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Cultural Values

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330 руб
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«Urals S a e ech ical U iversi y - UPI» Foreig la guage depar me hesis «Cul ural Values» S ude : Zai seva S.V. Group: PП-4 Supervisor: Hramushi a Zh.A.Eka eri burg 2004 able of co e s: Summary3 Key words4 I roduc io 5 Defi i io s: beliefs, values7 he value / belief puzzle8 Co ras ive orie a io s12 Japa ese i erperso al orms15 Japa ese a d America pa er s of social behavior22 he a io al s a us image25 A Cul ural model of i erac io 27 Seve s a eme s abou America s31 Fac ors i flue ci g values40 I ercul ural commu ica io : a guide o me of ac io 40 Cuisi e, e ique e a d cul ural values52 Pa er s of speech55 Co ras Russia ’s s ereo ypes58 i e s a eme s abou Russia s58 Middle Eas er i erview respo ses61 America ’s view of Russia . Russia ’s view of America 65 America i erview respo ses65 Russia i erview respo ses75 Co clusio 79 Li era ure80 Appe dix SUMMARY A diploma work co ai s 80 pages, 2 ables, 1 figure, 4 books are a source of i . Key words: cross-cul ural commu ica io , values, beliefs, clus ers, s ereo ypes. I de ail i is said abou co cep &quo ;values&quo ;, fac ors i flue ci g values, he mea i g of values i i ercul ural commu ica io a d u ders a di g be wee differe a io s. I brief i is me io ed differe ces be wee beliefs, values. he ac uali y a d ovel y of a heme co sis i he followi g poi s. Problems of he i ercul ural commu ica io s a d cul ural values are &quo ;you g&quo ;. Scie is s s ar ed o co sider hem ra her rece ly. I Russia researches have begu o ly i he 80 h years. I such a way, here is o e ough li era ure a d ma erials o he give ques io s. herefore a y ew works a d researches make he sig ifica co ribu io o s udyi g hese problems. So i my work I ried: o research he i flue ce of cul ural values o a i ude o e cou ry o a o her; o explore a d o compare Japa ese a d America pa er s of social behavior; o u ders a d he fac ors i flue ci g values; o discover s ereo ypes be wee differe cou ries. I co clusio i is o ed ha excelle k owledge of la guage is o ly half-affair for successful coopera io wi h o her cou ry. Also i is ecessary o k ow fea ures of people of o her cou ry i ego ia i g or heir a i ude o busi ess. Also i is ecessary o ake i o accou fea ures of dialogue, e ique e, rela io s wi h grow -ups a d ma y o her hi gs. KEY WORDS Cross-cul ural commu ica io is he i forma io excha ge be wee o e perso a d a y o her source ra smi i g a message displayi g proper ies of a cul ure differe o he o e of he receiver’s cul ure. he source of such a message ca be ei her a perso , i a i erperso al commu ica io process, or a y form of mass media or o her form of media. Values. A value is some hi g ha is impor a o people — like ho es y, harmo y, respec for elders, or hi ki g of your family firs . hey are represe s wha is expec ed or hoped for, required or forbidde . I is o a repor of ac ual co duc bu is he i duc ively based logically ordered se of cri eria of evalua io s by which co duc is judged a d sa c io s applied. Beliefs are ge erally ake o mea a me al accep a ce or co vic io i he ru h or ac uali y of some hi g.

A belief li ks a objec or eve a d he charac eris ics ha dis i guish i from o hers. he degree o which we believe ha a eve or objec possesses cer ai charac eris ics reflec s he level of our subjec ive probabili y (belief) a d, co seque ly, he dep h or i e si y of our belief. he more cer ai we are i a belief, he grea er is he i e si y of ha belief. Clus ers are groups of i er-rela ed i dus ries ha drive weal h crea io i a regio a d provides a richer more mea i gful represe a io of local i dus ry drivers a d regio al dy amics re ds ha radi io al me hods a d represe s he e ire value chai of a broadly defi ed i dus ry from suppliers o e d produc s, i cludi g suppor i g services a d specialized i fras ruc ure. S ereo ype is a fixed se of ideas abou wha a par icular ype of perso or hi g is like, which is (wro gly) believed o be rue i all cases. I RODUC IO he subjec of my diploma work is cul ural values. Our percep io of foreig cul ures is usually based o o heir complex reali y, bu o he simplified image hey projec . he clearer a d more sharply defi ed ha image is, he more co vi ced we will be ha we are i ima ely acquai ed wi h i : i is a mere ou ward co firma io of k owledge we already possess. All cul ures have bee desig ed o mee u iversal huma eeds: for shel er - for love — for frie dship. While hey have commo al ies, hey have grea varie y oo! Values - u iversal fea ure of cul ure, how hey migh vary wi hi a d be wee cul ures. O e u iversal fea ure of cul ure is values. A value is some hi g ha is impor a o people — like ho es y, harmo y, respec for elders, or hi ki g of your family firs . We ca ' see values direc ly, bu we ca see hem reflec ed i people's ordi ary, day o day behavior. Wha we value shapes wha we do. If respec for elders is impor a o me, I migh lis e very pa ie ly o gra dmo her's s ories a d o argue wi h her. I fac , I migh ur o her for valuable a d wise advice. If I value ho es y, I will hope ha my frie ds will ell me he ru h a d o wha hey hi k I wa o hear. If harmo y is more impor a o me, I prefer o say hi gs ha make people happy, eve if hose hi gs are o exac ly rue. I he course of huma i erac io , evalua io s are assig ed o give ypes of behavior, a i udes, a d ki ds of social co ac . ake oge her hey form he belief a d value sys em, he cul ural premises a d assump io s, a d he fou da io for law, order, a d he world view of give cul ural groups. hese sys ems embrace a umber of assump io s abou how he world is pu oge her. Some values a d orms, differe ia e be wee good a d evil, righ a d wro g. Some of hese assump io s are made explici i he beliefs a d my hs of he people. Beliefs, value sys ems, a d world view of e combi e wi h o her fea ures of social a d cul ural orga iza io o provide shared cul ural symbols. he ac uali y a d ovel y of a heme co sis i he followi g poi s. Problems of he i ercul ural commu ica io s a d cul ural values are &quo ;you g&quo ;. Scie is s s ar ed o co sider hem ra her rece ly. I Russia researches have begu o ly i he 80 h years. I such a way, here is o e ough li era ure a d ma erials o he give ques io s.

herefore a y ew works a d researches make he sig ifica co ribu io o s udyi g hese problems. Objec s of research i my diploma work are behavioral samples a d cul ural clus ers. 1. DEFI I IO S: BELIEFS, VALUES I is useful a his ju c ure o make some dis i c io s be wee beliefs a d values. BELIEFS Beliefs are ge erally ake o mea a me al accep a ce or co vic io i he ru h or ac uali y of some hi g. A belief li ks a objec or eve a d he charac eris ics ha dis i guish i from o hers. he degree o which we believe ha a eve or objec possesses cer ai charac eris ics reflec s he level of our subjec ive probabili y (belief) a d, co seque ly, he dep h or i e si y of our belief. he more cer ai we are i a belief, he grea er is he i e si y of ha belief. his is well a es ed o i he power of religious beliefs. here are hree ypes of beliefs, all of which are of co cer o us. hey are experie ial, i forma io al, a d i fere ial. Experie ial beliefs come from direc perso al experie ce, of course; hey are i egra ed a he i raperso al level. he seco d ype i volves i forma io . his is ra sferred o he i erperso al level a d shows grea cul ural varia io . Here cul ural beliefs are s a ed, ra sferred, lear ed, a d prac iced. I forma io al beliefs are co ec ed wi h wha are called &quo ;au hori y belief,&quo ; or credible i forma io sources. If a group of people believes ha exercisi g i creases he i dividual's physical a d me al well-bei g, hese believers may also be willi g o accep a hle es as au­ hori y figures eve hough he es imo ies of hese idols ra ge beyo d heir physical prowess. Wi ess he selli g success of Olympic champio s a d foo ball s ars i promo i g breakfas food or pa y hose. I fere ial beliefs are hose which go beyo d direc observa io a d i forma­ io . hese co cer rules of logic, argume a io , rhe oric, a d eve es ablish­me of fac s ( he scie ific me hod). Al hough i er al logic sys ems differ from o e i dividual o a o her wi hi a cul ure, hey differ more from o e cul ure o a o her. he mos drama ic differe ce i cul ural varia ce i hi ki g lies be wee Wes er a d Eas er cul ures. he Wes er world has a logic sys em buil upo Aris o elia pri ­ciples, a d i has evolved ways of hi ki g ha embody hese pri ciples. . . . Eas er cul ures, however, developed before a d wi hou he be efi of A h­e s or Aris o le. As a co seque ce, heir logic sys ems are some imes called o -Aris o elia , a d hey ca of e lead o qui e differe se s of beliefs. VALUES Values bri g affec ive force o beliefs. Some of hese values are shared wi h o hers of our ki d some are o . hus, we all adhere o some of he beliefs a d values ge erally accep ed wi hi our cul ures; we rejec o hers. Values are rela ed o wha is see o be good, proper, a d posi ive, or he opposi e. Values are lear ed a d may be orma ive i a ure. hey cha ge hrough ime a d are seldom shared i specifics by members of differe ge era io s, al hough cer ai hemes will prevail. For example, he posi ive a ribu io s placed upo compe i ive ess, i dividualism, ac io , a d o her ge eral pri ciples ha pervade he belief a d value orie a io of members of he or h America cul ure of he U i ed S a es remai .

Leon, 999 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 154; Werther, 337 — 38 Golding, William, 895; The Brass Butterfly, 1000; Darkness Visible, 1000; Free Fall, 1000; Lord of the Flies, 916, 1000; The Paper Men, 1000; Pincher Martin, 1000; The Pyramid, 1000; Rites of Passage, 1000; The Scorpion God, 1000; The Spire, 1000 Goldsmith, Oliver, 398; The Deserted Village, 1000; She Stoops to Conquer, 1000; Vicar of Wakefield, 185, 1000 Goncourt, Edmond de: Cherie, 597 Gordimer, Nadine, 652 Gordon, Lord George, 385 Gothic novels, 220, 497, 969, 1006 — 7; criticism of, 225 — 26, 244 — 45; cultural values and, 221 -23; history in, 319 — 20; horror in, 242 — 43; Irish, 849 — 50; paranoia in, 243 — 44; perversity in, 232 -40; and sentimental fiction, 224 — 25; sexuality in, 241 -42 Government: role of, 511 -12, 515 -16, 531 -1038- Grand, Sarah, 623; The Beth Book, 618, 620; "Eugenia," 620; The Heavenly Twins, 615, 618; Ideala, 615 Grant, James, First Love and Last Love, 571 Grass, Günter, 977; The Tin Drum, 587 Graver, Suzanne, 445

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