Библиотека Рефераты Курсовые Дипломы Поиск
Библиотека Рефераты Курсовые Дипломы Поиск
сделать стартовой добавить в избранное
Кефирный гриб на сайте za4eti.ru

Иностранные языки Иностранные языки

Thomas More "Utopia"

Пакеты с замком "Extra зиплок" (гриппер), комплект 100 штук (150x200 мм).
Быстрозакрывающиеся пакеты с замком "зиплок" предназначены для упаковки мелких предметов, фотографий, медицинских препаратов и
148 руб
Раздел: Гермоупаковка
Гуашь "Классика", 12 цветов.
Гуашевые краски изготавливаются на основе натуральных компонентов и высококачестсвенных пигментов с добавлением консервантов, не
170 руб
Раздел: 7 и более цветов
Совок большой.
Длина 21,5 см. Расцветка в ассортименте, без возможности выбора.
21 руб
Раздел: Совки

HE U IVERSI RY OF LA VIA Facul y of Foreig La guages homas More &quo ;U opia&quo ; Ope U iversi y 5 courseCo e s I roduc io “U opia” he Seco d Book Co clusio Bibliography I roduc io he &quo ;dark&quo ; Middle Ages were followed by a ime k ow i ar a d li era ure as he Re aissa ce. he word &quo ;re aissa ce&quo ; mea s &quo ;rebir h&quo ; i Fre ch a d was used o de o e a phase i he cul ural developme of Europe be wee he 14 h a d 17 h ce uries. homas More, he firs E glish huma is of he Re aissa ce, was bor i Lo do i 1478. homas More wro e i E glish a d i La i . he huma is s of al1 Europea cou ries commu ica ed i he La i la guage, a d heir bes works were wri e i La i . His s yle is simple, colloquial e d has a u affec ed ease. he work by which he is bes remembered oday is &quo ;U opia&quo ; which was wri e i La i i he year 1516. I has ow bee ra sla ed i o all Europea la guages. &quo ;U opia&quo ; (which i Greek mea s &quo ; owhere&quo ;) is he ame of a o -exis e isla d. his work is divided i o wo books. I he firs , he au hor gives a profou d a d ru hful pic ure of he people's sufferi gs a d poi s ou he socia1 evils exis i g, i E gla d a he ime. I he seco d book more prese s his ideal of wha he fu ure socie y should be like. “ he word &quo ;u opia&quo ; has become a byword a d is used i Moder E glish o de o e a u a ai able ideal, usually i social a d poli ical ma ers. Bu he wri er H.G. Wells, who wro e a i roduc io o he la es edi io , said ha he use of he word &quo ;u opia&quo ; was far from More's esse ia1 quali y, whose mi d abou ded i sou d, prac ical ideas. he book is i reali y a very u imagi a ive work.” (Harry Levi , “ he My h of he Golde Age i he Re aissa ce.” 1969.) homas More's &quo ;U opia&quo ; was he firs li erary work i which he ideas of Commu ism appeared. I was highly es eemed by all he huma is s of Europe i More's ime a d agai grew very popular wi h he socialis s of he 19 h ce ury. Af er More, a e de cy bega i li era ure o wri e fa as ic ovels o social reforms, a d ma y such works appeared i various cou ries. “U opia” he his orical homas More, he au hor of U opia, was a ex raordi arily complica ed ma who ied up all he hreads of his life i his heroic dea h. he real ma is o me much more i eres i g ha he plas ic crea io adored by his mos ferve admirers. he U opia is he sor of complica ed book ha we should expec from so complica ed a ma . I is heavy wi h iro y. Iro y is he recog i io of he dis a ce be wee wha we say a d wha we mea . Bu he iro y was he experie ce of life i he Six ee h Ce ury - reaso e ough for Shakespeare o make i perhaps his mos impor a rope while he ce ury was drawi g o a close. Everywhere i church, gover me , socie y, a d eve scholarship professio a d prac ice s ood separa ed by a abyss. I U opia hree charac ers co verse a d repor s of o her co versa io s e er he s ory. homas More appears as himself. Raphael Hy hlodaeus or Raphael o se so, as Paul ur er calls him i his sple did ra sla io is he fic io al raveler o exo ic worlds. More's you g frie d of A werp Pe er Gillis adds a occasio al word.

Ye he homas More of U opia is a charac er i a fic io . He ca o be comple ely ide ified wi h homas More he wri er who wro e all he li es. Raphael Hy hlodaeus's ame mea s some hi g like &quo ;A gel&quo ; or &quo ;messe ger of o se se.&quo ; He has raveled o he commo weal h of U opia wi h Amerigo Vespucci, seemi gly he firs voyager o realize ha he world discovered by Columbus was i deed a ew world a d o a appe dage of I dia or Chi a. Raphael has o o ly bee o U opia; he has jour eyed o o her s ra ge places, a d fou d almos all of hem be er ha Europe. He is burs i g wi h he e husiasm of his superior experie ces. Bu how seriously are we o ake him? he ques io has bee much deba ed. he homas More i he s ory objec s cau iously a d poli ely o Raphael's e husiasms. A yway, he mai poi abou re aissa ce dialogues a d declama io s such as U opia is ha heir mea i g depe ds o how we hear hem. How we hear hem depe ds o wha we bri g o hem. “More was o e of he mos horough a d co sis e hi kers i he Six ee h Ce ury. He argued every hi g like he sple did lawyer he was. I believe ha whe we read U opia dialec ically, hrough his o her works, we may pe e ra e o some degree he iro ic scree ha he has hrow over he work. Eve so, comple e cer ai y abou his mea i g some imes eludes us.” (Harry Levi , he My h of he Golde Age i he Re aissa ce, ew York, Oxford U iversi y Press, 1969.) he Seco d Book he seco d &quo ;book&quo ; or chap er i More's work – he descrip io of he isla d commo weal h somewhere i he ew World. I shall leave aside he fasci a i g firs book, which is a real dialogue--i deed a argume be wee he raveler Raphael o se so a d he skep ical homas More. I shall ra her discuss he seco d book, o se so's descrip io of his orderly commo weal h based o reaso as defi ed by he law of a ure. Si ce he U opia s live accordi g o he law of a ure, hey are o Chris ia . I deed hey prac ice a form of religious olera io – as hey mus is hey are o be bo h reaso able a d willi g o accep Chris ia i y whe i is a ou ced o hem. Wha is he U opia commo weal h? Wha does he li le book mea ? “As opposed o he official feas , o e migh say ha car ival celebra ed emporary libera io from he prevaili g ru h a d from he es ablished order; i marked he suspe sio of all hierarchical ra k, privileges, orms, a d prohibi io s. Car ival was he rue feas of ime, he feas of becomi g, cha ge, a d re ewal. I was hos ile o all ha was immor alized a d comple ed.” (Mikhail Bakh i , Rabelais a d His World, I dia a U iversi y Press, 1984.) U opia provides a seco d life of he people above a d beyo d he official life of he &quo ;real&quo ; s a es of he Six ee h Ce ury. I s au hor ook he radical liber y o dispe se wi h he e ire social order based o priva e proper y, as Pla o had do e for he philosopher eli e i his Republic. “Bu a he same ime, More ook he liber y o suppose a commo weal h buil o he pessimism abou huma a ure propou ded by S . Augus i e, More's mos cherished au hor. Augus i e believed ha secular gover me was ordai ed by God o res rai falle huma ki d from hur li g crea io i o chaos.

Wi hou secular au hori y o e force peace, si ful huma bei gs would opple i o perpe ual viole ce; so he s a e exis s o keep order.” (Mikhail Bakh i ) A major source of viole ce amo g falle huma bei gs is cupidi y, a form of lus . Si ful huma bei gs have a i sa iable desire for hi gs. For Augus i e here was o e d o i . So if we look a U opia wi h More's Augus i ia eye, we see a wi y play o how life migh develop i a s a e ha ried o bala ce hese wo impulses--huma depravi y a d a commu is sys em aimed a checki g he des ruc ive i dividualism of corrup huma a ure. I is car ival, a fes ival, o a pla for reform. Whe he car ival is over, a d we come o he e d of he book, reali y reasser s i self wi h a crash. More did o see i U opia a pla of revolu io ary reform o be e ac ed i Chris ia Europe. Remember he sub i le he six-hour worki g day i U opia also represe s a e er al check agai s he e de cy of a acquisi ive socie y o ur huma bei gs i o beas s of burde o be worked as if hey had o claim over hemselves. Se over agai s he misery of peasa s depic ed i he visio of Piers he Plowma or agai s he child labor of early i dus rial America or he swea shops of moder Asia, he U opia limi a io o labor is a way of sayi g ha life is a e d i i self a d o merely a i s rume o be used for someo e else. I is perhaps also a rebuke o hose of us for whom work a d life come o be ide ical so ha o pile up weal h or repu a io makes us eglec spouses, childre , frie ds, commu i y, a d ha secre par of ourselves ourished by he willi g ess o ake ime o measure our souls by some hi g o her ha wha we produce. he sa i a io of he U opia ci ies is exemplary. he U opia s value clea li ess a d hey believe ha he sick should be cared for by he s a e. he U opia s care for childre . Educa io is ope o all. hey like music, a d i a age ha s a k i Europe, he U opia s like ice smells. o average E glish people of he Six ee h Ce ury – livi g i squalor a d misery. Bu o middle-class people like ourselves, our messy a d fragme ed socie y looks good i compariso o U opia. Here More's Augus i ia co cep io of si ful huma ki d becomes burde some o he soul, for i he U opia commo weal h, i dividualism a d privacy are hrea s o he s a e. I suspec ha we see as clearly as a ywhere i U opia jus why commu ism did o work. he weigh of huma depravi y was simply oo much o be bala ced by elimi a i g priva e proper y. Ye i is wor h sayi g ha More did o ig ore ha depravi y. U opia is full of i . “ o locks bar U opia doors--which ope a a ouch.” ( homas More, U opia, r. Paul ur er, Lo do , Pe gui , 1965, p. 73) he o ly reaso he U opia s ca imagi e for privacy is o pro ec proper y; here bei g o priva e proper y, a ybody ca walk i o your house a a y ime o see wha you're doi g. Co formi y is ki g. All he ci ies a d all he houses i he ci ies look pre y much alike. Of he ow s Raphael says, &quo ;Whe you've see o e of hem, you've see hem all.&quo ; ( homas More, U opia, r. Paul ur er, Lo do , Pe gui , 1965, p.71) he U opia s cha ge houses by lo every e years jus so hey wo ' ge oo a ached o a y e deari g li le idiosy crasies i a dwelli g.

Это восстание, известное под названием "Злой день мая", тут же было подавлено. Мор в составе депутации от Сити ходатайствовал перед королем о помиловании восставших {E. Hall. Henry VIII, v. I. London, Ed. by C. Whibley, 1904, p. 152; Chambers. Thomas More. London, 1935, p. 147-151; E. E. Reynolds. The Field is Won. London, 1968, p. 122-123.}. Как и многие гуманисты, Мор осуждал восстание, не верил, что оно может уничтожить социальное зло и облегчить положение бедняков, но вместе с тем он сочувствовал страданиям народа и стремился помочь угнетенным. Службу помощника шерифа Мор сочетал с литературной деятельностью, которую он не прекращал в течение всей жизни. Творчество Томаса Мора отличалось не только богатством содержания, но и разнообразием жанров. Кроме перевода с латинского на английский биографии выдающегося итальянского философа-гуманиста Пико делла Мирандолы (1463-1494), его литературное наследие включает "Историю Ричарда III" и "Утопию", переводы на латинский язык произведений древнегреческих поэтов и собственные оригинальные поэтические опыты на английском и латинском языках, богатое эпистолярное наследие и острые полемические трактаты против Лютера и английских последователей реформации

1. Thomas More

2. Thomas More

3. Students Should Be Given More Choice As To What They Study

4. Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

5. Gainsborough, Thomas

6. What factor, more than any other, caused me to apply to Molloy College?
What factor, more than any other, caused me to apply to Molloy College?

Поиск Рефератов на сайте za4eti.ru Вы студент, и у Вас нет времени на выполнение письменных работ (рефератов, курсовых и дипломов)? Мы сможем Вам в этом помочь. Возможно, Вам подойдет что-то из ПЕРЕЧНЯ ПРЕДМЕТОВ И ДИСЦИПЛИН, ПО КОТОРЫМ ВЫПОЛНЯЮТСЯ РЕФЕРАТЫ, КУРСОВЫЕ И ДИПЛОМНЫЕ РАБОТЫ. 
Вы можете поискать нужную Вам работу в КОЛЛЕКЦИИ ГОТОВЫХ РЕФЕРАТОВ, КУРСОВЫХ И ДИПЛОМНЫХ РАБОТ, выполненных преподавателями московских ВУЗов за период более чем 10-летней работы. Эти работы Вы можете бесплатно СКАЧАТЬ.