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История История

The history of Australia

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Раздел: Ночники

Реферат на тему: “ he his ory of Aus ralia” Работу выполнила студентка Института Молодежи группы МО- 102 Москва 1999 г. Co e s Ge eral i forma io abou Aus ralia 3 a io al a hem, flag a d he coa -of-arms 3 erra I cog i a (U k ow la d) .4 Firs Europea se leme .4 Crea io of he Commo weal h of Aus ralia 5 ew crow colo ies .5 Aus ralia’s ies wi h Grea Bri ai a d he USA. 6 Li era ure .8 Ge eral I forma io abou Aus ralia Aus ralia is si ua ed i he sou h-wes of he Pacific Ocea . he area of his cou ry is 7,7 millio square kilome res. he popula io of he cou ry is abou 20 millio people. he capi al is Ca berra. he popula io of Ca berra is abou 300 housa d people. Official la guage is E glish. Aus ralia is he larges isla d i he world a d i is he smalles co i e . he Commo weal h of Aus ralia is a self-gover i g federal s a e. I has go 6 s a es: ew Sou h Wales, Vic oria, Quee sla d, Sou h Aus ralia, asma ia a d 2 i er al erri ories. a io al A hem, Flag a d he Coa -of-Arms Aus ralia a io al flag co sis s of 5 whi e s ars of he Sou her Cross a d he whi e Commo weal h s ar ( he large seve poi ed s ar) o a blue backgrou d wi h a U io Jack i ca o . he Sou her Cross is he sou her Crux, whose four chief s ars are i he form of cross. he flag of Aus ralia is he o ly o e o fly over a whole co i e . he small U io Jack represe s he his orical li k wi h Bri ai , a d he large seve -poi ed s ar represe s he six s a es a d he erri ories, a d he small s ars form he Sou her Cross – a promi e fea ure of he sou her hemisphere igh sky. A dis i c ive Aus ralia flora a d fau a is reflec ed i he cou ry’s coa -of-arms by he symbols of Aus ralia’s e demic a imals; ka garoo a d emu a d wig of wa le (a ki d of acacia). Aus ralia officially adop ed gree a d gold as i s a io al colours i 1984. he Aus ralia a io al a hem was adop ed i he 1970 ies. I is used o he all official a d ceremo ial occasio s. erra I cog i a (U k ow La d) I is supposed ha Aus ralia’s a ive i habi a s, he Aborigi es, arrived i Aus ralia a leas 40,000 years ago. he firs Europea s visi ed he shores of Aus ralia i 1606. he Spa ish ship of Luis Vaes de orres sailed hrough he s rai which ow bears his ame a d separa es Aus ralia a d Papua ew Gui ea. I he same year he Du ch ship Duyfke (Li le Dove) sailed i o he Gulf of Carpe aria. Amo g la er voyagers is Dirk Har og (1616), who lef a i scribed pew er pla e (Aus ralia’s mos famous early Europea relic, ow i Ams erdam) i Wes er Aus ralia. Abel asma , Du ch aviga or, visi ed asma ia, which he amed Va Dieme ’s La d, i 1642. he firs E glishma o visi he co i e was a bucca eer, William Dampier, who la ded ear Ki g Sou d o he or hwes coas i 1699. A seco d wave of immigra io bega i 1770, whe Cap ai James Cook, of he Bri ish avy, sigh ed he eas coas of he co i e . Cook had bee se o ahi i o make as ro omical observa io s a d whe his missio was comple ed, he sailed sou h i E deavour, circum aviga ed ew Zeala d a d headed due wes . O April 20, 1770, Cook sigh ed la d ear Cape Everard, i he sou heas cor er of Aus ralia. He ur ed or h, char i g he coas li e as he we a d, 9 days la er, la ded a Bo a y Bay, which he amed for he varie y of bo a ic specime fou d here.

He raised he Bri ish flag a d claimed ew Sou h Wales as a Bri ish Colo y. Firs Europea Se leme I is probably due o i s geographical posi io ha Aus ralia was he las co i e o be i habi ed by he whi e ma . I was jus a li le over 390 years ha he Aus ralia co i e was discovered. he firs la di g by Europea s ook place i 1606. More ha a ce ury a d a half la er a expedi io headed by he Bri ish explorer James Cook added he la d o he possessio s of he Bri ish crow . U il he ame “Aus ralia” (mea i g “Sou h La d”) became ge erally accep ed for he co i e , i had bee referred o as ew Holla d, ew Sou h Wales, or Bo a y Bay. Duri g he War of I depe de ce (1776) he former Bri ish colo ies i America declared hemselves i depe de . Bri ai ried o make up for his loss by he seizure of ew erri ories. Besides, he co vic s could o lo ger be ra spor ed o he America colo ies (which had served his purpose for over hu dred years) a d Bri ish jails were more ha badly overcrowded. he firs co i ge of he co vic s a d heir guards la ded where Syd ey s a ds oday, o Ja uary 26, 1788. I was he so-called “Firs Flee ” a d hese people were called “firs flee ers” ow, Aus ralia Day, Ja uary 26, commemora es he la di g. Gradually more a d more people arrived ( hey were co vic s as well as free se lers) a d a umber of se leme s were fou ded alo g he sou her a d eas er coas s. For he firs few years, he colo is s were almos e irely depe de o food supplies from overseas bu gradually he la d arou d he se leme s was brough u der cul iva io . Soils were ge erally poor a d crop yields low, bu be er agricul ural la d was soo fou d ear Parrama a, o he wes . Explora ory voyages were also made alo g he eas coas . he boldes was ha of Cap ai Ma hew Fli ders who, i 1802-1803 circum aviga ed he co i e . Aus ralia Day is a very impor a holiday for he Aus ralia s, a o her equally impor a holiday is called A zac Day. Crea io of he Commo weal h of Aus ralia I 1901 he separa e colo ies i Aus ralia merged oge her a d became he S a es of he Commo weal h of Aus ralia, which acquired he s a us of domi io of Grea Bri ai . he Commo weal h of Aus ralia – a federa io of he 6 former colo ies as s a es – was declared o come i o bei g o Ja uary 1, 1901. he firs Gover or – Ge eral, he Earl of Hope ou , co ve ed he firs Parliame of he Commo weal h of Aus ralia o April 29, 1901. I was ope ed i Melbour e o May 9 by Duke of Cor wall a d York, so of Ki g Edward VII. Sir Edmu d Bar o was he firs Prime Mi is er. he co s i u io provided for Federal Parliame o si i Melbour e u il a federal capi al erri ory was selec ed a d es ablished. he prese Aus ralia Capi al erri ory was ceded from ew Sou h Wales o become federal erri ory i 1911, a d he fu ure capi al was amed Ca berra i 1913. he firs Federal Parliame o mee i Ca berra was ope ed by he Duke of York, la er Ki g George VI, o May 9, 1927. hough Aus ralia ow is a i depe de s a e, accordi g o he Co s i u io he head of he s a e is he Mo arch of Grea Bri ai , represe ed by he Gover or-Ge eral. His du ies i clude asse i g o bills, ope i g, prorogui g a d dissolvi g Parliame a d commissio i g he Prime Mi is er o form a gover me .

Gover or-Ge eral’s reside ce Jarralumla is i Ca berra. he Commo weal h of Aus ralia is composed of 6 s a es a d 2 erri ories: he S a e of ew Sou h Wales wi h i s capi al i Syd ey, he S a e of Vic oria wi h i s capi al i Melbour e, he S a e of Quee la d wi h i s capi al i Brisba e, he Sa e of Wes er Aus ralia wi h i s capi al i Per h, he S a e of asma ia wi h i s capi al i Hobar , Aus ralia Capi al erri ory wi h i s Federal Capi al i Ca berra, a d or her erri ory wi h i s capi al i Darwi . ew Crow Colo ies Grea Bri ai was o he verge of loosi g 13 rebellious America Colo ies i 1770. A ha ime Cap ai James Cook who led a scie ific voyager pla ed he Bri ish e sig o a co i e ha would soo provide a vas ew colo y: Aus ralia. he will o es ablish ew crow colo ies was i sis e eve before he old o es mere los . he Parliame deba ed he si e as early as 1779. O ly 18 years af er Cap ai James Cook had la ded i Bo a y Bay, Cap ai Ar hur Philip arrived i Syd ey Cove o begi he firs se leme . I ma y ways, America a d Aus ralia have had correspo di g his ories of explora io , colo iza io , immigra io , a d grow h. Bo h bega wi h se leme s o he fri ges of huge co i e s, gradually pushi g i ward o cul iva e a wilder ess i erior. A d bo h developed a fro ier e hos of i depe de ce. As he co vic s ear ed heir freedom, hey we i o he ou back a d s aked claims o la d. hese me , k ow as Squa ers, raised sheep or ca le, depe di g o he ype of la d hey fou d for hemselves. O her co vic s however rever ed o heir crimi al ways a d became ou laws, raidi g he ow s a d s eali g from he squa ers. he early par of Aus ralia his ory is filled wi h he ales of he se lers. hese bushra gers of e became folk-heroes i he radi io of Robi Hood a d Dick urpi i E gla d, a d Jesse James i he U i ed S a es. Ma y poems a d so gs were wri e abou hem a d a o e ime i was a crimi al offe ce o si g or reci e hese ballads which glorified crime. o e heless, every Aus ralia oday k ows he s ories of he famous bushra gers. hese ballads a d so gs s ar ed he radi io of Aus ralia “yar ” a d i s heroes, Dad’s Dave amo g hem. he hard rough life i he ou back was o place for wome . he Squa ers searched he ow s for wives o ake o heir s a io s. I was ’ very pleasa prospec for a ew bride, bu some girls were lucky e ough o u der ake he adve ure. he image of a ypical Aus ralia was a all, hi a d blo d ma who was called a “Cor s alk”, some imes weari g a cabbage ree ha . Aus ralia s celebra ed heir bice e ial begi i g Ja . 26, 1988 a d co i ui g all ex year. O ha da e i 1788, 11 ships arrived from Bri ai , a d 1.030 se lers, i cludi g 776 co vic s, bega heir ew life i wa erfro sec io of Syd ey called “ he Rocks”. Aus ralia’s ies Wi h Grea Bri ai A d he USA I i ially, Bri ai a d he Commo weal h cou ries were he ce ral eleme s of Aus ralia’s foreig policy a d ac ivi y. La er, closer rela io s were also developed wi h he USA, par ly because of he vi al role i played i he Pacific duri g a d af er World War II. Aus ralia ca seem qui e Bri ish a imes a d somewha America a o hers. Poli ical, legal, a d educa io al i s i u io s derive from Bri ai .

That makes it the leading cause of history's broadest pattern. But why were Eurasians, rather than Native Americans or sub-Saharan Africans, the ones to invent firearms, oceangoing ships, and steel equipment? The differences extend to most other significant technological advances, from printing presses to glass and steam engines. Why were all those inventions Eurasian? Why were all New Guineans and Native Australians in a.d. 1800 still using stone tools like ones discarded thousands of years ago in Eurasia and most of Africa, even though some of the world's richest copper and iron deposits are in New Guinea and Australia, respectively? All those facts explain why so many laypeople assume that Eurasians are superior to other peoples in inventiveness and intelligence. If, on the other hand, no such difference in human neurobiology exists to account for continental differences in technological development, what does account for them? An alternative view rests on the heroic theory of invention. Technological advances seem to come disproportionately from a few very rare geniuses, such as Johannes Gutenberg, James Watt, Thomas Edison, and the Wright brothers

1. The History of English

2. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

3. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

4. The commonwealth of Australia

5. The history of Christmas

6. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia
The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia
7. The history of Manhattan
The history of Manhattan
8. The history of Germany and tourism
The history of Germany and tourism

9. The history of grammatical study of the English language

10. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

11. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

12. History of democracy of the USA

13. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language

14. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)

15. The Tower of London

16. The Economy of Great Britain

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Раздел: Развивающие коврики не интерактивные

17. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

18. History of runic alphabets

19. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

20. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

21. The Castles of England

22. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers
The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers
23. The role of art in our life
The role of art in our life
24. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry
Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

25. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

26. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

27. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

28. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

29. The Queen of the UK

30. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

31. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

32. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

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Раздел: Прочие

33. Реферат перевода с английского языка из книги “A History of England” by Keith Feiling

34. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

35. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

36. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

37. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

38. The profile of an effective manager
The profile of an effective manager
39. The Taming of the Shrew
The Taming of the Shrew
40. The teaching of Hugo Gratius
The teaching of Hugo Gratius

41. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

42. Перевод введения в книгу Й. Шумпетера History of economic analisys

43. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan

44. Review of Bill Gates’s book ”Business @ the Speed of Thought”

45. The uniqueness of the British

46. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University

47. The library of our institute

48. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

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49. The climate of Great Britain

50. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism

51. The sights of USA.

52. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

53. The cities of USA

54. Bosch, Hieronymus: The Temptation of St Anthony
Bosch, Hieronymus: The Temptation of St Anthony
55. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR
The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR
56. History of Great Britain
History of Great Britain

57. The House of Yorks

58. The declaration of independence

59. The system of english tenses

60. History of runes

61. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

62. Is the nature of quantum chaos classical?

63. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

64. The Concept of Youth Subcultures

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65. The development of the Tower

66. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

67. The Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions

68. The art of conversation

69. Economy of the Republic of Ireland

70. History of Andorra
History of Andorra
71. HOW SIGNIFICANT WAS ALEXANDER DUBCEK IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF REFORMIST COMMUNISM?
HOW SIGNIFICANT WAS ALEXANDER DUBCEK IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF REFORMIST COMMUNISM?
72. Islam in the eyes of the West
Islam in the eyes of the West

73. The production of 2H-labeled amino acids by a new mutant of RuMP fucultative methylotroph Вrevibacterium methylicum

74. Сборник диалогов по английскому языку для развития устной речи старшеклассников (The collection of dialogues on English language)

75. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

76. History of english language

77. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

78. Stylistic analysis of the part of the novel "Rebecca" by Daphne Du Maurier

79. The development of sustainable tourism in Turkey

80. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

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81. The Language of Narrative Writing

82. The origin of language

83. The outline of the period

84. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium

85. The problem of violence

86. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English
The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English
87. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
88. Thе Communist Party of Australia

89. Historical measurement of the science of governing

90. The Architecture of Ancient Rome

91. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

92. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

93. The Radicalism of the American Revolution

94. The collection of French art in the Hermitage

95. Advertising in the world of art

96. The models of atom’s nucleus and table of elements.

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97. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

98. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

99. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)


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