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Marketing reflections on learning outcomes
MRK 106 FQ VALERI OPARYCHEVCASE S UDY SUBJEC : MY I ERPRE A IO OF HE COURSE LEAR I G OU COMES he purpose of his case s udy is o prese a brief overview of he marke i g s udy ou comes a d perso al i erpre a io of he key poi s of marke i g heory covered i his course. he i erpre a io will be aimed a emphasizi g he prac ical impor a ce of marke i g oday.MARKE I G: EVOLU IO A D PURPOSE he idea of marke i g mus have exis ed for ma y ce uries. Ye , a he begi i g i probably was o so sophis ica ed heory as i is oday. Because of he globaliza io a d rapid developme of i forma io ech ologies people, or marke par icipa s, have bee urged o sys ema ize heir marke experie ce i o a well-orga ized heory. I our course of s udy he marke i g has bee defi ed by he erm ha sou ds more specific: «a approach o busi ess focusi g o sa isfyi g cus omer eeds a d wa s». o serve i s key purpose, he marke i g s rives o fi d a a swer o such ques io s as why cus omers do o or, co versely, do readily buy produc s offered by he sellers, who he ideal buyers are, a d wha should be do e o have he buyers buy wha he sellers offer. I fac , he erms «buyers» a d «sellers» are o absolu ely accura e as applied o marke i g. o be more accura e, he marke i g approach implies ha he busi ess ac ivi ies are ce ered o cus omer, because he co cep of busi ess here mea s bo h profi a d o -profi orga iza io s. So, he words «buy» a d «produc s», or «services», ca be ide ified as he key erms reflec i g he idea of marke i g. I should also be o ed ha he words «buy» a d «services» represe a wide ra ge of services, o -profi ac ivi ies, a d behavior.S RA EGIC IMPOR A CE OF MARKE I G CO CEP he key poi s of marke i g co cep are cus omer sa isfac io , profi , a d properly orga ized effor s o make profi hrough cus omer sa isfac io . A he same ime, s ra egically, i is impor a o u ders a d ha a busi ess ca be profi able, or successful, o ly if i fi ds a way o sa isfy cus omers be er ha i s compe i ors. his mea s, ha oday's busi ess ca a rac cus omers o ly hrough successful compe i io . Because of he highly compe i ive e viro me , oday i is o e ough jus o sa isfy. he impor a hi g is o be be er. I o her words, if a busi ess is u able o compe e, i fails o impleme he key marke i g ideas simply because such busi ess will fail o sa isfy cus omers. Moreover, u der he compe i ive e viro me i becomes impor a o o ly o mee , bu also o exceed he cus omers' eeds. I a orga iza io , he role of marke i g co cep is more profou d: here he marke i g co cep implies ha everyo e's job is o serve he cus omers direc ly, or o serve hose who serve he cus omers. For example, o co ribu e o profi hrough savi g cos s or, i o her words, o serve he i er al cus omers. his idea is especially impor a o emphasize i erms of he roles we may play i a orga iza io i our day- o-day life: we do o ecessarily have o deal wi h cus omers direc ly o co ribu e o he commo goal of cus omer sa isfac io . Bu our roles i i ca be sig ifica wi hou doi g so.COMPO E S OF MARKE I G S RA EGY A D HEIR IMPOR A CE he key compo e s here are arge marke (a group of cus omers o sa isfy) a d produc mix (produc , price, place, a d promo io ).
I real life, hese compo e s boil dow o he followi g objec ive all busi esses eed o fulfill: o i crease he umber of cus omers so as o i crease sales. o achieve his goal, he marke i g s ra egy should give us ips o how o do ha . I every par icular si ua io we face i day- o-day life we have o fi d a swers o specific ques io s. For example, o sell a accou i g service like fili g a perso al i come ax re ur we would eed o de ermi e wha has o be do e o a rac cus omers (Produc ), wha ki d of office would be eeded o deliver he service (Place), how much i would cos a d wha price would be righ (Price), a d wha should be do e o a rac more cus omers (Promo io ). I is easy o see ha his pa er would have o be followed i every real-life si ua io . Eve looki g for a job we would have o be co cer ed wi h where we ca work (Place), wha we ca do (Produc ), a wha remu era io (Price), a d how o a rac employer's a e io o be employed (Promo io ). A d i every case we would look for specific cus omers who eed o have heir i come ax re ur filed a d a specific employer who employees specifically like we are ( arge marke ). So, o e way or he o her, he marke i g s ra egy will work for our purpose. he ques io is jus how o ide ify i s compo e s i specific erms as applied o every specific objec ive.U CO ROLLABLE E VIRO ME S AFFEC I G MARKE I G DECISIO S BO H DOMES ICALLY A D I ER A IO ALLY U like he 4P’s of marke i g ha ca be co rolled by us, some e viro me s are u co rollable by a ure, because we jus have o cha ce o i flue ce hem. hey may i clude, for example, cul ural, eco omic, legal, poli ical, ech ological, a d social e viro me s. his should o mea , however, ha we should le hem co rol us wi hou a y respo se. o succeed, busi esses have o re-adjus hemselves a d fi d he bes ways o work i hem. he impor a poi is ha we eed o o ly ide ify hem, bu also ry o see if here are ew oppor u i ies. For example, he cha gi g demographics i side our cou ry should make us look arou d o see how o readjus our produc s a d services o differe as es a d prefere ces. I er a io ally, we should always be aware of ariffs a d quo as a d es ima e our compe i ive po e ial. Wa chi g he cha ges we develop possible sce arios, make releva decisio s, a d ge ready o impleme hem. Wha ca be he co seque ces of he war i Iraq for marke i g decisio s? reme dous, o say he leas of i . So here are a lo of hi gs for marke i g specialis s o hi k of bo h i er a io ally a d domes ically.IMPAC OF SUPPLY, DEMA D, A D ELAS ICI Y he supply, dema d, a d elas ici y have a direc impac o marke i g decisio s. he low dema d may poi o he ecessi y for be er promo io of produc s a d services simply because he co sumers may ur ou o k ow oo li le abou he produc , or be u aware of i a all. here would be li le wo der if our specific produc is o i dema d, eve hough our compe i ors sell he same o e very successfully. Wha if we fail o sell fresh wa er i ho summer ime? Such paradox is qui e possible if we do o follow simple marke i g pri ciple of 4 Ps. I erms of marke i g, dema d should o be viewed as some hi g s a ic. Eve as applied o fu dame ally ew produc s, i ca be crea ed hrough marke i g decisio s.
o say o hi g of basic eeds like fresh wa er i ho summer. We jus have o remember of 4 Ps. he idea of supply i marke i g is especially impor a i erms of compe i io : if we fail o provide supply ha mee s dema d, our compe i ors will do i for us fas e ough o heir ow adva age. he idea of dema d elas ici y is also impor a i erms of marke i g decisio s. For example, i elas ic dema d for a produc usually resul s from a lack of subs i u es. For his reaso , marke i g decisio s migh be aimed a ide ifyi g or crea i g a ew produc or service o subs i u e for he o e wi h i elas ic dema d.MARKE SEGME A IO A D CO CEP OF POSI IO I G I simple erms, he idea of marke segme a io ( ami g a d segme i g) is how o o lose he focus. For his purpose, ide ifyi g mos promisi g co sumers is really a cri ical par of marke i g ac ivi ies. Would i be a reaso able decisio for us o ry selli g air co di io ers i or her erri ories a d s ow-removi g equipme i Sou h Califor ia? Hopefully o . he idea of posi io i g is also impor a i erms of co sumers' psychology. Wi h he diversi y of produc s oday, i becomes impor a o be able o have a proper u ders a di g of co sumer’s eeds a d a i ude, o see wha a d why hey eed a d how heir eeds are sa isfied by he exis i g marke .CO SUMER PRODUC CLASSIFICA IO S, PRODUC LIFE CYCLE, PACKAGI G, A D BRA DI G he idea of co sumer produc classifica io s is impor a i erms of u ders a di g how hey hi k of hem a d wha ca be he mo iva io o buy hem. his u ders a di g is really cri ical, because o projec our ow percep io s o wha we wa o sell should be he las hi g o do. Si ce he huma a ure is really a complica ed hi g, herefore he accumula ed k owledge a d observa io s made by he marke i g scie is s ca be really helpful i maki g decisio s. his may apply o cer ai par icular classes of co sumers' produc s like co ve ie ce, shoppi g, special y, a d u sough produc s. he useful hi g o realize is ha i selli g a specific produc or service we eed o ake i o accou specific quali ies hey offer, i erms of bo h ma erial a d psychological implica io s. Bra di g is also a impor a fac or i marke i g decisio s. he idea of bra di g is o wi wider a d s eadier recog i io , hough i real life a bra d would o ecessarily e sure a desired quali y. Ye i works a d, herefore, should be ake i o accou for compe i ive co sidera io s. O e of he impor a real life implica io s here is ha o sell a bra ded produc we would have o hi k well of wha ki d of adva ages migh co ras our produc or service agai s he compe i or’s o e. he produc life cycle is especially impor a o i erms of pla i g of our marke i g ac ivi ies. For example, whe deali g wi h a ew produc o he marke i is impor a o be aware of he mai s ages of produc ’s life. he low sales a he i roduc io a d marke grow h s ages would affec our marke i g decisio s i ma y ways, specifically i erms of promo io approaches, prici g policies, scale of produc io , fi a ci g, risk aki g, e c.CHA EL I ERMEDIARIES I ermediaries, as a i direc cha el of dis ribu io , play a very impor a role i selli g, which is o e of mos cri ical marke i g fu c io s.
Some obstacles to a frictionless global market are truly sources of waste and lost opportunities. But some of these inefficiencies are institutions, habits, cultures, and traditions that people cherish precisely because they reflect nonmarket values like social cohesion, religious faith, and national pride. If global markets and new communications technologies flatten those differences, we may lose something important. That is why the debate about capitalism has been, from the very beginning, about which frictions, barriers, and boundaries are mere sources of waste and inefficiency, and which are sources of identity and belonging that we should try to protect. From the telegraph to the Internet, every new communications technology has promised to shrink the distance between people, to increase access to information, and to bring us ever closer to the dream of a perfectly efficient, frictionless global market. And each time, the question for society arises with renewed urgency: To what extent should we stand aside, 'get with the program,' and do all we can to squeeze out yet more inefficiencies, and to what extent should we lean against the current for the sake of values that global markets can't supply? Some sources of friction are worth protecting, even in the face of a global economy that threatens to flatten them.” The biggest source of friction, of course, has always been the nation-state, with its clearly defined boundaries and laws
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