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Thomas More "Utopia"

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HE U IVERSI RY OF LA VIA Facul y of Foreig La guages homas More &quo ;U opia&quo ; Ope U iversi y 5 courseCo e s I roduc io “U opia” he Seco d Book Co clusio Bibliography I roduc io he &quo ;dark&quo ; Middle Ages were followed by a ime k ow i ar a d li era ure as he Re aissa ce. he word &quo ;re aissa ce&quo ; mea s &quo ;rebir h&quo ; i Fre ch a d was used o de o e a phase i he cul ural developme of Europe be wee he 14 h a d 17 h ce uries. homas More, he firs E glish huma is of he Re aissa ce, was bor i Lo do i 1478. homas More wro e i E glish a d i La i . he huma is s of al1 Europea cou ries commu ica ed i he La i la guage, a d heir bes works were wri e i La i . His s yle is simple, colloquial e d has a u affec ed ease. he work by which he is bes remembered oday is &quo ;U opia&quo ; which was wri e i La i i he year 1516. I has ow bee ra sla ed i o all Europea la guages. &quo ;U opia&quo ; (which i Greek mea s &quo ; owhere&quo ;) is he ame of a o -exis e isla d. his work is divided i o wo books. I he firs , he au hor gives a profou d a d ru hful pic ure of he people's sufferi gs a d poi s ou he socia1 evils exis i g, i E gla d a he ime. I he seco d book more prese s his ideal of wha he fu ure socie y should be like. “ he word &quo ;u opia&quo ; has become a byword a d is used i Moder E glish o de o e a u a ai able ideal, usually i social a d poli ical ma ers. Bu he wri er H.G. Wells, who wro e a i roduc io o he la es edi io , said ha he use of he word &quo ;u opia&quo ; was far from More's esse ia1 quali y, whose mi d abou ded i sou d, prac ical ideas. he book is i reali y a very u imagi a ive work.” (Harry Levi , “ he My h of he Golde Age i he Re aissa ce.” 1969.) homas More's &quo ;U opia&quo ; was he firs li erary work i which he ideas of Commu ism appeared. I was highly es eemed by all he huma is s of Europe i More's ime a d agai grew very popular wi h he socialis s of he 19 h ce ury. Af er More, a e de cy bega i li era ure o wri e fa as ic ovels o social reforms, a d ma y such works appeared i various cou ries. “U opia” he his orical homas More, he au hor of U opia, was a ex raordi arily complica ed ma who ied up all he hreads of his life i his heroic dea h. he real ma is o me much more i eres i g ha he plas ic crea io adored by his mos ferve admirers. he U opia is he sor of complica ed book ha we should expec from so complica ed a ma . I is heavy wi h iro y. Iro y is he recog i io of he dis a ce be wee wha we say a d wha we mea . Bu he iro y was he experie ce of life i he Six ee h Ce ury - reaso e ough for Shakespeare o make i perhaps his mos impor a rope while he ce ury was drawi g o a close. Everywhere i church, gover me , socie y, a d eve scholarship professio a d prac ice s ood separa ed by a abyss. I U opia hree charac ers co verse a d repor s of o her co versa io s e er he s ory. homas More appears as himself. Raphael Hy hlodaeus or Raphael o se so, as Paul ur er calls him i his sple did ra sla io is he fic io al raveler o exo ic worlds. More's you g frie d of A werp Pe er Gillis adds a occasio al word.

Ye he homas More of U opia is a charac er i a fic io . He ca o be comple ely ide ified wi h homas More he wri er who wro e all he li es. Raphael Hy hlodaeus's ame mea s some hi g like &quo ;A gel&quo ; or &quo ;messe ger of o se se.&quo ; He has raveled o he commo weal h of U opia wi h Amerigo Vespucci, seemi gly he firs voyager o realize ha he world discovered by Columbus was i deed a ew world a d o a appe dage of I dia or Chi a. Raphael has o o ly bee o U opia; he has jour eyed o o her s ra ge places, a d fou d almos all of hem be er ha Europe. He is burs i g wi h he e husiasm of his superior experie ces. Bu how seriously are we o ake him? he ques io has bee much deba ed. he homas More i he s ory objec s cau iously a d poli ely o Raphael's e husiasms. A yway, he mai poi abou re aissa ce dialogues a d declama io s such as U opia is ha heir mea i g depe ds o how we hear hem. How we hear hem depe ds o wha we bri g o hem. “More was o e of he mos horough a d co sis e hi kers i he Six ee h Ce ury. He argued every hi g like he sple did lawyer he was. I believe ha whe we read U opia dialec ically, hrough his o her works, we may pe e ra e o some degree he iro ic scree ha he has hrow over he work. Eve so, comple e cer ai y abou his mea i g some imes eludes us.” (Harry Levi , he My h of he Golde Age i he Re aissa ce, ew York, Oxford U iversi y Press, 1969.) he Seco d Book he seco d &quo ;book&quo ; or chap er i More's work – he descrip io of he isla d commo weal h somewhere i he ew World. I shall leave aside he fasci a i g firs book, which is a real dialogue--i deed a argume be wee he raveler Raphael o se so a d he skep ical homas More. I shall ra her discuss he seco d book, o se so's descrip io of his orderly commo weal h based o reaso as defi ed by he law of a ure. Si ce he U opia s live accordi g o he law of a ure, hey are o Chris ia . I deed hey prac ice a form of religious olera io – as hey mus is hey are o be bo h reaso able a d willi g o accep Chris ia i y whe i is a ou ced o hem. Wha is he U opia commo weal h? Wha does he li le book mea ? “As opposed o he official feas , o e migh say ha car ival celebra ed emporary libera io from he prevaili g ru h a d from he es ablished order; i marked he suspe sio of all hierarchical ra k, privileges, orms, a d prohibi io s. Car ival was he rue feas of ime, he feas of becomi g, cha ge, a d re ewal. I was hos ile o all ha was immor alized a d comple ed.” (Mikhail Bakh i , Rabelais a d His World, I dia a U iversi y Press, 1984.) U opia provides a seco d life of he people above a d beyo d he official life of he &quo ;real&quo ; s a es of he Six ee h Ce ury. I s au hor ook he radical liber y o dispe se wi h he e ire social order based o priva e proper y, as Pla o had do e for he philosopher eli e i his Republic. “Bu a he same ime, More ook he liber y o suppose a commo weal h buil o he pessimism abou huma a ure propou ded by S . Augus i e, More's mos cherished au hor. Augus i e believed ha secular gover me was ordai ed by God o res rai falle huma ki d from hur li g crea io i o chaos.

Wi hou secular au hori y o e force peace, si ful huma bei gs would opple i o perpe ual viole ce; so he s a e exis s o keep order.” (Mikhail Bakh i ) A major source of viole ce amo g falle huma bei gs is cupidi y, a form of lus . Si ful huma bei gs have a i sa iable desire for hi gs. For Augus i e here was o e d o i . So if we look a U opia wi h More's Augus i ia eye, we see a wi y play o how life migh develop i a s a e ha ried o bala ce hese wo impulses--huma depravi y a d a commu is sys em aimed a checki g he des ruc ive i dividualism of corrup huma a ure. I is car ival, a fes ival, o a pla for reform. Whe he car ival is over, a d we come o he e d of he book, reali y reasser s i self wi h a crash. More did o see i U opia a pla of revolu io ary reform o be e ac ed i Chris ia Europe. Remember he sub i le he six-hour worki g day i U opia also represe s a e er al check agai s he e de cy of a acquisi ive socie y o ur huma bei gs i o beas s of burde o be worked as if hey had o claim over hemselves. Se over agai s he misery of peasa s depic ed i he visio of Piers he Plowma or agai s he child labor of early i dus rial America or he swea shops of moder Asia, he U opia limi a io o labor is a way of sayi g ha life is a e d i i self a d o merely a i s rume o be used for someo e else. I is perhaps also a rebuke o hose of us for whom work a d life come o be ide ical so ha o pile up weal h or repu a io makes us eglec spouses, childre , frie ds, commu i y, a d ha secre par of ourselves ourished by he willi g ess o ake ime o measure our souls by some hi g o her ha wha we produce. he sa i a io of he U opia ci ies is exemplary. he U opia s value clea li ess a d hey believe ha he sick should be cared for by he s a e. he U opia s care for childre . Educa io is ope o all. hey like music, a d i a age ha s a k i Europe, he U opia s like ice smells. o average E glish people of he Six ee h Ce ury – livi g i squalor a d misery. Bu o middle-class people like ourselves, our messy a d fragme ed socie y looks good i compariso o U opia. Here More's Augus i ia co cep io of si ful huma ki d becomes burde some o he soul, for i he U opia commo weal h, i dividualism a d privacy are hrea s o he s a e. I suspec ha we see as clearly as a ywhere i U opia jus why commu ism did o work. he weigh of huma depravi y was simply oo much o be bala ced by elimi a i g priva e proper y. Ye i is wor h sayi g ha More did o ig ore ha depravi y. U opia is full of i . “ o locks bar U opia doors--which ope a a ouch.” ( homas More, U opia, r. Paul ur er, Lo do , Pe gui , 1965, p. 73) he o ly reaso he U opia s ca imagi e for privacy is o pro ec proper y; here bei g o priva e proper y, a ybody ca walk i o your house a a y ime o see wha you're doi g. Co formi y is ki g. All he ci ies a d all he houses i he ci ies look pre y much alike. Of he ow s Raphael says, &quo ;Whe you've see o e of hem, you've see hem all.&quo ; ( homas More, U opia, r. Paul ur er, Lo do , Pe gui , 1965, p.71) he U opia s cha ge houses by lo every e years jus so hey wo ' ge oo a ached o a y e deari g li le idiosy crasies i a dwelli g.

Это восстание, известное под названием "Злой день мая", тут же было подавлено. Мор в составе депутации от Сити ходатайствовал перед королем о помиловании восставших {E. Hall. Henry VIII, v. I. London, Ed. by C. Whibley, 1904, p. 152; Chambers. Thomas More. London, 1935, p. 147-151; E. E. Reynolds. The Field is Won. London, 1968, p. 122-123.}. Как и многие гуманисты, Мор осуждал восстание, не верил, что оно может уничтожить социальное зло и облегчить положение бедняков, но вместе с тем он сочувствовал страданиям народа и стремился помочь угнетенным. Службу помощника шерифа Мор сочетал с литературной деятельностью, которую он не прекращал в течение всей жизни. Творчество Томаса Мора отличалось не только богатством содержания, но и разнообразием жанров. Кроме перевода с латинского на английский биографии выдающегося итальянского философа-гуманиста Пико делла Мирандолы (1463-1494), его литературное наследие включает "Историю Ричарда III" и "Утопию", переводы на латинский язык произведений древнегреческих поэтов и собственные оригинальные поэтические опыты на английском и латинском языках, богатое эпистолярное наследие и острые полемические трактаты против Лютера и английских последователей реформации

1. Thomas More

2. Thomas More

3. Students Should Be Given More Choice As To What They Study

4. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

5. Gainsborough, Thomas

6. What factor, more than any other, caused me to apply to Molloy College?
What factor, more than any other, caused me to apply to Molloy College?


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