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Законодательство и право Законодательство и право     Конституционное (государственное) право зарубежных стран Конституционное (государственное) право зарубежных стран

British parliament

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is he oldes i he world. I origi a ed i h 12 h ce ury as Wi e agemo , he body of wise cou cilors whom he Ki g eeded o co sul pursui g his policy. he Bri ish Parliame co sis s of he House of Lords a d he House of Commo s a d he Quee as i s head. he House of Commo s plays he major role i law-maki g. I co sis s of Members of Parliame (called MPs for shor ). Each of hem represe s a area i E gla d, Sco la d, Wales a d Irela d. MPs are elec ed ei her a a ge eral elec io or a a by-elec io followi g he dea h or re ireme . Parliame ary elec io s are held every 5 years a d i is he Prime Mi is er who decides o he exac day of he elec io . he mi imum vo i g age is 18. A d he vo i g is ake by secre ballo . he elec io campaig las s abou 3 weeks, he Bri ish parliame ary sys em depe ds o poli ical par ies. he par y which wi s he majori y of sea s forms he gover me a d i s leader usually becomes Prime Mi is er. he Prime Mi is er chooses abou 20 MPs from his par y o become he cabi e of mi is ers. Each mi is er is respo sible for a par icular area i he gover me . he seco d larges par y becomes he official opposi io wi h i s ow leader a d "shadow cabi e ". he leader of he opposi io is a recog ized pos i he House of Commo s. he parliame a d he mo arch have differe roles i he gover me a d hey o ly mee oge her o symbolic occasio s, such as coro a io of a ew mo arch or he ope i g of he parliame . I reali y, he House of Commo s is he o e of hree which has rue power. he House of Commo s is made up of six hu dred a d fif y elec ed members, i is presided over by he speaker, a member accep able o he whole house. MPs si o wo sides of he hall, o e side for he gover i g par y a d he o her for he opposi io . he firs 2 rows of sea s are occupied by he leadi g members of bo h par ies (called "fro be ches") he back be ches belo g o he ra k-a d-life MPs. Each sessio of he House of Commo s las s for 160-175 days. Parliame has i ervals duri g his work. MPs are paid for heir parliame ary work a d have o a e d he si i gs. As me io above, he House of Commo s plays he major role i law maki g. he procedure is he followi g: a proposed law ("a bill") has o go hrough hree s ages i order o become a ac of parliame , hese are called "readi gs". he firs readi g is a formali y a d is simply he publica io of he proposal. he seco d readi g i volves deba e o he pri ciples of he bill, i is exami a io by parliame ary commi ee. A d he hird readi g is a repor s age, whe he work of he commi ee is repor ed o o he house. his is usually he mos impor a s age i he process. Whe he bill passes hrough he House of Commo s, i is se o he House of Lords for discussio , whe he Lords agree i , he bill is ake o he Quee for royal asse , whe he Quee si gs he bill, i becomes ac of he Parliame a d he Law of he La d. he House of Lords has more ha 1000 members, al hough o ly abou 250 ake a ac ive par i he work i he house. Members of his Upper House are o elec ed, hey si here because of heir ra k, he chairma of he House of Lords is he Lord Cha cellor. A d he si s o a special sea , called "Woolsack" he members of he House of Lords deba e he bill af er i has bee passed by he House of Commo s.

Some cha ges may be recomme ded a d he agreeme be wee he wo houses is reached by ego ia io s.

That he should perish without unnecessary suffering should be the aim of all who are concerned in the matter. These tactics continued in Australia long into the Twentieth Century. In an incident at Alice Springs in 1928, police massacred thirty-one Aborigines. The Australian Parliament refused to accept a report on the massacre, and two Aboriginal survivors (rather than the police) were put on trial for murder. Neck chains were still in use and defended as humane in 1958, when the Commissioner of Police for the state of Western Australia explained to the Melbourne Herald that Aboriginal prisoners preferred being chained. The mainland Aborigines were too numerous to exterminate completely in the manner of the Tasmanians. However, from the arrival of British colonists in 1788 until the 1921 census, the Aboriginal population declined from about 300,000 to 60,000. Today, the attitudes of white Australians towards their murderous history vary widely. While government policy and many whites' private views have become increasingly sympathetic to the Aborigines, other whites deny responsibility for genocide

1. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)

2. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)

3. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

4. British vs. American English

5. The British at leisure

6. British press
British press
7. The British Press
The British Press
8. Leisure time of British teenagers
Leisure time of British teenagers

9. British traditional holidays

10. Survey of the British Geography and Life

11. British school

12. British theatres

13. British education

14. British Homes

15. British Art, Theatre, Music

16. British slang and its classification

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17. RP/BBC English or British English as a standard language

18. The Heraldic Symbolism of the Unicorn on the British Coat-of-Arms

19. UK Parliament


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