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Arge i a has experie ced slow eco omic grow h si ce he 1940s. By he mid-1970s lo g- erm grow h decli ed o iceably, a d i he las half of he 1980s he cou ry suffered i s lo ges period of s ag a io i he ce ury. Savi gs a d i ves me ra es fell precipi ously from he mid-1970s u il 1989. Arge i es, respo di g o he u s able macroeco omic e viro me , i creasi gly saved a d i ves ed abroad. Labor produc ivi y fell a g pover y worse ed. his eco omic performa ce was ra ceable o chro ic public sec or defici s a d e demic i fla io . Public sec or defici s i he la e 1970s ra ged from 10 o 14 perce of GDP, a d i he early 1980s surpassed IS perce of GDP. Af er he re ur o co s i u io al democracy i 1983, public dema ds o co rol i fla io were ra sla ed i o four successive s abiliza io programs. All failed o eradica e i fla io , a d each e ded i a more virule i fla io ha he o e precedi g i . he mai reaso for hese failures was he i abili y of he s abiliza io programs o redress rapidly a d perma e ly he public sec or s ruc ural defici .  S ruc ural defici s emerged from he pos -war orga iza io of he eco omy. Eco omic policy from he 1940s was used o propaga e rules a d ra sfers favori g he i eres s of priva e groups wi h access o power. By he early 1980s public expe di ures approached 40 perce of GDP. U io ized labor be efi ed from high wages, guara eed employme , a d rigid rules gover i g hiri g a d dismissals. I dus ry be efi ed from highly pro ec ed marke s, ax exemp io s hrough special promo io regimes, subsidized credi -or effec ive gra s, as ma y loa s were o collec ed-subsidized i pu s from public e erprises, a d high prices o sales o public e erprises. Housi g co rac ors a d middleclass home buyers be efi ed from e ormous public ra sfers hrough earmarked axes a d effec ive gra s hrough he Housi g Ba k. obacco growers, sugar growers, he mercha mari e, a d o her small i eres groups e joyed special ax breaks. Co sumers e joyed below-cos ariffs from public e erprise a d lax collec ioll prac ices. Provi cial gover me s could avail hemselves of cos less credi from he provi cial ba ks, which he ce ral ba k reimbursed. he mili ary e joyed expa di g budge s, especially over 1976-82, as well as ma ageme perquisi es i s a e compa ies hey co rolled. By 1989 subsidies hrough he budge , ax exemp io s, agriculcural regula io s, public e erprise ariffs, a d ce ral ba k rediscou s were es ima ed o amou o roughly 8 perce of GDP-- he equivale of some $8 billio . he grow h of he s a e a d co comi a re s a d subsidies, alo g wi h he capi al fligh provoked by a i co sis e excha ge ra e policy, were fi a ced duri g he la e 1970s largely by ex er al borrowi g hrough he expa di g Eurodollar marke a low or eve ega ive real i er a io al i eres ra es. his permi ed he gover me o ru large defici s a d sus ai a revalued excha ge ra e wi h rela ively low levels of i fla io i he seco d half of he 1970s. A abrup e d o volu ary foreig commercial credi i he early 1980s a d he sudde rise i real i er a io al i eres ra es provoked a fi a cial collapse a d placed addi io al pressure o public fi a ces.

he si ua io was complica ed by he Sou h A la ic War. he loss of ex er al fi a ce a d lack of adjus me mea he reasury had o resor o i creased i fla io ary fi a ce hrough mo e ary crea io . he priva e sec or, i a effor o avoid he resul i g i fla io ax, gradually wi hdrew i s resources from he fi a cial sys em a d reduced i s real holdi gs of curre cy ; his, oge her wi h he ega ive effec s of i fla io o real ax collec io s, made Arge i a's eco omy progressively more u s able i he 1980s. Eve hough he defici fell from ear 20 perce of GDP i he early 1980s o a average of abou 10 perce over 1987-89, he base for he i fla io ax shra k eve fas er--effor s o reduce he defici were o fas or perma e e ough o co vi ce he priva e sec or ha savi gs i domes ic curre cy would o be eroded by i fla io . I fla io became high a d u predic able, a d he mai impedime o he recovery of priva e savi gs a d i ves me . he decade e ded wi h wo episodes of hyperi fla io i 1989. Pos -1989 S ruc ural Reforms be prese admi is ra io ook office i July 1989 duri g a rauma ic hyperi fla io --July i fla io alo e was 200 perce . his culmi a ed a decade-lo g crisis i public fi a ce. he ew eam i heri ed weak public i s i u io s accus omed o defici spe di g a d wi h a i s i u io alized relia ce o he i fla io ax. I addi io , claims o s a e reve ues were far grea er ha i s capaci y o mobilize resources-i shor , he Arge i e s a e was i solve . he gover me u der ook s abiliza io programs i 1989 a d 1990. ei her succeeded, pri cipally because of he i rac abili y of he fiscal defici . he firs ermi a ed i a ew hyperi fla io a he e d of 1989 a d i early 1990. he seco d las ed from March 1990 o December 1990 a d e ded i a ew i fla io ary ou burs bu , u like he previous breakdow s, he eco omy did o spi i o hyperi fla io . I s ead, a ew fiscal package i February 1991 was sufficie o close he remai i g fiscal gap. his was followed by he April 1, 1991 Law of Co ver ibili y fixi g he local curre cy o he dollar a d effec ively proscribi g mo ey crea io o her ha o buy e foreig reserves. he co ver ibili y program discipli es mo e ary policy a d limi s he power of he gover me o fi a ce i s defici hrough i fla io . he law markedly reduced he foreig excha ge ra e risk o i ves ors a d he i fla io risk o busi ess a d labor--as lo g as he fiscal fu dame als are i place o suppor i . he February 1991 program was able o close he gap i large measure because he gover me 's sus ai ed s ruc ural reform effor s had progressively improved he fou da io s of public fi a ce. he gover me had u der ake difficul o reverse reforms i he legal framework, i s i u io s, a d policies. hese i cluded i s i u io al reforms of he federal gover me , public e erprises, a d federal-provi cial fiscal rela io s, a d res ruc uri g liabili ies wi h domes ic a d foreig credi ors o adjus hem o serviceable levels. O her reforms have helped elici efficie priva e i ves me , o ably rade, deregula io , a d fi a cial sec or reform. Federal Gover me   he gover me u der ook a major effor o improve reve ues hrough he impleme a io of a much-broad- e ed a d u iform value added ax firs o goods i February 1990, a d la er ex e ded o services i ovem- ber 1990.

he gover me also improved he efficie cy of he ax admi is ra io i 1989, es ablishi g a co rol sys em for he larges axpayers ha ook effec i February 1991. he ax pe al y law, adop ed by Co - gress i 1990, provided much eeded sa c io s for ax o -complia ce. he ax package of February 1991 improved he quali y of reve ue mobiliza io subs a - ially because i elimi a ed expor axes, reduced pro- gressively duri g 1990 a d early 1991, deduc ed higher axes o fi a cial ra sac io s from he i come/asse ax, a d removed several mi or axes. I December 1992 subsidies o i dus rial promo io were subs a ially cu by replaci g self-mo i ored ax deduc io s wi h a ax bo d program. hese effor s cumula ively produced drama ic rises i ax collec io s from he hird quar er of 1991 o . he i crease i value added ax collec io allowed he gover me o elimi a e i efficie axes, such as he fuel ax a d he s amp ax, i ovember 1992, a d several specific sales axes i May 1993. Federal employme decreased from 671,000 o 284,000, i cludi g 103,000 layoffs a d 284,000 eachers a d heal h workers ra sferred o provi cial payrolls. his effor was based o a mi is erial reorga iza io ha focused federal ac ivi ies o core objec ives, a d improveme s i he civil service sys em hrough a improved salary s ruc ure a d efficie cy measures. he gover me was able o i crease average salaries a d par ially res ore salary differe ials. he gover me ook several measures o s re g he budge i g procedures a d expe di ure co rols. By 1993 i had elimi a ed 105 of he 151 earmarked accou s ex a i 1990, a d reduced he coverage of earmarked axes. he Sep ember 1992 Law of Public Fi a cial Ma ageme will permi comprehe sive budge i g, effec ive i er al expe di ure co rol, a d provide for ew ex er al audi i g  he gover me has embarked o several reforms o separa e he ce ral ba k from he o fi a cial public sec or a d es ablish i as a effec ive i depe de mo e ary au hori y. he elimi a io of he ce ral ba k's domes ic shor - erm i eres -beari g obliga io s by mea s of heir co versio i o ex er al reasury bo ds i Ja uary 1990 i effec was a firs s ep oward recapi alizi g he ce ral ba k. he Law of Co ver ibili y es ablished a mo ey-crea io rule ha effec ively limi s mo e ary policy a d ce ral ba k i fla io ary fi a ci g of public sec or defici s. Si ce early 1991 he ce ral ba k has published fi a cial s a eme s ha reveal i s bala ce shee ; si ce April 1991 i has published i s reserve posi io weekly so he public ca mo i or impleme a io of he Law of Co ver ibili y.                      I Sep ember 1992 a ew law s re g he ed he ce ral ba k's au o omy, a d fur her res ric ed i s abili y o ex e d credi o he gover me a d he ba ki g sys em. his measure rei forces he co ver - ibili y law, a d paves he way for a i depe de , discipli ed, mo e ary au hori y. I addi io , he ce - rai ba k i e ds o comple e he process of removi g fu c io s a cillary o he fu c io s of a mo e ary au hori y by ra sferri g legal au hori y for failed i s i u io s o he cour s.   Public E erprises   he gover me has carried ou o e of he mos impressive priva iza io programs i he Wes er Hemisphere.

Как ни удивительно, не все в Буэнос-Айресе болельщики, раз на стенах до сих пор пишут: «Las Malvinas son Argentinas!» Тоже южнее Ривадавиа, но ближе к центру, «на той стороне улицы», — Сан-Тельмо: именно там ищешь и находишь Борхеса. «Я вошел в альмасен на пересечении улиц Боливара и Венесуэлы, где теперь бар». С первой строчки рассказа «История Росендо Хуареса», с рюмки каньи — водки из сахарного тростника — у стойки этого бара, возле церкви Санто Доминго, начинается тот борхесовский Буэнос-Айрес. Сан-Тельмо, где жили и еще остались подлинные буэносайресцы — портеньо, — я исходил во всех направлениях, забредая в альмасены — сочетание лавки и распивочной, в клубы танго, во дворы великолепных бывших особняков. То есть особняками они остались и сейчас, только утратили великолепие. Покрытые трещинами, проросшей травой, потеками влаги, двухэтажные, с большими окнами и высокими порталами, дома портеньо приобрели благородство распада. Это напоминает Верону, или больше того — Венецию. Сан-Тельмо опускается на дно времени, как на дно лагуны


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