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Mark Twain

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Mark wai (1835-1910) Pseudo ym of Samual la ghor Cleme s Early life Susy, Mark wai s daugh er bega he biography of her fa her whe she was four ee years old. She begi s i his way: We are a very happy family. We co sis s of papa, Mama, Jea , Clara a d me I s a Papa I am wrih i g abou . Papa has beau iful gray hair, o a y oo hick or a y oo lo g, bu jus righ , ki d blue eyes a d a small mous ache. I shor he is a ex raordi ary fi e-looki g ma . He is a very fu y o e. He does ell perfec ly deligh ful s ories. Clara a d I used o si o each arm of his chair a d lis e while he old us s ories. A d ha , i 1885, was he family of Mark wai , whose real ame was Samual la ghor Cleme s. Sam was bor i a very small ow called Florida i Missouri. he village co ai ed a hu dred people a d Sam i creased he popula io by 1 per ce . Mos of he houses were of logs. Beyo d a d beyo d, shi i g i he su , he Mississippi roled o he dis a sea. he beside his river, Samual Cleme s grew i o his boyhood. He saw egrous chai ed like a imals for ra spor a io o richer slave marke s o he Sou h. Sams fa her ow ed slaves. For a girl of fif ee he paid welwe dollars; for a woma of we y-five he paid we y-five dollars; for a s ro g egro woma of for y he paid for y dollars. All he egroes of his ow age were good frie ds of Sam. he you g boy has always remember hese sad hi gs. Be er hi gs he remembered also. He remembered below he village woods a heave ly place where he played wi h he boys. Whe he was four Sams familly moved o Ha ibal. heir i 1849 his fa her died. Before he fu eral Sam promised o his mo her o be a be er boy, o go o work, a d care for her. His firs job Sam soo had o live school a d ake a par ime job as delivery a d erra d boy for Ha ibals ewspaper; servi g a imes as grocers clerk, blacksmi hs helper a d booksellers assis a . Always hu gry, poor Sam filched o io s a d po a oes from he cellar, cooki g hem over he pri i g-office s ove. Sam decided he had had e ough of such a u happy life a d we o work, as a skilled pri er of fif ee , for his bro her Orio who ma aged a ewspaper i Ha ibal. Here Sam bega his career wri i g humorous sce ches, published i a comic weekly. O e igh Sam was readi g he diary of a Amazo explorer. He read abou pai ed I dia s sho i g heir poiso ed arrows a igers, of coloured parro s a d agile mo keys da ci g i he high rees. Sam was e cha ed. He made up his mi d o go o he head-wa ers of he Amazo a d collec coco from coco bushes a d make a for u e. Here is wha Sam lear ed abou he coco leaves: he leaf of his pla is o he I dia of Peru wha obacco is o our labori g classes is o he Sou h. From he igh o he Amazo fever bur i Sam. Bu poor Sam was pe iless O e wi er day Sam was walki g dow he s ree . A s ro g wi d was blowi g. Sudde ly a small paper whirli g o he paveme caugh his eye. He picked i up. I was a fif y dollar ba c o e! Wha a wo derful piece of luck, he hogh . Sam gave a adver isme abou his fi d a d wai ed. As obody was looki g for i , he boy lef af er some days for Amazo , wi h fif y dollars i his pocke .

He bough a icke o ew Orlea s. he s reamer Paul Jo es ook him o he cou ry of coco leaves. A ew Orlea s Sam asked abou ships leavi g o Para, he mou h of he Amazo , o ly o lear ha o ships was expec ed o sail for ha par . He had bu e dollars lef . he dream of macki g s for u e was over! Pilo o Mississippi O e of he pilo of he Paul Jo es made a pilo ou of Sam. I was i April 1857 ha he s ar ed his four years of life o he Mississippi his pilo days. For seve mo h Sam rai ed a cub pilo . he rai i g we o a d o . All sig s of he sky were very impor a o him; a igh a d i fog ew da gers came: cool bargers, floa i g logs. Pilo i g o he Mississippi River was o work o me, i was play deligh ful play, adve ures play a d I loved i . Sam lis e ed o he Mississippi leadma s call: M-a-r-k hree! M-a-r-k wai ! O he we y- hird bir hday he go a pilo s lice se, a d ook he ame of Mark wai . Sam was happy, a d life was beau iful. He played he pia o, sa g so gs of he river; he was gay a d everybody liked him. I was as pilo ha Mark wai lear ed o k ow huma a ure of he world rou d him. Whe i 1861 he ivil War broke ou s eamboa i g ceased a d Mark wai was lef wi hou work. Wri er agai So he we back a his old rade as a wri er for ewspaper, wri i g a humoris sce ches. ow he was i evada wi h his bro her Orio who was he ew secre ary of evada erri ory. Sam, as eager as a y for a fas for u e decided o go o he ewly discovered Esmeralda mi es o fi d his ow mi e. He had expec ed o see silver lyi g loose upo he grou d. he dissapoi ed was bi er. Weeks of wi er we by, a d Sams provisio s were go e. Sam was we y-six. A year of looki g for silver had brough him o for u e he fou d o e. He lived like we y housa d o her me . He observed hem a d wro e abou hem. I 1863 Sam i vi ed o Virgi ia Ci y o work as a repor er o he erri orial E erprise, a daily paper. A he ime whe Sam arrived i Virgi ia Ci y, here was o ow like i i America. I was fa as ically rich. Mo ey bur i every pocke . Mos of he people i he ow were mi ers. Every ma carried a gu or a revolver. here were of e s ree figh s. Sam, wi h mi ers beard, u cu hair, a blue woole shir o a d a revolver a his bel which he could ma age, lear ed his ew job. He had o fill wo collum s a day wi h local ews. He wro e abou he big mi es, abou he desperados figh i g amo g hemselves, abou murders which were commi ed a all hours of he day a d igh . Some of he desperadors were arres ed, bu ever pu ished. hey had a law of heir ow . Sams ews became very popular. O e day he edi or-i -chief of he E erprise we for a weeks holiday a d Sam had o ake his place. He had o i e io of provoki g he ow er of a rival paper bu as dueli g became very fashio able i he erri ory of evada he edi or, Mr. Laird , ook adva age of he oppo u i y a i sis ed o a duel. Sam was k ow as a hopeless aho . A four oclock i he mor i g of he appoi ed dueli g day, S eve, Sams frie d, ook him a mile from ow a d augh him o fire a revolver. ake all he risk ge i g murder bu do ru a y risk of murderi g him. Aim a his legs. Aim below he k ee; kripple him, bu leave he res of him o his mo her.

Poor Sam was shoo i g a a bar door bu he could hi i . ow jus a his mome a li le bird, o bigger ha a sparrow, flew alo g abou hir y yards away. S eve whipped ou his revolver a de sho i s head off. hey ra dow o pick up he bird a d jus he , Mr. Laird a d his seco d came a d saw he bird wi h i s head sho off. Laird los colour, a d asked abou who had do e i . S eve spoke up, a d said qui calmly ha Cleme s did i . So Laird a d his seco d said good mor i g a d we home. Laird se a o e deckl i g o figh a duel wi h Sam. ha ks o he lii le bird Sam;s life was saved. he rambler Sam was we y- i e, a d had ear ed his ow livi g si ce he was welve. He had bee a pri er, a pilo , a mi er, a d a ewspaper ma . A jus his ime, he Pacific S eamboa Compa y bega a regular passe ger service be wee su Fra cisco a d Ho olulu. Sam ook he rip, payi g for i wi h le ers as a special correspo de of he Sacrame o U io . ow he would ravel arrou d he world, a d he would wri e of he places he saw a d he people he mee . He rode horseback wo hu dred miles over he isla d of Hawaii, hrough he coffee, sugar a d ora ge regio of Ko a. Sam had fou d he work which sui ed him bes : he could ramble as much as he liked, a d wri e fu y le ers o ma y ewspapers o make he readers laugh ill heir sides ached. Dear, dear livy he La gdo s had bee a happy family u il he day of he accide . Livy, heir daugh er, fell o he ice a d a par ial paralysis followed. For wo years af er he accide , Livy lay i her bed. She was u able eve o si up. he came a ew, famous doc or a d said o Livy, ow we will si up my child. he he added ake a s ep. ake jus a s ep. Livy s ood o her fee , wi h doc ors help. I was like a dream for he poor girl! A d from his day o Livys heal h was s eadily improwi g. Livys bro her, Carsley La gdo , had go e off o a sea voyage. O e of his compa io s was he well-k ow ewspaper correspo de who called himself Mark wai , he au hor of ma y sce ches ha were maki g him famous. he La gdo s were spe di g he Cris mas holiday i 1867 i ew York Ci y. wai was a o his way o his firs mee i g wi h Livy. ow Livy was we y- wo. She was a small delica e girl wi h serious dark eyes a d black hair. She was lovely. Sam was i roduced o he mo her a d he fa her a d o he swee a d imid a d lovely girl. He was head over heels i love wi h Livy. Af er he firs visi he go a s a di g i vi a io o he La gdo s home i Elmira. Duri g he igh s he was wri i g a d soo as he was free, immedie ly he ra o he La gdo s Livy a d Sam were married o he 2 d of February, 1870. he ex day hey we o Buffalo where Sam bough a share i ewspaper. Jervis La gdo had bough a d fur ished a ew a d beau iful house for he you g couple i a fashio able s ree i Buffalo. he rambler fi ally had o se le-dow . Sam worked a lo , edi i g Buffalo Express, wri i g for he ew York magazi es, a d collec i g ma erial fo a ew book Roughi g I he s ory of his evada mi i g a d ewspaper days. I was published whe he was hi y-six. I was a grea success. Happy years he we y years be wee 1875 a d 1894 were he happies a d he weal hies for Samuel Cleme s.

, . . . : 1872 , 1874 ( ). . . , . . . . .: Writings, v. 1-25, N. Y.L., 1907-18; Writings, v. 137, N. Y., 1922-25; Letters, ed. by A. B. Paine, v. 12, N. Y. L., 1917; Mark Twain's autobiography, v. 12, N. Y. L., 1924; Mark Twain's notebook, N. Y. L., 1935; . . . . [. . . ], . 112, ., 195961. .: ., , ., 1958; ., , [., 1963]; ., - , ., 1961; De Voto . A., Mark Twain's America and Mark Twain at work, Boston, 1967; Geismar ., Mark Twain. An American prophet, Boston, 1970; Mark Twain: The critical heritage, L., 1971; .,

1. Mark Twain

2. (Mark Knopfler)


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