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The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

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he impac of he Afgha War o sovie soldiers. Defe se of he Socialis Mo herla d is he sacred du y of every ci ize of he USSR. Ar icle 62, Sovie 1977 Co s i u io Sovie i vasio i Afgha is a s ar ed i December 1979, whe he firs mili ary roops crossed he Afgha border. O ly a he ime of ‘peres royka’, i he year 1988, Gorbachov, he leader of Poli buro - s ar he process of wi hdrawi g mili ary roops from he erri ory of Afgha is a . Be wee 1979 a d 1988, abou 15,000 soldiers were killed, a d ma y o hers were wou ded. Gorbachov wa ed o s op ha war. He s opped i as a his orical fac . Bu did he s op ha war i side he hear s of housa ds of ve era s who came back o heir homes? Did he preve he ega ive impac of ha war o soldiers’ lives? he a swer is simple - o. My essay will give evide ce i suppor of his opi io . he Afgha War cha ged ma y people’s lives i he USSR. S ill, i prese -day Russia, he co seque ces of ha war are appeared. he grea es impac of he Afgha War ca be see o he people who were here - soldiers who had o serve i Afgha is a a d fulfill heir ‘i er a io al du y’. he war for which here was o eed, had des royed ma y soldiers’ lives. Fif ee housa d of hem had bee killed, a d ma y o hers had bee i jured, some havi g become i valids, u eeded o he gover me who had se hem o ha war, a d o he people who were o i he war. Every si gle you g ma who we o Afgha is a co i ued his life differe ly from he people who had ever bee here. he effec was due o merely o a war, bu o he whole sys em of he ex-USSR. I my essay I will ry o describe bo h of hese effec s o soldiers’ lives. he ew life for he eigh ee year old boys bega whe hey gradua ed from high school. Some of hem became recrui s duri g he spri g draf , o hers duri g he fall draf . Recrui s bou d for Afgha is a would receive 8-10 weeks’ rai i g before bei g se o heir u i s. From ha mome hey became subjec o he subordi a io of officers hrough he formal cha els of au hori y, a d he i formal of dedovshi a (discrimi a io by he older soldiers). ewcomers were kep i li e, while bei g bea e . his co i ued u il he ew soldiers agreed o acquiesce. ha was jus he begi i g of soldiers’ lives, bei g se o he war hey all experie ced i very differe ways. he impac of figh i g a d he experie ce of killi g, dedovshi a, a alie mili ary i s i u io , a d a alie la d cha ged he charac ers a d lives of he soldiers before hey re ur ed home. ‘We were i a alie la d. A d why were we here? o his day, for some, i does ’ ma er.’ War i Afgha is a was o exclusively a male war. Ma y of he wome who volu eered o served i Afgha is a were urses, o hers filled a varie y of suppor or ur ure roles (as cooks, for example). he res were i volved i paperwork or commu ica io . For hese i Afgha is a wome he mai problem became me . hey a rac ed soldiers i Afgha is a o o ly as sex objec s bu also as mo her figures. Of e wome were raped by soldiers who had bee se o Afgha is a i s ead of goi g o priso . hus i he Sovie pa riarchal socie y he belief ha wome who served i Afgha is a were whores or pros i u es ook roo . Here, a woma who had served i Afgha is a describes her feeli gs: ‘You fulfilled your i er a io al du y i a bed’.

My mo her proudly a ou ced o her frie ds: ‘My daugh er was i Afgha is a .’ My aive mo her! I wa o wri e o her: ‘Mo her, be quie or you’ll hear people say your daugh er is a pros i u e.’ Af er comi g home, soldiers orga ized he form of a commu i y ha hey had bee accus omed o i Afgha is a , wi h heir ow cus oms a d jargo . Comi g back o ormal life was e ormously difficul for hem, because of he reaso s ha I will explai i ex paragraph. hus, from he begi i g hey separa ed hemselves from he surrou di g socie y. Ma y ve era s became members of Mafia groups. he lives of he re ur i g soldiers differed from each o her, bu o o e poi i was he same for every ve era : hey could o live ormal lives i socie y, as hey would have wi hou havi g experie ced he war. I he words of a ve era who had served i Afgha is a : ‘You ever really come home.’ O e of he mai reaso for ve era s holdi g back from socie y was ha civilia s me soldiers comi g back o homes wi hou ho or. For y-six perce of civilia s said ha he Afgha war was a Russia a io al shame, a d o ly 6% of hem said ha hey were proud of heir soldiers who had fulfilled heir i er a io al du y i Afgha is a . Ve era s fel ha heir effor s a d e dura ce had o bee wholly i vai . Of e ve era s became he objec of cri icism by media a d public opi io . People hough ha he war had made warriors of he me , a d, i fear, kep away from ve era s. he media blamed hem - o he gover me - for aki g par i he war a d par ly for losi g i . hus, af er comi g back, soldiers s ar ed o look wi h ew eyes upo he socie y ha had se hem o heir dea h. While hey had bee i Afgha is a , he public a d media had expressed co emp for he soldiers; af er hey re ur ed, his se ime o ly i creased. Disrespec o he people a d o he gover me al sys em became commo amo g soldiers who were experie ci g discrimi a io af er havi g fulfilled heir du y. his si ua io galva ized po e ial me , u happy wi h heir poli ical sys em i o s riki g. Duri g he pu sch of 1991, ma y ve era s suppor ed Mayor Sobchak, who suppor ed he pu sch agai s he ew democra ic gover me i Le i grad. he lo g- erm impac , a d o e of he mos errible co seque ces of he Afgha War, was he addic io of soldiers o alcohol a d drugs. Dea h, dri ki g, a d drugs became par of he ve era s’ lives forever. Drugs were esse ial o he survival of he soldiers. Drugs helped hem o carry 40 kilos of ammu i io up a d dow he mou ai s, o overcome depressio af er heir frie ds’ dea hs, o prevail over he fear of dea h. Drugs a d alcohol became he usual procedure of self-medica io whe o her op io s were de ied. he abuse of drugs crea ed a ge era io of drug a d alcohol addic s. Accordi g o he official repor s of he Russia Depar me of Heal h Services, 40 millio s medically cer ified alcoholics i 1985 were regis ered. Co sump io of alcohol had i creased 20,4% from i s co sump io i 1950-79. If hese were official repor s he i is possible ha hey were o ly a par of ru h, a d a o her par is like he bo om par of a iceberg - i ca o be predic ed. here was ’ a si gle perso amo g us who did o ry drugs i Afgha is a . You eeded relaxa io here, or you we ou of your mi d.

Ve era of Afgha War Comi g back home, ve era s fou d employme i ma y differe fields, from drivi g buses o ba ki g. Bu mos of hem s ar ed o work o he field which was closes o wha hey had do e i Afgha is a . Emerge cy services such as he fireme , mili ia a d rescue depar me s had a shor age of workers a ha ime a d ma y of he Afgha ve era s co i ued o work here. Fi di g a job was o e of he privileges which he gover me gave o he ve era s. his was maybe he o ly privilege which was really fulfilled. Bu his was a s ra egic ma euver for he Sovie gover me : o preve ve era s from assumi g employme i he U io of Afgha War Ve era s Socie y. he gover me was afraid of his U io because i u i ed he mos da gerous a d prepared warriors i Russia. A o her major impac of he Afgha war o soldiers lives’ was i juries a d me al disorders. ‘Mos of us came home. O ly we all came home differe ly. Some of us o cru ches, some of us wi h gray hair, ma y i zi c coffi s.’ Al hough a medical service was es ablished o a moder a d highly effec ive level ( 93% of he roops received i i ial medical aid wi hi 30 mi u es a d he a e io of a specialized doc or wi hi six hours), ma y soldiers became i valids duri g he war. Fif y housa d soldiers were wou ded i ac io , of whom 11,371 became i valids a d were u able o re ur o work, while 1,479 ve era s received he mos serious ca egory of disabili y. hese ve era s were u able o co i ue worki g a d leadi g ormal lives. hese circums a ces forced hem o live o he ear i gs of heir family members a d o he gover me s’ i valid be efi . Bu eve hese be efi s were paid i co s a ly a d were ex remely low. O e of he privileges which Afgha is a ve era s received was a fla i a ewly buil house. I he Sovie Russia sys em, which recog ized o priva e ow ership of proper y, every si gle ci ize had o wai i a li e of housa ds of people before ge i g a fla . Afgha is a ve era s were pu a he begi i g of ha li e, bu corrup io i he Russia bureaucracy had wide ed he process of gra i g ew fla s o he i valids a d ve era s. hus whe he free marke eco omy was es ablished i Russia a d all he li es for he fla s were ca celed, people had o buy hem wi h heir ow mo ey, a d ma y ve era s a d i valids of he Afgha War remai ed wi hou heir fla s. hus he bureaucra ic sys em i Russia had lef mos of he ve era s wi hou heir privileges a d be efi s. O e mo her wro e i he le er o Poli buro ‘Why did you rui my so , why did you spoil his mi d a d his soul?’. While physical disabili y was rela ively easy o prove a d o cure, he psychological damage was far more complica ed o diag osis a d o rea . Moder cou er-i surge cy wars i volve a par icularly high i cide ce of psychological damage; ge erally Pos - rauma ic s ress disorders, symp oms which i clude flashbacks, emo io al umb ess, wi hdrawal, jumpy hyperaler ess or over-compe sa ory ex roversio . his was caused par ly because of he cri ical s resses of comba a d i jury. I mos cases me al disorders were caused by u clear fro -li e zo es. Soldiers had experie ced mos ly ‘road war’ wi hou clear fro -li e mea ha o place was safe.

Afghanistan and Central Asia. L., 1878. Duke J. Recollections of the Kabul campaign 1879-1880. L., 1883. Dunbar J. Golden Interlude. The Edens in India, 1836-1842. L., 1955. Durand H. M. The first Afghan War and its causes. L., 1879. Eastwick W. H. Lord Lytton and the Afghan War. L., 1879. Eden G. Lord Auckland and Lord Ellenborough. L., 1845. Elfinstone M. An account of the kingdom of Caubul and its dependencies, in Persia, Tartary, and India; comprising a view of the Afghan nation, and a history of the Dooraunee monarchy. L., 1815. Elliot W. J. The Victoria cross in Afghanistan and on the frontiers of India, during the years 1877-1880. L., 1882. England, Afghanistan and Russia. "Edinburgh Review", 1886, January. Enriquez, С. М. The pathan borderland. A consecutive account of the country and people on and beyond the Indian frontier from Chitral to Dera Ismail Khan. Calcutta-Simla, 1921. Eyre V. The military operations at Cabul, which ended in the retreat and destruction of the British army. L., 1843. Ferrier J. P

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