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is a adva ced, heore ical field of s udy. I ca be defi ed as he s udy of crime, he causes of crime (e iology), he mea i g of crime i erms of law, a d commu i y reac io o crime. o oo lo g ago, separa ed from i s mo her discipli e, sociology, a d al hough here are some his orical co i ui ies, i has si ce developed habi s a d me hods of hi ki g abou crime a d crimi al behavior ha are u iquely i s ow . heory is a complex subjec i i s ow righ . Crimi ological heory is o excep io ; i also e ds o be complex. Some defi i io s of erms migh help o u ders a d he field: Crimi ology - he scie ce of crime ra es, i dividual a d group reaso s for commi i g crime, a d commu i y or socie al reac io s o crime. Crimi ologis - a perso who s udies crimi ology; o o be co fused wi h a &quo ;crimi alis &quo ; who reco s ruc s a crime sce e or works wi h crime sce e evide ce for fore sic purposes. Applied crimi ology - he ar of crea i g ypologies, classifica io s, predic io s, a d especially profiles of crimi al offe ders, heir perso ali ies a d behavior pa er s. heory co s ruc io - a i formed, crea ive e deavor which co ec s some hi g k ow wi h some hi g u k ow ; usually i a measurable way. heory buildi g - effor s o come up wi h formal, sys ema ic, logical, a d ma hema ical ways i which heories are co s ruc ed. heore ical I egra io - effor s o come up wi h gra d, overarchi g heories which apply o all ypes of crime a d devia ce. heore ical Specifica io - effor s o figure ou he de ails of a heory, how he variables work oge her; usually associa ed wi h a belief ha ma y, compe i g heories are be er ha i egra ed effor s. heore ical Elabora io - effor s o figure ou he implica io s of a heory, wha o her variables migh be added o he heory; also associa ed wi h he belief ha heory compe i io is be er ha heore ical i egra io . Variables - he buildi g blocks of heories; hi gs ha vary; hi gs you ca have more or less of; e.g., crime ra es, bei g more or less crimi ally i cli ed (crimi ali y). Crimi ologis s use words a cer ai way o i dica e rela io ships be wee causes (i depe de variables) a d effec s (depe de variables). Here are some ge eral guideli es ha migh help whe readi g some ac ual wri i g of a crimi ologis : &quo ;varies wi h&quo ; -- his mea s hi gs fluc ua e oge her; as o e hi g goes up, he o her hi g goes dow ; usually used o describe a possible i verse rela io ship bu also used o describe a direc rela io ship. &quo ;where.&quo ; -- while o ech ically a verb, his word usually i dica es a feedback rela io ship, where hi gs go up or dow i respo se o o e a o her. Of e , bu o always, he case i volves a impor a Z fac or which modera es, dis or s, or co fou ds he rela io ship. Rela io als like &quo ;varies&quo ;, &quo ;fluc ua es&quo ;, &quo ;predomi a es&quo ;, &quo ;associa ed wi h&quo ;, a d &quo ;overreprese ed by&quo ; are usually fou d whe he heoris is deali g wi h socio-demographic variables, like age, race, or social class. &quo ;seems o be&quo ; -- his wishy-washy la guage usually mea s ha he heoris suspec s a weak rela io ship, probably way less ha 50%.
&quo ; e ds&quo ; -- his migh mea , bu o always, ha here are impor a Z fac ors which are a ecede , i erve i g, or co i ge ; ha is, ha come before, i he middle, or af er a X a d Y rela io ship. Or, i may be a cojoi rela io ship. &quo ;is co ducive o&quo ; -- his usually mea s ha he cause is a mys erious, u k ow co s ruc ; ypically fou d i highly abs rac heories i volvi g words like a omie, rela ive depriva io , orms, or co rols. I some cases, i refers o a co fou di g or co ex ual rela io ship. he HIS ORY of crimi ology da es back o Lombroso, whom ma y regard as he fa her of crimi ology. O hers claim ha Phre ology (s udyi g bumps o he head) be er represe s he origi s of he scie ce. Eve oday, here is s ill a i eres i he biological causes of crimi al behavior. A hropological crimi ology A hropology is he mos huma is ic of he scie ces a d he mos scie ific of he huma i ies. (Alfred Kroeber)& bsp; Be wee 1750 a d 1850, wo popular fields of scie ific prac ice co sis i g of he PHYSIOG OMIS S a d PHRE OLOGIS S ried o prove ha here were li ks be wee he prope si y o e gage i crimi al behavior a d u usual physical appeara ce (mos ly he face, ears, or eyes) a d he shape of he skull (bumps o he head bei g a i dica or of domi a brai areas). he physiog omis s s udied facial appeara ce a d he phre ologis s s udied bumps o he head. Bo h fields of s udy were qui e i flue ial a he ime, a d are lumped oge her i his ory books as he area of CRIMI AL A HROPOLOGY, early biological perspec ives, he legacy of demo ology (ugli ess as he mark of evil), or i he 20 h ce ury, k ow as co s i u io alism ( he s udy of huma physique, or co s i u io of he body). he search for a co s i u io ally de ermi ed &quo ;crimi al ma &quo ; co i ued up u il 1950.& bsp; Physiog omy is he maki g of judgme s abou people's charac er from he appeara ce of heir faces or cou e a ce. I s fou der was J. Bap is e della Por e (1535-1615) who s udied cadavers, a d associa ed small ears, bushy eyebrows, small oses, a d large lips wi h crimi al offe ders. Joha Kaspar Lava er (1741-1801) was a o her physiog omis who associa ed &quo ;shif y-eyed&quo ; people who had weak chi s a d arroga oses wi h crimi al behavior. o serious crimi ologis oday gives much crede ce o physiog omy.& bsp; Phre ology is he s udy of he ex er al charac eris ics of a perso 's skull as a i dica or of his or her perso ali y, abili ies, or ge eral prope si ies. Some bumps o he skull i dica e lower brai fu c io s (like comba ive ess). O her bumps represe higher fu c io s a d prope si ies (like morali y). Crime occurs whe he bumps i dica e ha he lower prope si ies are wi i g ou over he higher prope si ies. Phre ologis s believed ha wi h me al exercise, a crimi al migh be reformed. he mos emi e phre ologis s were Fra z Joseph Gall (1758-1828) a d his pupil, Joh Gaspar Spurzheim (1776-1832). he phre ologis s ur ed ou o be o all ha off i where hey hough cer ai brai fu c io s (35 of hem showi g up o bumps) were loca ed. he des ruc ive ess ce er, for example, which is loca ed righ behi d he ear above Darwi 's poi , is pro ou ced i 17% of crimi als.
O her bumps, i he back of he head, ur ed ou o be pro ou ceme s of he Amygdala a d Hippocampus, where umors are associa ed wi h crimi al behavior (as i he exas s iper, Charles Whi ma ). he ge eral rule is ha a y ab ormali y i he back of he head is bad (&quo ;back is bad&quo ;). he associa io be wee o her bumps (o he head) a d moral (or i ellec ual) fu c io s were badly mis ake by phre ologis s (such as Gall), bu i his defe se, research me hods had o bee well-developed by 1835 ( o e his early da e; some regard Gall as he firs crimi ologis ).& bsp; Crimi al a hropology is he ame usually associa ed wi h he work of Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) a d his followers who performed au opsies o crimi als a d fou d hey had charac eris ics similar o primi ive huma s, mo keys, a d chimpa zees. Some of he a omalies (differe ces or defec s) fou d amo g crimi als i cluded head wid h, heigh , degree of recedi g forehead, head circumfere ce, head symme ry, a d so o . Lombroso had his Gori g (1870-1919), a scie is dedica ed o disprovi g Lombroso. While Gori g fou d heigh a d weigh differe ces, he co cluded here was o such hi g as a &quo ;bor crimi al&quo ; based o physical i feriori y. he idea of dege eracy lived o , however, a d crimi al a hropology i he U.S. was spearheaded by a diffuse group of 8-9 dege era io is s who were ac ive be wee 1881 a d 1911 (e.g. MacDo ald's Crimi ology , Be edik 's A a omical S udies upo Brai s of Crimi als, albo 's Dege eracy, Lyds o 's he Diseases of Socie y, a d Parso s' Respo sibili y for Crime; Fi k's Causes of Crime, Haller's Euge ics are good seco dary sources.) I 1911, Maurice Parmelee (whom some regard as a early fou der, if o he fou der, of America crimi ology) bega rejec i g a hropological heories.& bsp; Cesare Lombroso (1836-1909) is k ow as he fa her of moder crimi ology, a d he chief his orical figure i he I alia posi ivis moveme . His works i clude: (1876) L'Uomo Deli que e. Mila : Horpli. (1895) L'Homme Crimi el. Felix: Alca . ( wo volumes)& bsp; Lombroso popularized he o io of a &quo ;bor crimi al&quo ; which represe s a ex reme s a eme of biological de ermi ism which had grea i flue ce well i o he 20 h Ce ury (a d for he fou di g of crimi ology) eve hough much of his hi ki g is ow ou da ed excep for he recurri g idea ha crimi als have par icular physiog omic defec s or deformi ies. Physiog omy is he ar of es ima i g charac er from he fea ures of he face or he form of he body. Mos s ude s are familiar wi h his checklis of physiog omic i dica ors. U usually shor or all heigh Small head, bu large face Small a d slopi g forehead Receedi g hairli e Wri kles o forehead a d face Large si us cavi ies or bumpy face Large, pro rudi g ears Bumps o head, par icularly he Des ruc ive ess Ce er above lef ear Pro ubera ces (bumps) o head, i back of head a d arou d ear High check bo es Bushy eyebrows, e di g o mee across ose Large eyesocke s, bu deepse eyes Beaked ose (up or dow ) or fla ose S ro g jawli e Fleshy lips, bu hi upper lip Migh y i cisors, ab ormal ee h Small or weak chi hi eck Slopi g shoulders, bu large ches Lo g arms Poi y or s ubbed fi gers or oes a oos o body& bsp; Co s i u io alism, or body- ype heories, became popular i he 1930s, mos ly o accou of he work of Er es Hoo o , a Harvard a hropologis .
Forskning ош individual-prevensjon kontra al-menprevensjon. — Lov og Rett 1971, nr. X, 49 — 60. Christie, N. Fangevoktere i konsentrasjonsleire. Oslo, 1972. Christie, N. Conflicts as Property. — Br. j. Crim. 1977, 17, 1-19. Clarke, B. Enough room for joy. Jean Vaniers LArche. London, 1974. Cohen, S. Guilt, justice and tolerance: Some old conceits for a new criminology. 1977. — Mim. Dept. of sociology. Univ. of Essex, England. Cohen, S. The Punitive City: Notes on the Dispersal of Social Control. — Contemporary Crises, 1979, 3, 339 — 364. Cohen, S. and Taylor, L. Psychological survival. The experience of longterm imprisonment. G. B. 1972. Cooper, L. et al. The iron fist and the velvet glove: An analysis of the U. S. police. Berkeley, 1974. Da hi, Т. S. Statsniakt og sosial kontroll. — In: Rune Slngstad, ed: Om Staten. Oslo, 1977. Da hi, T. S. Barnevern og samfunnsvern. Oslo, 1978. D a 1 g а г d, O. S. Abnorme lovovertredere. Diagnose og prognose. Oslo, 1966. Ehrlich, I. The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment A Question of Life and Death. — Am Ec. Rev. 1975, 65, 397 — 417. E n g 1 u n d, G. och Hasselakollektivet. Tvanget til frihet. Stockholm, 1978. Eriksson, L