Библиотека Рефераты Курсовые Дипломы Поиск
Библиотека Рефераты Курсовые Дипломы Поиск
сделать стартовой добавить в избранное
Кефирный гриб на сайте za4eti.ru

Иностранные языки Иностранные языки

European Union

Браслет светоотражающий, самофиксирующийся, желтый.
Изготовлены из влагостойкого и грязестойкого материала, сохраняющего свои свойства в любых погодных условиях. Легкость крепления позволяет
66 руб
Раздел: Прочее
Ручка "Помада".
Шариковая ручка в виде тюбика помады. Расцветка корпуса в ассортименте, без возможности выбора!
25 руб
Раздел: Оригинальные ручки
Чашка "Неваляшка".
Ваши дети во время приёма пищи вечно проливают что-то на ковёр и пол, пачкают руки, а Вы потом тратите уйму времени на выведение пятен с
222 руб
Раздел: Тарелки

he e largeme of he Europea U io Europe a he service of peace a d democracy Commu i y Europe has celebra ed i s 50 h a iversary. O 9 May 1950, Rober Schuma made his ory by pu i g o he Federal Republic of Germa y, a d o he o her Europea cou ries, he idea of crea i g a Commu i y of pacific i eres s. He bega a comple ely ew process i i er a io al rela io s by proposi g o old a io s o oge her recover, by exercisi g joi ly heir sovereig y, he i flue ce which each of hem was i capable of exercisi g alo e. he co s ruc io of Europe has si ce he moved forward every day. I represe s he mos sig ifica u der aki g of he 20 h ce ury a d a ew hope a he daw of he ew ce ury. I derives i s mome um from he far- sigh ed a d ambi ious projec of he fou di g fa hers who emerged from he seco d world war drive by he resolve o es ablish be wee he peoples of Europe he co di io s for a las i g peace.A his oric success As Europe approaches he daw of he hird mille ium, a look back over he 50 years of progress owards Europea i egra io shows ha he Europea U io is a his oric success. Cou ries which were hi her o e emies, oday share a commo curre cy, he euro, a d ma age heir eco omic a d commercial i eres s wi hi he framework of joi i s i u io s. Europea s ow se le heir differe ces hrough peaceful mea s, applyi g he rule of law a d seeki g co cilia io . he spiri of superiori y a d discrimi a io has bee ba ished from rela io ships be wee he Member S a es, which have e rus ed o he four Commu i y i s i u io s, he Cou cil, he Parliame , Commissio a d he Cour of Jus ice, he respo sibili y for media i g heir co flic s, for defi i g he ge eral i eres of Europea s a d for pursui g commo policies. Eco omic i egra io every day highligh s he eed for a d akes people closer o poli ical u io . A i er a io al level, he Europea U io is wieldi g i creasi g i flue ce comme sura e wi h i s eco omic impor a ce, he s a dard of livi g of i s ci ize s, i s place i diploma ic, commercial a d mo e ary forums. he Europea Commu i y derives i s s re g h from commo values of democracy a d huma righ s, which rally i s peoples, a d i has preserved he diversi y of cul ures a d la guages a d he radi io s which make i wha i is. I s ra sa la ic solidari y a d he a rac ive ess of i s model has e abled a u i ed Europe o wi hs a d he pressure of o ali aria ism a d o co solida e he rule of law. he Europea Commu i y s a ds as a beaco for he expec a io s of cou ries ear a d far which wa ch he U io ’s progress wi h i eres as hey seek o co solida e heir re-emergi g democracies or rebuild a rui ed eco omy. oday, he U io of he 15 Member S a es is ego ia i g he ex wave of membership wi h 10 cou ries of ce ral a d eas er Europe, a d wi h Mal a a d Cyprus. A a la er s age, o her cou ries of former Yugoslavia or which belo g o he Europea sphere will i ur ask o joi . he aki g o board by he applica cou ries of he acquis commu au aire, a d more ge erally of he major objec ives of he Europea U io , is ce ral o e largeme ego ia io s. For he firs ime i i s lo g his ory, he co i e is prepari g o become reu ified i peace a d freedom.

Such developme s are mome ous i erms of world bala ce a d will have a huge impac o Europe’s rela io s wi h he U i ed S a es, Russia, Asia a d La i America. he key da es of he Europea E largeme 1945 – Af er he Seco d World War Europe was des royed. he mai problems faci g europea s a es were securi y a d eco omic reco sr ruc io . ha ’s where he discussio o a y i egra io of Europe s ar ed. he ideas of Kude hove-Calergi were recollec ed. 1950 – R. Schuma proposed o pool coal a d s eel resources of Fra ce a d FRG. 1951 – he Paris rea y was sig ed: Fra ce, he Federal Republic of Germa y, I aly, Belgium, e herla ds a d Luxembourg es ablished he Europea Coal a d S eel Commu i y. his orga iza io could regula e he Europea marke . I was he firs s ep of Europea i egra io a d i erms of he e largeme – i was he origi al pla form o e large. 1961 – e years la er, af er he EEC a d he Euroa om were crea ed (1957), he UK – he leader of EF A (1960) – applied o e er he EEC. 1963, 1965 – he si ua io was o ha favourable for he UK. O he i i ia ive of De Gaulle, he Fre ch leader a ha mome , Fra ce wice ve oed he UK’s accessio o he Commu i y. 1967 – A ew applica io for Commu i y membership from he UK ( he four h a emp ), De mark a d Irela d. 1972 – Here we have he firs e largeme : he rea y o he accessio of De mark, Irela d, orway, he UK was sig ed i Brussels. I De mark a d orway he refere dums were hold a d orwegia people decided o o joi he Commu i y ( hey will cha ge heir mi d o ly i 1996). So, i 1973 he agreeme o accessio e ered i force o ly for hree applica s: he UK, De mark a d Irela d. 1973 – Greece applied o e er he Commu i y. Duri g he 70- ies he EC was discussi g he si ua io wi h Medi erra ea s a es. Greece, spai a d Por ugal were o able o joi he Commu i y because of dic a ural gover me s ruli g here. 1981 – Fi ally, af er he dic a ure collapsed, Greece e ered he EC. 1986 – Five years la er Spai a d Por ugal joi ed he Commu i y. 1993 – Af er a lo g pause he e largeme was co i ued – he ego ia io s o Aus ria, Swede a d Fi la d accessio were ope ed. Soo af er he fall of he Berli Wall i 1989, he Europea Commu i y quickly es ablished diploma ic rela io s wi h he cou ries of ce ral Europe. Duri g he 1990s, he Europea Commu i y a d i s Member S a es progressively co cluded Associa io Agreeme s, so called 'Europe Agreeme s', wi h e cou ries of ce ral Europe. he Europe Agreeme s provide he legal basis for bila eral rela io s be wee hese cou ries a d he EU. he Europea Commu i y had already es ablished similar Associa io Agreeme s wi h urkey (1963), Mal a (1970) a d Cyprus (1972). I he case of urkey, a Cus oms U io e ered i o force i December 1995. 1995 – Swede , Fi la d a d Aus ria joi ed he Europea U io . 1996 – Mal a applied o e er he EU. his applica io was soo froze ill 1998. 1997 – A i s summi i Luxembourg i December 1997, he Europea Cou cil decided ha he e largeme process should e compass: . he Europea Co fere ce, a mul ila eral framework bri gi g oge her e ce ral Europea cou ries, Cyprus a d urkey, which was lau ched o 12 March 1998; . he accessio process, coveri g e ce ral Europea cou ries a d Cyprus, which was lau ched o 30 March 1998; .

he accessio ego ia io s, which he Europea Cou cil decided o ope o 31 March 1998 wi h six cou ries, as recomme ded by he Europea Commissio : Cyprus, he Czech Republic, Es o ia, Hu gary, Pola d a d Slove ia. 1998 – Mal a reac iva ed i s applica io for Commu i y membership made i 1996. 1998 – he EU formally lau ched he process ha will make e largeme possible. I embraces he followi g hir ee applica cou ries: Bulgaria, Cyprus, he Czech Republic, Es o ia, Hu gary, La via, Li hua ia, Mal a, Pola d, Roma ia, he Slovak Republic, Slove ia a d urkey. 1999 – he Commissio adop ed i s repor s a d a ge eral composi e paper o he progress made by each of he ca dida e cou ries ( e ce ral Europea cou ries, Cyprus, Mal a a d urkey) owards accessio . hey show ha all cou ries excep urkey fulfil he poli ical cri eria for accessio a d ha o ly Cyprus a d Mal a fully mee he eco omic cri eria. Based o hese regular repor s, he Commissio has recomme ded o ope ego ia io s wi h Mal a, La via, Li hua ia, Slovakia a d also wi h Bulgaria a d Roma ia bu subjec o cer ai co di io s for he la er wo. he Commissio has also recomme ded o co duc accessio ego ia io s hrough a differe ia ed approach aki g accou of he progress made by each ca dida e. 1999 – A ew i s i u io al process was pu i rai by he decisio ake by he Europea Cou cil mee i g i Helsi ki o co ve e a i ergover me al co fere ce wi h he aim i er alia of adap i g he rea ies o he co di io s whereby a U io e larged o over 20 members ca fu c io smoo hly. 2000 – ego ia io s wi h Roma ia, Slovakia, La via, Li hua ia, Bulgaria a d Mal a o he co di io s for heir e ry i o he U io a d he e sui g rea y adjus me s s ar ed. As for urkey - he Europea Cou cil welcomed rece posi ive developme s i urkey, as well as i s i e io o co i ue i s reforms owards complyi g wi h he Cope hage cri eria. I doi g so, urkey is co sidered as a ca dida e S a e o joi he U io o he basis of he same cri eria as applied o he o her ca dida e S a es. December, 2000 – By agreei g - o a rea y of ice, he EU member s a es also removed he las formal obs acle o movi g ahead wi h he EU e largeme process. he co clusio s go o o say ha " he ime has ow come o le d fresh impe us o he process". he summi broadly e dorsed he e largeme s ra egy proposed by he Commissio , a d emphasised " he pri ciple of differe ia io , based o each ca dida e cou ry's ow meri s", a d "allowa ce of scope for ca chi g up". he road map for he ex 18 mo hs will ease he way for fur her ego ia io s, beari g i mi d ha hose cou ries which are he bes prepared will co i ue o be able o progress more quickly, he summi co cluded. Mea while, he summi expressed apprecia io for he effor s made by he ca dida es, a d reques ed hem " o co i ue a d speed up he ecessary reforms o prepare hemselves for accessio , par icularly as regards s re g he i g heir admi is ra ive capaci y, so as o be able o joi he U io as soo as possible". A d i welcomed he es ablishme of eco omic a d fi a cial dialogue wi h he ca dida e cou ries. 2003 – he U io has declared ha i will be ready o welcome ew cou ries from he s ar of 2003.

Но вот тут начинается интересное. Дело в том, что организация Брюссельского Соглашения никуда не делась, НАТО натой, а Брюссель Брюсселем. Мало того, через несколько лет организация выросла и окрепла, в 1954 году Европа приняла в Европу своих блудных дочерей Германию и Италию. После чего организация сменила вывеску и стала называться Западноевропейский Союз (Western European Union, WEU). Тут опять же может возникнуть вопрос а зачем нам немцы? Мы же вроде объединялись против них, зачем они нам тут, а не там? Да вот затем, именно потому, что «здесь вам не тут!» НАТО даёт возможность англичанам иметь фактически оккупационные войска в Германии, бывшую Рейнскую Армию, называемую сегодня British Forces Germany (BFG). Но, как мы уже чуть повыше сказали, НАТО натой и мало ли чего с ней может случиться, там, в конце концов Америка заправляет, но зато принятием Германии в WEU Англия добилась вот чего так как французы смертельно боялись немцев и их Национальное Собрание отказывалось ратифицировать расширение WEU, то англичане «гарантировали», что в целях удержания немецкой милитаристской угрозы они разместят в континетальной Европе четыре дивизии и несколько соединений тактической авиации

1. Stereotypes influences on economic relations between the European Union countries and Russian Federation

2. The Union Jack

3. Proposal of joint european project CHAIN-E

4. Socio-cultural foundations of east-european&Russian geopolitics english

5. Theories of European Integration

6. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism


Поиск Рефератов на сайте za4eti.ru Вы студент, и у Вас нет времени на выполнение письменных работ (рефератов, курсовых и дипломов)? Мы сможем Вам в этом помочь. Возможно, Вам подойдет что-то из ПЕРЕЧНЯ ПРЕДМЕТОВ И ДИСЦИПЛИН, ПО КОТОРЫМ ВЫПОЛНЯЮТСЯ РЕФЕРАТЫ, КУРСОВЫЕ И ДИПЛОМНЫЕ РАБОТЫ. 
Вы можете поискать нужную Вам работу в КОЛЛЕКЦИИ ГОТОВЫХ РЕФЕРАТОВ, КУРСОВЫХ И ДИПЛОМНЫХ РАБОТ, выполненных преподавателями московских ВУЗов за период более чем 10-летней работы. Эти работы Вы можете бесплатно СКАЧАТЬ.