: Сетки противомоскитные

49. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

50. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

51. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

52. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

53. Countries and cities

54. Россия и независимые государства (перевод из "Economic and Post-Soviet Economic Structure and Performance")
55. Two approches to the scientific management
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56. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

57. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

58. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

59. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

60. История развития компьютеров (Silicon Valley, its history & the best companies)

61. Radio And TV In My Life

62. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

63. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact

64. Epistemology and methodology: main trends and ends. (Эпистемология и Методология)

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66. Knowledge, Innovation and Development

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69. The basical macroeconomics indicators

70. The Castles of England
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71. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society
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72. The great Britain
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73. The Khabarovsk territory

74. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)

75. The role of art in our life

76. The Tower of London

77. Three Waves of Alvin Toffler. The Basic Points

78. Список мирового наследия (The World Heritage List, на английском языке)

79. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

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81. The Economy of Great Britain

82. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

83. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

84. Lexicology. Different dialects and accents of English

85. The New-York City, Places of interest

86. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries
Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries
87. Zusammenspiel der Realiatete als eines der Hauptprinzipien des Sujetaufbaus im Roman "Stiller" von Max Frisch
88. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

89. Urbanization and Urban Issues

90. The Tower of London

91. The diabetic diet

92. The Hero of Our Time

93. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

94. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

95. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

96. Modern talking and C.C.Catch

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97. Poland and Hungary are in Transition

98. Корпоративный имидж (Advertising and public relations)

99. Ways of exploring the world

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