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CO E I RODUC IO DEVELOPI G OF ELECOMMU ICA IO S SA ELI E SERVICES I ER E ADVA CI G ROLE OF ELECOMMU ICA IO S I BA KI G RUSSIA’S ELECOMMU ICA IO S ROADS GE WIDER, MORE EXPE SIVE FU URE OF DEVELOPME CO CLUSIO I RODUC IO o o e ca de y he role of elecommu ica io s for socie y. Curre ly hu dreds of millio s of people use wireless commu ica io mea s. Cell pho e is o lo ger a symbol of pres ige bu a ool, which le s o use worki g ime more effec ively. Co sideri g ha he mai service of a mobile co ec io opera or is providi g high quali y co ec io , much a e io i he elecommu ica io marke is paid o he spec rum of services ha cell e work subscriber may receive. DEVELOPI G OF ELECOMMU ICA IO S La e i he i e ee h ce ury commu ica io s facili ies were augme ed by a ew i ve io – elepho e. I he USA i s use slowly expa ded, a d by 1900 he America elepho e a d elegraph Compa y co rolled 855,000 elepho es; bu elsewhere he elepho e made li le headway u il he we ie h ce ury. Af er 1900, however, elepho e i s alla io s ex e ded much more rapidly i all he weal hier cou ries. he umber of elepho es i use i he world grew a almos 100 per ce per decade. Bu lo g-dis a ce elepho e services gradually developed a d bega o compe e wi h elegraphic busi ess. A grea er co ribu io o lo g-ra ge commu ica io came wi h he developme of wireless. Before he ou break of he Firs World War wireless elegraphy was es ablished as a mea s of regular commu ica io wi h ships a sea, a d provided a valuable suppleme o exis i g elegraph li es a d cables. I he ex few years he elepho e sys ems of all he chief cou ries were co ec ed wi h each o her by radio. Far more immedia e was he i flue ce ha radio had hrough broadcas i g a d by elevisio , which followed i a a i erval of abou we y-five years. elepho es are as much a form of i fras ruc ure as roads or elec rici y, a d compe i io will make hem cheaper. Losses from lower prices will be cou ered by higher usage, a d ax reve ues will be efi from he fas er eco omic grow h ha elepho es bri g abou . Mos impor a of all, by cu i g ou he eed o i s all cos ly cables a d microwave ra smi ers, he ew elepho es could be a boo o he remo e a d poor regio s of he ear h. Eve oday, half he world’s popula io lives more ha wo hours away from a elepho e, a d ha is o e reaso why hey fi d i hard o break ou of heir pover y. A farmer’s call for advice could save a whole crop; access o a ha dse could help a small rural busi ess sell i s wares. A d i rich places wi h reaso able elepho e sys ems already i place, he effec of ew e ra s – he replaceme of bad, overpriced services wi h clever, cheaper o es – is less drama ic bu s ill co siderable. Global pho es are o goi g o deliver all hese be efi s a o ce, or easily. I deed, if he marke fails o develop, i could prove oo small o suppor he cos s of lau chi g sa elli es. S ill, ha is a risk wor h aki g. A d hese ew global elepho es reflec a wider re d. Lo s of o her ew commu ica io services – o -li e film libraries, perso al compu ers ha ca se d video-clips a d sou d-bi es as easily as hey ca be used for wri i g le ers, erres rial mobile- elepho e sys ems cheap e ough o replace hard-wired family se s – are already ech ically possible.
Wha hey all eed is deregula io . he a y of hem could bri g abou cha ges jus as u expec ed a d jus as magical as a y hi g ha Alexa der Graham Bell’s elepho e has already achieved. SA ELI E SIRVICES Our world has become a i creasi gly complex place i which, as i dividuals, we are very depe de o o her people a d o orga iza io s. A eve i some dis a par of he globe ca rapidly a d sig ifica ly affec he quali y of life i our home cou ry. his i creasi g i depe de ce, o bo h a a io al a d i er a io al scale, has led us o crea e sys ems ha ca respo d immedia ely o da gers, e abli g appropria e defe sive or offe sive ac io s o be ake . hese sys ems are opera i g all arou d us i mili ary, civil, commercial a d i dus rial fields. A worldwide sys em of sa elli es has bee crea ed, a d i is possible o ra smi sig als arou d he globe by bou ci g hem from o sa elli e o a ear h s a io a d he ce o a o her sa elli e. Origi ally desig ed o carry voice raffic, hey are able o carry hu dreds of housa ds of separa e simul a eous calls. hese sys ems are bei g i creasi gly adop ed o provide for busi ess commu ica io s, i cludi g he ra smissio of raffic for voice, facsimile, da a a d visio . I is probable ha fu ure sa elli e services will e able a grea varie y of i forma io services o ra smi direc ly i o he home, possibly i cludi g perso alized elec ro ic mail. he elec ro ic compu er is a he hear of ma y such sys ems, bu he role of elecommu ica io s is o less impor a . here will be a fur her co verge ce be wee he ech ologies of compu i g a d elecommu ica io s. he cha ge will be drama ic: he da abase cul ure, he cashless socie y, he office a home, he gigabi -per-seco d da a e work. We ca o doub ha he eco omic a d social impac of hese co cep s will be very sig ifica . Already, adva ced sys ems of commu ica io are affec i g bo h he layma a d he ech icia . Complex fu c io s are bei g performed by people usi g adva ced ermi als which are i e ded o be as easy o use as he co ve io al elepho e. he ew global sa elli e-commu ica io s sys ems will offer hree ki ds of service, which may overlap i ma y differe ki ds of receivers: Voice. Sa elli e elepho es will be able o make calls from a ywhere o ear h o a ywhere else. ha could make hem especially useful o remo e, hird-world villages (some of which already use s a io ary sa elli e elepho es), explorers a d disas er-relief eams. oday’s mobile pho es depe d o ear h-bou d ra smi ers, whose ech ical s a dards vary from cou ry o cou ry. So busi ess ravelers ca o use heir mobile pho es o i er a io al rips. Sa elli e elepho es would make ha possible. Massagi g. Sa elli e messagers have he same global coverage as sa elli e elepho es, bu carry ex alo e, which could be useful for hose wi h lap op compu ers. Equipped wi h a small scree like oday’s pagers, sa elli e messagers will also receive shor messages. racki g. Voice a d messagi g sys ems will also ell heir users where hey are o wi hi a few hu dred me res. Combi ed wi h he messagi g service, he loca io service could help rescue eams o fi d s ra ded adve urers, he police o fi d s ole cars, expor ers o follow he progress of cargoes, a d haulage compa ies o check ha drivers are o de ouri g o he pub.
Sa elli e sys ems will provide be er posi io i g i forma io o a yo e who has a receiver for heir sig als. I ER E he i er e , a global compu er e work which embraces millio s of users all over he world, bega i he U i ed S a es i 1969 as a mili ary experime . I was desig ed o survive a uclear war. I forma io se over he I er e akes he shor es pa h available from o e compu er o a o her. Because of his, a y wo compu ers o he I er e will be able o s ay i ouch wi h each o her as lo g as here is a si gle rou e be wee hem. his ech ology is called packe swi hi g. Owi g o his ech ology, if some compu ers o he e work are k ocked ou (by a uclear explosio , for example), i forma io will jus rou arou d hem. O e such packe -swi hi g e work which has already survived a war is he Iraqi compu er e work which was o k ocked ou duri g he Gulf War. Mos of he I er e hos compu ers (more ha 50%) are i he U i ed S a es, while he res are loca ed i more ha 100 o her cou ries. Al hough he umber of hos compu ers ca be cou ed fairly accura ely, obody k ows exac ly how ma y people use he I er e , here are millio s worldwide, a d heir umber is growi g by housa ds each mo h. he mos popular I er e service is e-mail. Mos of he people, who have access o he I er e , use he e work o ly for se di g a d receivi g e-mail messages. However, o her popular services are available o he I er e : readi g USE E ews, usi g he World-Wide-Web, el e , F P, a d Gopher. I ma y developi g cou ries he I er e may provide busi essme wi h a reliable al er a ive o he expe sive a d u reliable elecommu ica io s sys ems of hese cou ries. Commercial users ca commu ica e cheaply over he I er e wi h he res of he world. Whe hey se d e-mail messages, hey o ly have o pay for pho e calls o heir local service providers, o for calls across heir cou ries or arou d he world. Bu who ac ually pays for se di g e-mail messages over he I er e lo g dis a ces, arou d he world? he a swer is very simple: users pay heir service provider a mo hly or hourly fee. Par of his fee goes oward i s cos s o co ec o a larger service provider, a d par of he fee received by he larger provider goes o cover i s cos of ru i g a worldwide e work of wires a d wireless s a io s. Bu savi g mo ey is o ly he firs s ep. If people see ha hey ca make mo ey from he I er e , commercial use of his e work will dras ically i crease. For example, some wes er archi ec ure compa ies a d garme ce ers already ra smi heir basic desig s a d refi ed by skilled – bu i expe sive – Chi ese compu er-aided-desig specialis s. However, some problems remai . he mos impor a is securi y. Whe you se d a e-mail message ca ravel hrough ma y differe e works a d compu ers. he da a is co s a ly bei g direc ed owards i s des i a io by special compu ers called rou ers. However, because of his, i is possible o ge i o a y of he compu ers alo g he rou e, i ercep a d eve cha ge he da a bei g se over he I er e . I spi e of he fac ha here are ma y good e codi g programs available, early all he i forma io bei g se over he I er e is ra smi ed wi hou a y form of e codi g, i.e
Visual C++, MFC, ODBC, OLE, Windows 95/98/NT. 2. Visual Basic 4, Visual Basic 5 with ActiveX. 3. Power Builder 4, Power Builder 5 with PFC. 4. Java, Visual Java ++. 5. COBOL applications, CICS, MVS, DB2. 6. ORACLE (back-end, front-end) 7, 8, Developer/2000 (ORACLE Forms, Reports, Graphics) DBA 7. Hardware and telecommunications programming and design: UNIX, Windows 95/NT. 8. MS SQL-Server, SyBase, Informix (DBA and developer). 9. Internet/Intranet/Extranet and Web application development (JAVA, ActiveX, TCP/IP, CGI/Perl, Lotus/Domino). 10. UNIX in multi-process and multi-timereading enviroment. Socketprogramming shared memory and UNIX I/O, X-Motif. 11. Embedded real-time with VxWorks, PSOS, Lynux OS and Windows NT. System-technical engineer with programming experience with C, C++, Assembly. Device driver exp. is a plus. 12. QA&M with knowledge of SNMP and/or CMIP, ASN.l, familiarity with ITLI standards on network management. 13. System Testing/Integration with experience in design verification forcellularcommunication infrastructure equipment, с активным разговорным английским, успешно прошедшие наш конкурсный профессиональный отбор
1. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/