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Salvador Dali & Surrealism
Surrealism (from Fre ch surrealisme - super a uralism) - a moder is ic direc io i he ar , appeared af er he Firs World War i Fra ce, duri g 1920s. I s fou ders co sidered surrealism as a way o recog ize subco scious, or super a ural. By defi i io of he fou der, a d he ideologis of his direc io A drй Bre o he surrealism is &quo ; he pure me al au oma ism, he purpose of which is o express, ei her orally, or i wri i g, everyday ideas. Surrealism is a dic a io of ideas beyo d a y co rol of mi d, beyo d a y aes he ic or moral imagi a io s.&quo ; (Ades 28) Ar is s were ’ o ly crea i g ew s yle i ar a d li era ure, bu , firs of all, hey were modifyi g he world a d life. Surrealis s were sure ha i co ceivable was begi i g o i car a e he ear h. he forma io of Surrealism akes i s roo s from Dadaism. he impude ar arise i co di io s of horror a d disappoi me of he ar is s before he major ca as rophe – he Europea revolu io s (1916-1918). his eve sha ered Swi zerla d, Aus ria, Fra ce a d Germa y. Dadaism basically rejec ed a y posi ive aes he ic value, a d offered a “a iaes he ic” value for every hi g. For Dadais s every hi g &quo ; reaso able, ki d, e er al &quo ; had failed, a d he world appeared o be u fair, mea , a d ugly. he values of Dadais s were o des roy a y s yle of beau y by mea s of &quo ;ugli ess&quo ;. Revol of Dadais had somewha se led i he middle of 1920s. Dadais s mai ly relied o “accide al effec s” as a mai worki g ool. Ar is s bega drippi g pai o ca vas, a d formi g irra io al co figura io s. he surrealis ic a i ude owards i co ceivable, or o he eleme s of chaos is direc ly grow from Dadais ic roo s. Bu surrealis s re d i ar was ’ simply o des roy, bu crea e hrough des ruc io . he bohemia a archism of Dadais s had a s ro g affec o Dali, a d herefore he became a rue follower of heir sca dalous behavior. (Faer a, 32-40) Surrealis s hu ed for u predic ed i order o free from he co rol of he mi d. (For example, hey placed a shee of a paper o rough surfaces a d rubbed a paper wi h dry pai s, a d received fa as ic co figura io s remi di g of hicke s of a fa as ic wood.) Bu grea mas ers were ’ sa isfied wi h such primi ive me hods of pai i g. hey had o achieve i er al irra io ali y or mi dless s a e of me al life. For his purpose, forms of visual self-hyp osis were prac iced. hey crea ed &quo ;bewi chi g&quo ; forces by s ari g a he moveme of fire, or he moveme of clouds, or e c. ra si io from &quo ;mecha ical&quo ; percep io s o &quo ;psychological” (or psychoa aly ical) percep io , gradually i flue ced all mas ers of surrealism. (Deschar es, 8) Surrealis s assembled mee i gs or &quo ; rai i gs&quo ; which were amed as sommeils – or &quo ;dreams i reali y &quo ;. hey played duri g hese mee i gs. hey were i eres ed i accide al a d u co scious sema ic combi a io s, which occurred duri g &quo ;bou s-rimes (word game).” Each of hem made a phrase, o k owi g abou he words made by he o her par icipa s of he game. So, o ce hey came up wi h a phrase &quo ; he refi ed corpse will dri k a fi e wi e &quo ; was i ve ed.
he purpose of his game was o rai o free your co scious ess a d logic. By doi g so hey were able o gai chao ic forces from he chasms of subco scious. By his way, ideas of surrealism had really ur ed i o a explosive: des royi g every hi g o i s way, sha eri g a y ru h or a pri ciple based o a reaso , belief, vir ue, or ideal beau y. I des royed beau y ha was viewed by radical i ova ors as ar . hey viewed life as a sy o ym of decei , a d lifeless ess. Ma y surrealis s did o focus much o ech iques of pai i g, hey were i eres ed i he ou come of he pai i g. he burs of ihilism was formed amo g you g ar is s duri g hose imes. o havi g fai h i a y hi g, hey also drew his “A Y HI G.&quo ; Dali’s surrealism, does ’ prese a y poli ics, a i ima e life, a aes he ic beau y, a his ory, or a y hi g else. I his ar here is o ly a Surrealis ic Crea ivi y, which ra sforms every hi g i o some hi g ew as i co ac s i . Dali pai ed abou every hi g ha was esse ial for he perso of ha ime. he hemes of his pai i g varied from sexual revolu io o prepara io of meal. Some of o her hemes of his pai i gs were civil war, uclear explosio s, azism, Ca holic beliefs, scie ce, or classical ar . For sa e people, Dali’s ar was some hi g i co ceivable a d shocki g. Somehow he eve buil a so-called “surrealis ic objec ,” which was absolu ely o sui able for ac ual use. his was his embodime of his obsessive ideas, a d ma ias. his objec was called “ he as ral chair.” he chair’s lea her coa i g was replaced by chocola e coa i g, a door ha dle was screwed o o e leg, a d o her leg s ood o a mug wi h beer. Surely such a chair would simply collapse by he impac of a door swi g, spilli g he beer all over he floor, a d causi g a alarm a d co fusio for he people arou d i . Dali alie a ed himself from his colleagues. herefore hey ur ed agai s Dali. His frie ds s ar ed de yi g Dali’s ar . A drй Bre o af er a o her disagreeme wi h he ar is , made a a agram of le ers of his ame “Avida Dollars – Dollar hirs y.” He hi ed ha all ha Dali crea ed, had a adver isi g charac er, a d are direc ed s ric ly a maki g mo ey, a d ha ar i self had o value for him. Dali some imes proclaimed o be he o ly u ique surrealis . A d a he same ime he said ha , &quo ;Pai i g is he color pho o made by a brush &quo ;. Bu i ’s useless o blame Dali for i co sis e cy, because irra io ali y – was his value a d eleme of hi ki g a d pai i g. his me hod was he rue descrip io of Dali’s s yle bo h i life, a d i ar . Dali has li erally rea ed all hose ideas, pri ciples, values, a d people wi h whom he associa ed wi h impude ly, a d disrespec fully. He impleme ed he ideas of surrealism o he ex e . Dali is da gerous o he sile huma a ure; he is da gerous for huma s’ &quo ;well-bei g&quo ; because he discredi s se ses a d values of huma cul ure. He discredi s bo h religio a d godless ess, bo h azism a d a ifascism, bo h admira io s of ar , a d ava -guard revol agai s hem, bo h belief i he huma i y a d disbelief i i . Dali searched for ew decisio s, a d forms of ar s ar i g from his childhood.
O ce, he pai ed a s ill life pai i g wi h o ly hree colors o a old wor -ou door. He used he door i s ead of ca vas. I surprised him ha his s ill-life pai i g amazed his frie ds a d rela ives. I was he image of a ha dful of he berries pu u der he su . he someo e from spec a ors had o iced, ha a cherries were missi g ails. he you g ar is had forgo e o pai hem. He quickly a e he berries ha he was drawi g earlier, a d a ached he real ails o he s ill-life pai i g. He pulls ou he woodworms of old door, a d a ached hem o berries, a d he crea ed pai i g wi h live woodworms a d real berry ails. A seei g his, he spec a ors were overwhelmed. Havi g e ered he School of fi e Ar s i Madrid, Dali hoped o fi d wor hy eachers. He hoped o fi d someo e who could each him he sacred craf of drawi g, bu he very soo go disappoi ed. He publicly declared ha he did ’ wa o be es ed by hose eachers who &quo ;k ew almos o hi g, a d i capable of a y hi g.” herefore he go expelled from he ar school. He admired he grea mas ers of I alia Re aissa ce. He explai ed how his surrealis ic crea ivi y bega . He wro e, &quo ; he i evi able happe ed -here comes Dali. he core surrealis , moved by &quo ;will a d au hori y.&quo ; He proclaimed u limi ed freedom from a y aes he ic or moral compulsio s, a d declared ha i is possible o go up o he ex reme limi s of a y ar is ic experime s, as lo g as you do ’ care abou a y co seque ce. (Gibso , 6-9) All his was ’ o ly his priva e affair; i was he purpose of surrealism. Dali ruly was he surrealis o he core. Every hi g he ouched or spoke abou ur ed i o surrealis ic images. Dali i his life mai ly focused o his surrealis ic &quo ;ego.” he ar is has crea ed some sor of &quo ;password&quo ; ha led o he secre s of his crea ivi y a d perso ali y. His mas erpieces a d graphic works are co s ruc ed like ex s. I his works, he prese s he his ory of World’s cul ure as a series of me aphors. A d same ki ds of ci a io s are applicable o his mas ers of he pas . I his pai i g &quo ;Spai &quo ;, we see he resembla ce o Leo ardo da Vi ci’s drawi gs. A d i his por rai s a d s ill-life drawi gs we ca rela e o I alia pai er of XVI ce ury Arcimboldi Giuseppe. (Deschar es, 27) Dali perfec ly ma aged o cha ge he forma of a ar o a easel pai i g. he ex e ded horizo al ca vas are full of arra io , ha co ai co secu ive display of me amorphosis (&quo ;Me amorphosis of arcissus.&quo ; Oil o ca vas, 20 1/8x30 3/8 i ches, 1937) he ver ical s re ched ca vas cha ges he dy amics of he pic ure, addi g solem i y o i Dali hough ha horizo i he pai i gs were very esse ial.” he low horizo gives a image some sor of hea rical look (for example, &quo ; he Sacrame of he Las Super.” Oil o ca vas, 65 5/8x105 Ѕ i ches, 1955) I his composi io s wi h high horizo , he fea ures close o he folklore begi i g are see . he images have or ame al - symbolical charac er. he ar is loved big ca vases. His wide ca vases are similar o hose of medieval mas ers. he mai value of works of Dali co sis s of crea io of mag ifice pic uresque a d graphic images.
Материальная база современного производства остается и будет оставаться фундаментом, на котором происходит развитие новых экономических и социальных процессов. В этом отношении характерен вывод, согласно которому "95 процентов добавленной стоимости (создающиеся в обрабатывающих отраслях и сфере услуг. -В.И.) не произведены независимо от 5 процентов, приходящихся на добывающую промышленность, а основываются на них; таким образом, впечатление об относительной незначительности всей добывающей промышленности [оказывается поверхностным и] не соответствует действительности" Daly H.E. Beyond Growth. The Economics of Sustainable Development. Boston, 1996. P. 64.. Этот факт подтверждается и тем обстоятельством, что резкое снижение численности занятых в отраслях первичного и вторичного секторов в развитых странах перестало в последние годы вызывать соответствующее сокращение доли данных отраслей в валовом национальном продукте. Если в сельском хозяйстве в 1869 году производилось до 40 процентов американского ВНП, то по окончании Первой мировой войны - только 14 процентов; в настоящее время данный показатель стабилизировался на уровне 2 процентов (еще около 1,6 процента приходится на остальные отрасли первичного сектора)