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Законодательство и право История отечественного государства и права
Who became kamikazee
By Kirill Bula ov course: Cul ural Diversi i he Moder World i s ruc or: Leigh Rich WHO BECAME KAMIKAZE PILO S, A D HOW DID HEY FEEL OWARDS HEIR SUICIDE MISSIO ? Abs rac his ex e ded essay is abou he Kamikaze pilo s who made suicide a acks from he air duri g he Pacific War. his paper aims o fi d who he pilo s really were a d how hey fel abou heir suicide missio . he hypo hesis for he research was ha a y pilo could become a Kamikaze pilo , a d ha he pilo s probably fel scared, ye ook he respo sibili y o carry ou heir missio . Mos of he i ves iga io s were made hrough primary sources. Si ce he Kamikaze a acks were made from bases i Kyushu, here are several museums here where i forma io may be fou d. here, he ac ual le ers a d diaries ha he pilo s had lef behi d are displayed. Also, fif ee i erviews wi h survivors of he a acks, rela ives a d o her people rela ed o he a acks were made. Si ce he Kamikaze a acks were made o ly fif y years ago, a grea qua i y of docume s was available. he ime period i co cer is from early 1944 o 1945, a d he opic bei g he Kamikaze pilo s, a d he regio of research was wi hi Japa , mai ly Kyushu. he co clusio of his ex e ded essay was ha he pilo s were ordi ary, average you g me of he ime who volu eered, a d ha mos fel ha heir dyi g i such a missio would improve he war si ua io for he Japa ese. However, exac ly how he pilo s fel could o be fully u ders ood by a s ude researchi g he opic fif y years af er he ac ual a ack. I blossom oday, he sca ered: Life is so like a delica e flower. How ca o e expec he fragra ce o las for ever? --Admiral O ishi akijiro I roduc io Duri g World War II i he Pacific, here were pilo s of he Japa ese Imperial Army a d avy who made suicide a acks, drivi g heir pla es o delibera ely crash i o carriers a d ba le- ships of he Allied forces. hese were he pilo s k ow as he Kamikaze pilo s. his essay focuses o how hey fel abou heir suicide missio . Because righ -wi g orga iza io s have used he Kamikaze pilo s as a symbol of a mili aris ic a d ex remely a io alis ic Japa , he curre Japa ese respo d o he issue wi h ig ora ce a d false s ereo ypes a d wi h ge erally ega ive a d u sympa he ic remarks. he aim of his essay is o reveal he of e u k ow ru h co cer i g he pilo s, a d above all o give a clearer image as o who he pilo s really were. he hypo hesis behi d he ques io , "Who were he Kamikaze pilo s a d how did hey feel owards heir suicide missio ?" is ha a y pilo devo ed o he cou ry, who volu eered a d was chose fel scared, ye ook he respo sibili y o carry ou his missio . Par O e he dea h of Emperor aisho may be he poi whe Japa had s ar ed o become he fascis s a e ha i was duri g he Pacific War. Al hough he mili ary had bee ac ive ever si ce he Jiji period (1867-1912) i wars such as he Si o- Japa ese War (1894-1895), a d he Russo-Japa ese War (1904-1905), i became ex remely ac ive whe Crow Pri ce Hirohi o became Emperor Showa. Coup d'e a s became freque , a d several poli ical figures were assassi a ed. By Emperor Showa's reig , he mili ary had he real au hori y. Accordi g o hose who have lived hrough he early Showa period (1926- 1945), he prese ce of Emperor Showa was like ha of a god a d he was more of a religious figure ha a poli ical o e.
I ma y of he haiku ha he Kamikaze pilo s wro e, he Emperor is me io ed i he firs li e. Sys ema ic a d orga ized educa io made such efficie "brai washi g" possible. I public schools, s ude s were augh o die for he emperor. By la e 1944, a sloga of Jusshi Reisho mea i g "Sacrifice life," was augh . Mos of he pilo s who volu eered for he suicide a acks were hose who were bor la e i he aisho period (1912-1926) or i he firs wo or hree years of Showa. herefore, hey had go e hrough he brai washi g educa io , a d were produc s of he mili aris ic Japa . Ce sorship brough res ric io s o he Japa ese people. he le ers, diaries, a d pho ographs of i dividual soldiers were all ce sored. o hi g reveali g where hey were, or wha hey were doi g co cer i g he mili ary, could be commu ica ed. Major res ric io s were placed o he press, radio a d o her media. he public was o o be i formed of defea s or damage o he Japa ese side. O ly vic ories a d damage imposed o he Allies were o be a ou ced. A o her fac or ha crea ed he ex reme a mosphere i Japa were he "Ke pei ai," a par of he Imperial Army which checked o he civilia s o see if hey were sayi g or doi g a y hi g agai s he Emperor or he mili ary. Si ce he ime of feudalism, especially duri g he okugawa period, a warrior mus follow he Bushido. his Code, a d a cul ure which viewed suicide a d he dea h of you g people as beau iful were fac ors co ribu i g o he mass suicides. Par wo Al hough i was o ly from 1944 ha he Ge eral S aff had co sidered mou i g orga ized suicide a acks, "suicide a acks" had bee made si ce he Japa ese a ack o Pearl Harbor. wo ypes of suicide a acks had bee made. he firs was a orga ized a ack which would, i 90% of he cases, resul i he dea h of he soldiers. However, if he pla had worked o he ba lefield as i did i heory, here was some possibili y ha he soldiers would survive. he o her ype of suicide a ack ha had bee made was comple ely volu ary, a d he resul of a sudde decisio . his was usually do e by aircraf . he pilo s, fi di g o efficie way o figh he America aircraf , delibera ely crashed i o hem, a d caused a explosio , des royi g he America aircraf as well as killi g hemselves. Because hese volu ary suicide a acks had show ha he you g pilo s had he spiri of dyi g ra her ha bei g defea ed, by February, 1944, he s aff officers had s ar ed o believe ha al hough hey were way below he America s i he umber of aircraf , ba leships, skillful pilo s a d soldiers, a d i he amou of a ural resources (oil, for example), hey were above he America s i he umber of you g me who would figh o he dea h ra her ha be defea ed. By orga izi g he " okko ai," hey hough i would also a ack he America s psychologically, a d make hem lose heir will o co i ue he war. he perso who sugges ed he Kamikaze a ack a firs is u k ow , bu i is of e hough o be Admiral akijiro O ishi. However, O ishi was i he posi io o comma d he firs Shi pu okube su Kogeki ai ra her ha sugges i . I Oc ober, 1944, he pla s for he orga ized suicide a acks became reali y. Havi g received permissio from he Mi is er of he avy, Admiral O ishi e ered Clark Air Base prepared o comma d he firs orga ized suicide a acks.
O ishi had o hough he orga ized suicide a acks o be a efficie ac ic, bu ha hey would be a powerful ba le ac ic, a d he believed ha i would be he bes a d mos beau iful place for he pilo s o die. O ishi o ce said, "if hey ( he you g pilo s) are o la d, hey would be bombed dow , a d if hey are i he air, hey would be sho dow . ha 's sad. oo sad. o le he you g me die beau ifully, ha 's wha okko is. o give beau iful dea h, ha 's called sympa hy." his s a eme makes se se, co sideri g he rela ive skills of he pilo s of he ime. By 1944, air raids were made all over Japa , especially i he ci ies. Mos of he bes pilo s of he avy a d he Army had bee los i previous ba les. rai i g ime was grea ly reduced o he mi imum, or eve less ha was ecessary i order o rai a pilo . By he ime he orga ized suicide a acks had s ar ed, he pilo s o ly had he abili y o fly, o o figh . Al hough wha happe s o he pilo himself i doi g he suicide a ack is by o mea s a ywhere ear beau y, o die i such a way, for he Emperor, a d for he cou ry, was (a he ime), ho orable. O e hi g ha was decided upo by he Ge eral S aff was ha he Kamikaze a acks were o be made o ly if i was i he will of he pilo himself. I was oo much of a ask o be "comma ded." he firs orga ized suicide a ack was made o Oc ober 21, 1944 by a squadro called he Shi pu okube su Kogeki ai. okube su Kogeki ai was he ame ge erally used i he Japa ese Imperial avy a d Army. he public had k ow hem as he okko ai, he abbrevia ed form. okko ai referred o all he orga ized suicide a acks. Shi pu is wha is be er k ow as Kamikaze. he cap ai of he firs a ack was o be Cap ai Yukio Seki. How was Cap ai Seki alked i o such a ask? Accordi g o he subcomma der of he Firs Air Flee , amai, who brough he issue up o Cap ai Seki, he Cap ai had i a shor ime replied "I u ders a d. Please le me do i ." Accordi g o a o her source, he reply ha Cap ai Seki gave was, "Please le me hi k abou i o e igh . I will accep he offer omorrow mor i g." he docume which seems o have he mos credibili y is he book, he Divi e Wi d by Cap ai Rikihei I oguchi a d Comma der adashi akajima. Accordi g o his accou a gradua e of he aval Academy, aoshi Ka o, was origi ally omi a ed as he leader of his missio . However, he was away from Mabalaca o a missio o mai la d Japa . herefore, o ake Ka o's place Cap ai Seki was chose , a d was called o Comma der amai's room a mid igh . Af er heari g of he missio , i appears, Seki remai ed sile for a while, he replied, "You mus le me do i ." he reaso his is he mos credible docume is because i had bee wri e by Cap ai Rikihei I oguchi, who was ac ually here wi h amai a d Seki, a d amed he firs u i , Shi pu. I is doub ful ha here was a flaw i his memory si ce he book was published i 1959, o ly 14 years af er he war. I a y case, Cap ai Seki agreed o lead he firs Kamikaze a ack, a d, o Oc ober 25, 1944 duri g he ba le off Samos, made o e of he firs a acks, o he America aircraf carrier Sai Lo. we y-six figh er pla es were prepared, of which half were o escor a d he o her half o make he suicide missio . ha half was divided i o he Shikishima, Yama o, Asahi a d Yamazakura.
This day would be her last day in Birchwood Elementary. Only a few hours passed before Cathy and I again were called, this time by the nurse who became agitated when Cathy truthfully answered her question, "Didn't you take her to the doctor?" Cathy said. "No. but we will." Later that evening, Cathy, Kelly and I would make the last of our emergency drives to seek medical help for Kelly. At Anchorage's Humana Hospital, Cathy and I met with the young, very bright and beautiful physician, Dr. Lorrie Shepherd, who seemed perplexed and, perhaps, frightened as to Kelly's unexplainable deteriorating condition. I requested a private meeting and she complied. After about thirty minutes of my explaining what Cathy and Kelly had been rescued from, I defined mind control for her. Learning this, Dr. Shepherd then consulted with a local female psychiatrist, Dr. Pat Patrick to evaluate Kelly, The evaluation was completed and Dr. Patrick invited Cathy, and eventually me, to her office for a consultation. This was to be Kelly's first official evaluation that indicated she suffered from Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), a serious psychological disorder resulting from severe and repeated trauma. I then asked Dr
1. Guess WHO
2. Збигнев Бжезинский: who is who?