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Искусство, Культура, Литература
Hiero ymus Bosch Be wee Magic a d Reali yBiography of Hiero ymus Bosch Hiero ymus Bosch was bor i 1450 i Her oge bosch, a provi cial bu prosperous ow loca ed i he moder e herla ds close o he Belgia border. He is o e of he mos famous of he e herla dish ar is s, k ow for his e igma ic pa els illus ra i g complex religious subjec s wi h fa as ic, of e demo ic imagery. oo li le i forma io is safes abou his life. His fa her a d gra dfa her were bo h pai ers i he same ow before him a d appare ly Bosch lived all his life here. From his childhood he lived i ar is ’s family. He married a reach a d highbor woma , Aleid va Mervey. Hiero ymus Bosch joi ed he lay of he Co fra er i y of o re Dame. I was fou ded i 1318. he symbol of he orga iza io was whi e swa . his sodali y co sis s of friars a d secular people. his orga iza io kep away from he Ca holic Church, i co fessed ideas of huma ism a d mys icism. he sodali y orga ized a umber of pri i g houses a d schools. Bosch was respo sible for desig i g a s ai ed-glass wi dow, amo g several o her works, for he ow church. I 1480 he was for he firs ime me io ed as a pai er. he las ime he was me io ed i he books of sodali y – he 9 of Augus 1516. I was he day of his fu eral.Mys ery of Bosch’s pai i gs Bosch is o e of he mos mys erious pai ers i he world. he a i ude oward him has cha ged hrough years. His co emporaries hough ha he was a s ra ge ma , who pai fa as ic pic ures, frigh ful a d fu y a he same ime. His pai i gs became very popular i Spai a d i Por ugal. I Por ugal here are he mos good collec io s of pai i gs of Bosch. here are housa ds of books abou Bosch a d his works. Refere ces o as rology, folklore, wi chcraf , a d alchemy, i addi io o he heme of he A ichris a d episodes from he lives of exemplary sai s, are all wove oge her by Bosch i o a labyri h of la e medieval Chris ia ico ography. Some scie is s hi k ha Bosch was a foreru er of he surrealism. Some hi k he was a real ca holic, some ha he was a a heis . From his pai i gs we ca u ders a d ha he was a very well educa ed perso , he k ew Bible a d lo s of o her books of pas a d prese , he also ew lo s of folk lege ds. He was good a scie ce, medici e, as rology a d eve alchemy. We ca say ha he also k ew music because we ca fi d lo s of musical i s rume s o his pic ures. Scholars differ i heir i erpre a io of Bosch's ar , bu mos agree ha his pic ures show a preoccupa io wi h he huma prope si y for si i defia ce of God, as well as wi h God's e er al dam a io of los souls i hell as a fa eful co seque ce of huma folly. he mai heme of his pai i gs was he opposi io of Good a d Evil, of God a d Devil, of life a d dea h. Amo g he doze s of Boschia pai i gs, he au ograph works ge erally accep ed as his i clude he followi g: he Marriage a Ca a (Museum Boyma s- va Beu i ge , Ro erdam), he Seve Deadly Si s (Prado, Madrid), Crucifixio (Museus Royaux des Beaux-Ar s, Brussels), he Hay Wai (Prado), he Dea h of he Miser ( a io al Gallery of Ar , Washi g o , D.C.), he emp a io of Sai A ho y (Museu acio al de Ar e A iga, Lisbo ), he Garde of Ear hly Deligh s (Prado), he Adora io of he Magi (Prado), a d Chris Carryi g he Cross (Museum voor Scho e Ku s e , Ghe ).P
eriods of pai i gs Da ed works by Bosch do o exis so we ca o ly imagi e he chro ology of his pai i gs. Researchers divide his work i o 3 periods – he earlies , ma ure a d oldes period. he pai i gs which belo g o he earlies period (1470 – 1500) mos ly devo ed o religious hemes. Mos of hem are illus ra io s o he Bible. I he ma er of his ime we ca see a i cer i ude. Some of he pai i gs are mi ia ures. Amo g he pai i gs of he firs period here are such works as “ he Adora io of he magi”, “Chris Show o he People”, “ Crucifixio ”, “ he Seve Deadly Si s”. We ca refer such pic ures as “Garde of Deligh s”, “ he las Judgeme ”, ‘Mo s ers”, “ he Hay Wai ” e c. o he middle period of Bosch’s work. His pai i gs i ha period were full of li le figures of people a d o her crea ures, some imes u real a d s ra ge. Bu o he e d of he middle period a d i he las period of his work Bosch’s pai i gs become simply a d ligh . Mos of hem devo ed o he life of sai people, like “ emp a io of S A ho y”, “S Joh he Eva gelis o Pa mos” a d o hers. he evil became more realis ic, i co ec ed wi h real people, o mo s ers. he ech ics of pai i gs he ech ics of Bosch’s pai i g is differe from o her pai er’s ech ics of his ime. he colors are more brigh a d rich a d his make his pai i gs more lively a d di amic. Of e he draw o he piece of wood. O he wood colors became more brigh a d a he same ime crys al. He also used var ish a op he colour. Bosch origi ally solved he problem of space. I his earlies works he ry o follow he rules of he radi io al perspec ive, bu he , i his ex works he i ve his ow ech ics. I is he fa as ic space full of li le figures, composed several chai s. I his las works his ech ics cha ged agai . All figures moved o he firs pla . here is o perspec ive o his pai i gs. S ylis ically, Bosch worked i a ma er called alla prima, a me hod of applyi g pai freely o a prelimi ary grou d of brow ish pai . He was familiar wi h Du ch ma uscrip pai i gs a d wi h foreig pri s, a d ma y of his images ca be raced o hese sources.Symbols he pai i gs of Hiero ymus Bosch are full of symbols. he symbols are so differe ha i is very hard o fi d o e ge eral key o all of hem. O e symbol ca de o e lo s of differe hi gs a d objec s. he symbols i Bosch’s pai i gs came from differe sources: alchemy, magic rac a es, folklore, religious books a d o hers. he symbols, which came from alchemy, are he mos e igma ic i his pai i gs. I is of e symbols of evil, Devil a d demo s, a d also symbols of lus . here are lo s of crys al spheres i his pai i gs a d i ’s come from alchemy. We ca see differe s ages of subs a ce, wa er, gas a d o hers. We ca see differe frui s a d berries ha symbolized lus . here are lo s of symbols of male a d female i his pai i gs. Always sharp objec s like arrows, k ifes, hor s are he symbols of ma . Symbols of woma are circles, shells, jugs, e c. Bosch ook lo s of symbols of a imals from bible: we ca fi d camels, rabbi s, pigs, horses a d o her “impure” a imals, which symbolized si a d evil. Of e we ca see a owl o his pai i gs. I is a symbol of wisdom a d a he same ime of heresy.
Also here are lo s of skele o s of a imals a d s ale rees o his pai i gs. O her symbols ha we ca of e fi d i his works are s eps, which symbolized cog i io i alchemy a d also sexual i ercourse. Also he symbol of cog i io is he key. O e of he mos fearful symbols is he clip leg – he symbol of pai , or ure a d magic. he works of Hiero ymus Bosch (aspecially he pai i gs of he seco d period) are full of differe images of Sa a . We ca see a radi io al demo s wi h hor s, wi gs a d ale, bu also here are bugs, half-huma half- a imal crea ures, a hropomorphic machi es a d o her gro esque figures. Of e Bosch pai ed demo s as a music i s rume s, mos ly wi d-i s rume s. Fi ally o e of he mos prevale symbol of his pai i gs is a mirror – he symbol of emp a io . he firs period of Bosch’s work: Seve Deadly Si s We do ’ k ow exac ly whe Hiero ymus Bosch crea ed “Seve Deadly Si s”. I was somewhere be wee 1475 – 1480. I ’s pai ed wi h oil o he piece of wood, a d i was a surface of he able. he size of his pai i g is 120 x 150 sm. Accordi g o Mr. Feldma his pai i g co cer ed wi h he s yle of emo io , like he mos pai i gs of Hiero ymus Bosch. I ca be also a s yle of fa asy bu his pai i g is more sarcas ic ha fa as ic. Primarily i belo ged o Spa ish ki g Philip he Seco d. ow i is si ua ed i Madrid, i Prado museum. I is sig ed by Hiero ymus Bosch. he ce ral, circular composi io symbolized he eye, eye of U iverse, eye of God. I he apple of he eye here is a figure of Jesus Chris a d a se e ce u der him: Cave,cave ds vide (Beware because God look a you). he ligh rays radia e from he figure of Chris . Some researchers said ha i is a symbol of mirror ha fe ds off all huma si s. Arou d him here are 7 mi ia ures represe ed 7 si s a d each si is amed. here are: Ira (ire, rage, a ger), Superbia (va i y), Luscuria (desire), Accidia (lazi ess), Guia (guzzle), Avari ia (avarice) a d I vidia (e vy). A he cor ers of he pai i g here are four o her mi ia ures represe ed Dea h, he Las Judgeme , Hell a d Heave . here are wo se e ces from Bible a he op a d bo om of he pai i g. here are o allegories o his pai i g, every hi g is co cre e, ake from life. Bosch depic ed people of differe sec io s of popula io , bu all of hem are si ers. he mai idea of his pai i g ha our blood a d our mo ey is o hi g for God. Every perso will be o he las Judgeme a d if he is si er he will be se d o Hell. Ira – o his mi ia ure we ca see he scrimmage of wo dru k peasa s. Ira is he resul of he alcoholism. A woma ry o s op hem, bu wi hou a y resul . Bosch depic ed he si wi h he help of such symbols as kicked off woode shoes, a chair o he head of o e ma a d o hers, bu mos of all wi h he help of gro esque. he figures of peasa s are awful a d ugly, hey are very fa wi h crooked legs. he beau iful a ure is also served o show heir u pleasa ess. Superbia – we ca see a woma i her room, s ayi g i fro of he mirror ( he symbol of emp a io ), which is kep by he devil. he woma ryi g o a ew ha . he room is pai ed i he s yle of Bosch’s ime a d i is look like ma y o hers rooms i he Holla d houses. his pic ure is poi ed agai s he i eres off ma y wome i he fashio .
Так называемое «избиение младенцев» авторы Евангелий приписывают Ироду I Великому, царю Иудеи (с 40 по 4Pг. до н. э.). 70 ...как свидетельствуют донесения Пилата к императору Тиберию... Понтий Пилат (год рождения и смерти неизвестен) римский прокуратор (наместник) Иудеи (с 26 по 36Pг.) Согласно христианской легенде. Пилат утвердил смертный приговор Иисусу Христу. Донесения Пилата, адресованные императору Клавдию Тиберию, считаются раннехристианской фальшивкой, возможно конца I в. Об одном из донесений сообщается в «Хронике» Евсевия Иеронима (Col. 537-538). Тиберий Клавдий Нерон римский император (с 14 по 37). 71 Передают, что апостол Иаков... дал обет... См.: Иероним. О знаменитых мужах (Гл. 2). Отсюда Григорий почерпнул эти сведения. Иероним эту историю, как он сам сообщает, заимствовал из Евангелия, написанного по-еврейски, переведенного им на греческий и латинский языки. (См.: Hieronymus presbyter. De viris inlustribus. Freiburg; Leipzig. 1895. P-7-8). 72 ...насчитывается 668 лет. Эти сведения и сведения следующих глав (до гл. 32) заимствованы из Орозия, Руфина и «Хроники» Иеронима. 73 ...он наложил на себя руки
1. Bosch, Hieronymus