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I ellige ce is i gover me opera io s, evalua ed i forma io co cer i g such hi gs as he s re g h, ac ivi ies, a d probable courses of ac io of o her a io s who are usually, bu o ecessarily, oppo e s. I a world of sovereig a io s, i forma io is a prime eleme of a io al power, a d i ellige ce is he vi al a d of e pivo al fou da io for a io al decisio s. a io al i ellige ce orga iza io s I a world i revolu io ary ferme , he au he ic i ellige ce officer occupies he ce re of grea deba es over a io al securi y policy. A issue i mos of he deba es are ques io s of power, probabili y, a d ime. A prime ask of he modem professio al i ellige ce officer, mili ary or civilia , is o ry o a swer ques io s for he policymaker abou power a d abou behaviour probabili ies, wi hi a ime scale. For a chief of s a e ryi g o decide a ques io abou uclear armame s, for example, a ideal i ellige ce sys em would provide precise k owledge of a po e ial e emy's power, he probabili y of ha e emy's behaviour or reac io i give co i ge cies, a d a ime schedule for he mos likely seque ce of eve s. hese are basic problems for all i ellige ce services. I forma io as o how hese services address heir problems is highly u eve . More is ge erally k ow abou he U.S. sys em ha a y o her, a good deal abou ha of he old Sovie U io , a d compara ively less abou o her sys ems. I ellige ce sys ems follow hree ge eral models: he U.S., which was followed by former Wes Germa y, Japa , Sou h Korea, a d o her a io s ha came u der U.S. i flue ce af er World War II; he old Sovie , which was imi a ed i large measure by mos commu is -gover ed a io s; a d he Bri ish, o which were pa er ed he sys ems of mos a io s wi h rue parliame ary gover me s. he U i ed Ki gdom Bri ish i ellige ce was orga ized alo g modem li es as early as he days of Quee Elizabe h I, a d he lo g Bri ish experie ce has i flue ced he s ruc ure of mos o her sys ems. U like hose of he U i ed S a es a d he old Sovie U io , Bri ish i ellige ce age cies have preserved hrough mos of heir his ory a high degree of secrecy co cer i g heir orga iza io a d opera io s. Eve so, Bri ai has suffered from large umber of a ive spies wi hi he i ellige ce es ablishme . he wo pri cipal Bri ish i ellige ce age cies are he Secre I ellige ce Service (SIS; also k ow by i s war ime desig a io , MI-6) a d he Securi y Service (commo ly called MI-5). he labels derive from he fac ha he Secre I ellige ce Service was o ce &quo ;sec io six&quo ; of mili ary i ellige ce a d he Securi y Service, &quo ;sec io five.&quo ; MI-6 MI-6 is he formally Secre I ellige ce Service, Bri ish gover me age cy respo sible for he collec io , a alysis, a d appropria e dissemi a io of foreig i ellige ce. MI-6 is respo sible for he co duc of espio age ac ivi ies ou side Bri ish erri ory. he I ellige ce Services Ac 1994 defi es he role of MI6 as “a) o ob ai a d provide i forma io rela i g o he ac io s or i e io s of perso s ou side he Bri ish Isla ds; a d b) o perform o her asks rela i g o he ac io s or i e io s of such perso s. he i eres s of a io al securi y, wi h par icular refere ce o defe ce a d foreig policies.
he i eres s of he eco omic well-bei g of he UK.or i suppor of he preve io or de ec io of serious crime.” MI-6 has exis ed, i various forms si ce he es ablishme of a secre service i 1569 by Sir Fra cis Walsi gham, who became secre ary of s a e o Quee Elizabe h I. I was co s i u ed i i s prese form by Comma der (la er Sir) Ma sfield Cummi g i 1912 as World War I approached. I he 1930s a d 1940s i was co sidered he mos effec ive i ellige ce service i he world. Duri g he rise of azi Germa y, MI-6 co duc ed espio age opera io s i Europe, La i America, a d much of Asia. ( he &quo ;MI-6&quo ; label developed duri g his period because i was he &quo ;sec io six&quo ; of &quo ;mili ary i ellige ce.&quo ;) Whe he U i ed S a es e ered World War II, he Bri ish age cy helped rai perso el of he U.S. Office of S ra egic Services a d has si ce coopera ed wi h he successor Ce ral I ellige ce Age cy (CIA). he revela io i he mid-1950s ha MI-6 had bee pe e ra ed by Bri ish double age s who had served he Sovie U io si ce he 1930s s irred wide public co s er a io . De ails of MI-6 opera io s a d rela io ships seldom appear i he Bri ish press. he age cy has he power o ce sor such s ories hrough he use of &quo ;D&quo ; o ices u der he Official Secre s Ac . MI-6 repor s o he Foreig Office. A o her bra ch of Bri ish i ellige ce sys em is MI-5. MI-5 MI-5 is he formally Securi y Service, i ellige ce age cy charged wi h i er al securi y a d domes ic cou eri ellige ce ac ivi ies of he U i ed Ki gdom. I is au horized o i ves iga e a y perso or moveme ha migh hrea e he a io 's securi y. MI-5's earlies a ecede was a secre service formed i 1569 by Sir Fra cis Walsi gham, who la er became secre ary of s a e o Elizabe h I. he eed for ce ralized co rol of i ellige ce fu c io s was firs expressed early i he 20 h ce ury. MI-5 was formed i 1909 o ide ify a d cou er Germa spies he worki g i Bri ai , which i did wi h grea effec . I was placed u der he comma d of Ver o Kell, he a cap ai i he Bri ish army. Kell re ired as a major ge eral i 1924 a d was la er k igh ed, bu remai ed i charge he age cy u il 1940. ( he &quo ;MI-5&quo ; label developed duri g his period because i was he &quo ;sec io five&quo ; of &quo ;mili ary i ellige ce.&quo ;) he Securi y Service makes o direc arres s bu ra her works secre ly behi d he more publicized &quo ;Special Bra ch&quo ; of Sco la d Yard. he direc or of he Securi y Service repor s o he prime mi is er hrough he home secre ary. U doub edly, he successful ac ivi y of differe orga iza io s depe ds o heir leaders. For example, he boss of MI-5 duri g he mos successful years of i s work was a ex raordi ary perso , a woma of a grea spiri Dame S ella Rimi g o . Dame S ella Rimi g o Former Direc or Ge eral of MI5 S ella Rimi g o was he firs woma o lead MI5, he firs o be i ves ed as a Dame for her services o a io al securi y. She has broke he code of absolu e discre io ha is mea o bi d se ior public serva s oge her. he woma who was o become Bri ai 's mos famous female securi y officer was bor i Sou h orwood, Lo do , i 1935. She was a o ly child.
Her fa her was a mech ical e gi eer. Her mos vivid memories of childhood are of bei g bombed. She was educa ed a o i gham High School for Girls, a d Edi burgh U iversi y. O gradua io , she became a archivis , a job ha she ever saw as a serious career. She was i love wi h Joh Rimi g o , he ma who would become her husba d. She me him o he school bus whe she was 17. Soo hey los ouch, bu me up agai i Edi burgh. he couple married i 1963. He was by he a civil serva a d i 1965 was pos ed o he Bri ish High Commissio i ew Delhi a d she became a du iful diploma ic wife. She ook a ac ive par i ama eur drama ics, bu o much else. he , i 1969, much o her surprise, he local MI5 ma asked, if she would help ou as a assis a . As a bored housewife wi hou childre , she jumped a he cha ce. Fif ee years la er, she was separa ed from her husba d, had wo childre a d was, accordi g o o e former colleague, &quo ;a promisi g mid-level officer. She was solid, bu o dazzli g&quo ;. Bu MI5 was o be radically shake up duri g he Eigh ies, a d S ella Rimi g o be efi ed from he decisio o fi d &quo ; ew blood&quo ; o ru he orga isa io . She was give he difficul field of cou er-subversio , i which she was ex remely successful. She was promo ed o Direc or of Cou er-i ellige ce, he o bei g depu y Direc or Ge eral, i charge of opera io s, a d he , fi ally, i 1992, o head he orga isa io . As par of he ew, pos -Cold War &quo ;ope ess&quo ;, S ella Rimi g o was he firs Direc or Ge eral o be publicly amed. he publici y was o wi hou problems because he Su day imes ide ified her home address. I was a poi lessly cruel piece of jour alism, causi g her imme se i co ve ie ce as she a d her daugh ers had o move i s a ly from a eighbourhood hey liked o somewhere hey did ' . She fel a gry, bo h a he Su day imes a d wha she co sidered he lack of help from official quar ers. A year ago Dame S ella wro e a book abou her e ure as Direc or Ge eral of MI5, hough here are a lo of people i he Gover me who wish she would ’ . Why has she do e i ? Mo ey could be o e reaso . She has a dece pe sio from MI5, a couple of o -execu ive direc orships, i cludi g o e a Marks & Spe cer, bu hose are small beer compared o he six figure sum she could expec for her &quo ;au obiography of a spook&quo ;. Ye some of hose who k ow her doub ha she would s oop so low as o sell her cou ry's secre s for perso al gai . Ma y of her colleagues hi k ha she has a o her mo ive: va i y. S ella Rimi g o used o be a very impor a perso . ow she is ' . I 's pai ful a d she jus wa s o be back i he limeligh . Bu o he o her ha d here are o reaso s o worry abou . S ella Rimi g o was a brillia woma , so we will remember her forever. Besides, o lo g af erwards, she was immor alized as James Bo d's ew boss i Golde eye. James Bo d worked, of course, for MI6, o MI5, bu everyo e assumed ha Dame Judi De ch, who s arred i he role, was playi g S ella Rimi g o - i cludi g Dame S ella herself who fou d he por rayal &quo ;qui e s ar li g”.
Itek Corporation Draft 4/24/5. p. 1. 10. Department of Defense Directive, National Reconnaissance Office. March 27, 1964, p. 1. 11. Quest. Summer 1995, p. 22. 12. Corona: America's First Satellite Program. Edited by K. Ruffner. Wash., 1995, p. 46. 13. National Intelligence Estimate Number 11-8/1-61. Strength and Deployment of Soviet Long Range Ballistic Missile Forces. September 21, 1961, pp. 4, 5. 14. Там же, с. 7. 15. Составлена по: N. Johnson. Soviet Military Strategy in Space. L., 1987, p. 58. 16. Составлена по: Space Weapons - The Arms Control Dilemma. Edited by B. Jasani. L., 1987, p. 5. 17. Новое русское слово, 5 октября 1992 г. 18. P. Stares. Space and National Security. Wash., 1987, p. 8. 19. Review of the Soviet Space Program. Report of the Committee on Science and Astronautics U.S. House of Representatives. Wash., 1967, p. 79. 20. Там же, с. 46. 21. M. Smith. Space Activities of the United States, Soviet Union and Other Launching Countries/Organizations: 1957-1984. Library of Congress. Wash., 1984, p. 68. 22. P. Stares