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Einhard

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66 руб
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Whe o e hi ks of Caroli gia reforma io , a d he people rela ed o i direc ly he firs perso ha comes o mi d is he ki g Charles he Grea , a d alo g wi h him o e i volu arily hi ks of his fai hful ‘serva ’ Ei hard because he is he o e ha i roduces him o us. Bu o op of bei g a simple biographer Ei hard has do e far more grea er hi gs i life, a d oday o e has he oppor u i y o s udy wha ki d of ma Ei hard was, wha he’d do e duri g his life, a d why is he impor a hrough his works a d docume s rela ed o him ha survived u il our ime. 9 h ce ury docume s prese ed i Charlemag e’s Cour ier por ray Ei hard as a well educa ed perso , a ale ed poe , wri er, a d ar is i differe ki ds of ar s, religious, humble a d fai hful ma , as well as he mos prude a d i flue ial cour iers of his ime. O e of he mos impor a a d promi e figures of Early Medieval Europe was he perso a of Charles he Grea . Charlemag e lived be wee 742 a d 814. Duri g he for y-seve years of his ki gship, he grea warrior ki g was able, for a shor while, o crea e ki gdom of similar i size o ha of he Wes er Roma Empire. he grea ess of his ki gship, however, was o i he successful war campaig s or his co ques of several ki gdoms, bu i he visio ha he had for his peoples a d as well as he o her peoples of Europe. Of e called ‘a apos le wi h iro o gue’ Charlemag e had see himself as Ki g David was for he Jewish a io . His missio a d visio were perfec ly described i o e of his le ers o he Pope: “Our ask is, wi h he aid of Divi e Pie y, o defe d he holy church of Chris wi h arms agai s he a ack of Paga s a d devas a io by i fidels from wi hou , a d o for ify i wi hi he k owledge of he ca holic fai h. Your ask mos Holy Fa her, is o lif us your ha ds o God, like Moses, so as o aid our roops, so ha hrough your i ercessio , he Chris ia people may wi h God as i s leader a d giver always a d everywhere be vic orious over he e emies of his hole ame, a d so ha he ame of our Lord Jesus Chris may be famous hroughou he world”. Ki g Charle’s missio , he Caroli gia Reforma io , was o Chris ia ize a d educa e his ki gdom by mea s of mili ary force, he res ora io of old church docume s, a d he crea io of educa io al i s i u io s.i ii‘O e of he i s rume s of his reforma io was he palace school because of he ma y grea Europea scholars i housed. heir job was o res ore a d preserve he early church docume s, o guide a d suppor he spread of Chris ia i y. O e of he o iceable scholars of he cour was Ei hard’. ‘He was bor arou d 770. Ei hard s udied he Bible a d he classics a he mo as ery of Fulda. Whe he was i his we ies he was recomme ded by his chief abbo Baugulf o serve i Charlemag e’s cour . A cour Ei hard served as a cour ier o Charles he Grea a d his so Louis he Pious. Arou d he year of 815 Ei hard a d his wife Emma were gra ed la d a Michels ad a d Muli heim. As a resul of his he became o o ly a cour ier a ki gs’ cour s, bu he also was a lay abbo . Some of Ei hard’s co emporaries sugges ha he had become rich alo g wi h o her poe s of Charlemag e’s cour .

herefore i is a reaso able assump io o say ha Ei hard was a weal hy ma . He was a very promi e figure a he cour , a d i is ha ks o his fai hful cour ier ha we have some of he bes medieval poe ry a d wri i g.’iii here is o doub ha Ei hard was very well educa ed. ‘Walahfrid S rabo has hese hi gs o say o Ei hard’s educa io a d i ellige ce: “From here Baugulf se him o he palace of Charles .because of he special ess of his capaci y for lear i g a d his i ellige ce. For eve i ha mo as ery he had show grea sig s of he wisdom ha la er o sho e for h so clearly from him.”iv While a Fulda, i is believed ha he s udied he Bible a d classics.v He ew o o ly La i , bu possibly Greek, he proof of ha ca be fou d o o e of he le ers of Lupus o Ei hard i May 836, where Lupus asks for expla a io of some Greek words from he book of Boe hius.vi o u ders a d wha Ei hard’s i eres s were o e would have o look a he scholarly work he did. I forma io supplied o us by his oria s, o her royal cour iers, a d survivi g works of Ei hard reveal ha he was a poe , a wri er, a d a ar is . Maurus who composed “ he Epi aph of Ei hard” said: “A d he was skillful i he ar of ma y hi gs”. Modoi i his eclogues o poe s of his age me io s ard i he poem. his leaves us wi h o doub ha Ei hard was a poe .vii I docume s provided o Ei hard o e ca see ha he was i o he visual ar s.viii Paul Du o raises he ques io however, of whe her Bezaleel(a o her ame for Ei hard) was he mere execu or of he works accredi ed o him. I is obvious i he docume s provided ha i ma y cases Ei hard, jus ordered he process. “Ei hard moved i a world of pai ers, reliquary-makers, ile-makers, royal scribes, orga builders, a d palace workme , a d he k ew how o use hem o adva age.” Bu i is possible ha our view o ar is s is very differe from he view of ha ime. ever heless he used his ale , a d was accredi ed for i . Paul Du o provides a de ailed drawi g of he arc co s ruc ed arou d he ime of Charlemag e ha he says “ca be co ec ed o Ei hard wi h co fide ce”. Ei hard accordi g o Du o used his ale of visual ar s i he decora io of buildi gs a d churches ha were buil a he ime of Charles he Grea .ix I is evide ha Ei hard was a exper i he aforeme io ed ypes of ar s, bu i is he au horship of Life of Charlemag e, a d he ra sla io a d Miracles of Marcelli us a d Pe er ha brough a grea deal of populari y for him. I fac Life of Charlemag e is hough o be o e of he mas erpieces of i h ce ury Europe.x his book reveals some of he charac er rai s as well as perso ali y of Ei hard. I eres i gly e ough, Life of Charlemag e does o co ai a lo of he fac s ha we k ow abou him. his lack of i forma io has raised ma y ques io s arou d his book. A o her i eres i g issue abou his biography is Ei hards cri icism of Charles o small ma ers, bu he fails o cri icize him o big ma ers like slayi g of housa ds of people. Overall he por rai of Charles i Life of Charlemag e is very posi ive. I hardly co ai s a y of he bad rai s of Charlemag e. his o ce agai proves o us ha Ei hard was a very prude cour ier.

He did ’ wa say a y hi g ha may hrea e him, a d his repu a io , for he k ew ha o hers i cour will read he biography.xi Ei hard displayed his grea i ellec , a d wri i g ale i his book he ra sla io a d Miracles of Marcelli us a d Pe er. he co e of he book co ai s records abou ra sla io of remai s of S . Pe er a d S . Marcelli us, a d he eve s rela ed o his “e erprise”.xii his book is wri e very carefully i my opi io . Por rai of Ei hard is displayed i co ras o he o e of Hildui who s ole he relics of he holy mar yrs. ”. I his book a reader could see Ei hard bei g u usually cri ical, of Hildui , for a careful a d prude cour ier.xiii Bu whe o e s ar s o a alyze i i dep h i is easy o realize ha Ei hard had a reaso o be, af er all Ei hard is por rayed a religious ma , he spe a for u e o bri gi g hese relics o Fracia. He por rayed Hildui i highly adverse ligh . A par of he reaso why Ei hard wro e his book, as Paul Du o Sugges s, was o address he rumors ha relics did o poses real power of sai s due o separa io .xiv ha may explai why here are so ma y s ories of miracles i he book. hus summi g up aforeme io ed, Ei hard usi g his prude ce a d he power of he word, which defi i ely possessed, s re g he ed his ow repu a io , as a preserver of he relics, while weake ed ha of Hildui , a d he also was able o regai people’s rus i mar yrs. Looki g a Ei hard’s career o e ca see ha he assumed a lo of differe roles. Ei hard was a high advisor of bo h Charlemag e a d Louis he Pious. He was also a lay abbo of proper ies i Michels ad , a d Selige s ad . Ei hard’s co emporaries describe him o be always busy, a d preoccupied wi h he cour ’s busi ess, ru i g arou d wi h books. “ he le ers show us Ei hard ac i g as a age of he emperor, as a local pa ro , as a lay abbo , as he holder of proper ies, as a i flue ial referee, as a marriage broker, a d as a i ellec ual frie d.”xv I he cour of Charlemag e we see Ei hard bei g i volved i differe high s a e affairs. O e of hose was Charlma ge’s par i io of he ki gdom amo g his so s. Royal Fra kish A als s a es: “All hese hi gs were se dow i wri i g a d co veyed by Ei hard o Pope Leo III, so ha he migh asse o hem wi h his ow sig a ure”xvi A o her ime Eiha rd ook par i s a e busi ess wi h Charles was i 813 a he die of Aacha whe he spoke i favor of eleva i g of Louis he Pious o co-emperor s a us. As Ermold he Black recorded i Ei hard charac erized Louis he Pious as a very able perso for ki g’s hro g: “ .You have a so wi h a ex remely fi e charac er, who, because of his meri s, is able o hold your ki gdoms.”xvii hese are he wo imes whe Ei hard’s officially i volved i maki g of Fra kish his ory, al hough i was ’ a big par he played. Bu if we look a he wri i g of fellow cour iers i is evide ha he a d he ki g were very close.xviii I may be possible ha his close frie dship ha hey bo h shared migh have shaped Charlemag e’s decisio s. I is o ly a idea, which is o evide a d o ecessarily rue, bu ever heless should be co sidered whe o e’s a alyzi g posi io of Ei hard i he cour of Charles he Grea .


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