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Охрана природы, Экология, Природопользование
- Is he problem of urge oday? - Yes, he problem of pro ec i g he a ure is of primary impor a ce oday. hrough heir daily ac ivi ies people pollu e a d co ami a e la d, wa er a d air. If i co i ues he damage may become irreversible. I is k ow far a d wide ha pollu io has ac compa ied ma ki d ever si ce groups of people firs assembled a d remai ed for a lo g ime i o e place. Bu pollu io was o a serious problem as lo g as here was e ough space available for each i dividual or group. Wi h he es ablishme of perma e huma se leme s pollu io became a problem a d has remai ed o e ever si ce. Wi h he rise of adva ced ech ology, he rapid spread of i dus rializa io a d he i crease of huma popula io s pollu io has become a u iversal problem. he price for rapid i dus rial developme is very high: a ural resources are exhaus ed, he ecological bala ce of he pla e is dis urbed. - How is he e viro me al pro ec io problem solved oday? - I rece years he pollu io problems have received grea publici y. he e viro me al moveme associa ed wi h o poli ical par y has gai ed widespread rus a d suppor . E viro me al ac ivis s s ress ha he problem is caused by i dus rial pollu io a d he au omobile. he media's begu o campaig agai s he ugli ess of billboards, i ca s a d rash. he pro ec io of a ural resources a d wildlife is becomi g a poli ical programme i every cou ry. umerous a i-pollu io ac s passed i differe cou ries led o co siderable improveme s i e viro me . I ma y cou ries purifyi g sys ems for rea me of i dus rial wa ers have bee i s alled, measures have bee ake o pro ec rivers a d seas from oil wa ers. - Wha are he mai problems of oday? - Clea i g up air pollu io is o e of he mai problems of o day. Urba air pollu io co i ues o expa d as a resul of he i creased umber of mo or vehicles. Exhaus fumes from he e gi es of au omobiles co ai a umber of pollu i g subs a ces. okyo has such a serious air-pollu io problem ha oxyge is supplied o policeme who direc raffic a busy i ersec io s. Mila , A kara, Mexico Ci y, a d Bue os Aires face similar problems. - Is acid rai damagi g o a ure? - O e of he clima ic effec s of air pollu io is acid rai . I is damagi g o wa er, fores , a d soil resources. I is blamed for he disappeara ce of fish from ma y lakes, for he widespread dea h of fores s i Europea mou ai s, a d for damagi g ree grow h i he U i ed S a es a d Ca ada. Acid rai has bee repor ed i areas as far apar as Swede a d Ca ada, a d i par s of he U i ed S a es from ew E gla d o exas. - Does radioac ive co ami a io of e viro me worry people? - People also co cer over he da gers resul i g from massive releases of radioac ive ma erials from uclear weapo s, which, if used o a major scale, could seriously e da ger all of huma i y. A o her co cer is accide s a uclear power pla s. I 1978 a uclear power pla i Pe sylva ia suffered a severe accide leadi g o par ial mel dow of i s radioac ive core. I 1986 he Cher obyl uclear power pla ear Kiev suffered a fire a d par ial mel dow , resul i g i a major release of radioac ive par icles. Much of or her a d eas er Europe experie ced heavy uclear fallou .
he ru off from broke -dow a ks is he source of orga ic pollu a s. I dus ries loca ed alo g wa erways dow s ream co ribu e a umber of chemical pollu a s, some of which are oxic. O e form of pollu io ha is charac eris ic of i dus rial socie ies is oise. - Wha ca people do o s op pollu io ? - A emp s o co rol pollu io , i i ia ed duri g he 1950s, resul ed i he successful elimi a io of such sources of pollu io as i dus rial efflue s a d he ou door bur i g of rash a d debris. he ask of clea i g up air pollu io , hough difficul , is o believed o be impossible. Use of fuels ha are low i pollu a s; more comple e bur i g of fossil fuels; he scrubbi g of i dus rial smokes acks of e i combi a io wi h a recycli g of he pollu a s; a d he shif o less pollu i g forms of power ge era io , such as solar e ergy i place of fossil fuels - all are me hods ha ca be used for co rolli g pollu io . Ma y large ci ies have ake measures o decrease he level of urba oise; he problem has received much a e io wi h he ad ve of superso ic je aeropla es. I 1971 he U. S. Co gress vo ed dow appropria io s o suppor he developme of superso ic ra spor (SS ) pla es. A mospheric es i g of uclear bombs was s opped i differe cou ries o preve radioac ive co ami a io of he a mosphere. I 1990 he Bri ish gover me commi ed i self o a 30 per ce reduc io i carbo dioxide emissio by he year 2005. - Wha ca commo people do o pro ec a ure! - o pro ec a ure people should cha ge heir a i ude o i . Ma should s op aki g from i every hi g he eeds a d give i his love i s ead. O herwise he payoff will be oo high. I is good ha a las people s ar ed o realize ha hey should keep air a d wa er clea by es ablishi g s ric pollu io co rol. Effor s are bei g made o reduce pollu io from au omobile e gi es by developi g pollu io -free e gi es which may eve ually elimi a e he more serious air pollu io problems. Moreover, he s ro g public reac io ca facili a e he exercise of absolu e pollu io co rol i various co ami a io i dus ries.
In 1974 the Dene, Mц©tis, and Inuit people stunned the world by blocking the Mackenzie Gas Project, a long-planned pipeline to bring Arctic natural gas to southern markets and a cornerstone of CanadaБЂ™s northern development plan. Their negotiations took even longer, but today, with their land claims agreements and businesses in place, most are now avid supporters of the pipeline.457 Like ANCSA their aboriginal-owned corporations and companies will benefit greatly from the project, which could begin as soon as 2018.458 CanadaБЂ™s modern land claims agreements have evolved well beyond the simple business corporations of ANCSA. From the outset their aboriginal negotiators insisted that the new agreements affirm not only property rights but political, social, and cultural ones as well. Many settlements also set up political self-governance. They collect royalties from the extraction of subsurface minerals, oil, and natural gas, not only from the granted property but from surrounding public lands.459 Aboriginal corporations and the Canadian government now make joint decisions on development, wildlife management, and environmental protections on these public lands
1. Environmental protection
2. Ecological problems and environmental protection
3. Transport & environmental policy (EU)
4. Transport & environmental policy (EU)
5. Прошлое экологического движения (The Environmental Movement As It Was)
9. Environmental problems in Arkhangelsk region