||сделать стартовой||добавить в избранное|
I a M. Kamai y ė, Professor 12 December, 2001 housa ds of years ago people bega o make alcohol for prac ical reaso s. Wi e maki g bega wi h he early Egyp ia s who fou d ha grape juise spoiled quickly, bu ha ferme ed juise or wi e would keep wi hou spoili g. hey also had problems wi h impure wa er, a d he Egyp ia s o iced ha people did o sick ower wi e, bu hey of e became ill whe hey dra k i pure wa er. I la er years, wi e became i por a o he Roma Ca holic Church hroughou Europe because wi e was used o celebra e he sacrame of he Mass. By he 1300’s, beer i dus ry had emerged i Ce ral Europe. A his ime, wi e was also co i ui g o grow i populari y; ma y bra ds amed for he places i which hey origi a ed. A firs alcohol was desi ed for he prac ical reaso s, i s use cha ged. People bega o experime wi h differe ypes of alcohol. Alcohol became a i egral par of Europea cul ure. We eed o u ders a d he harmful effec s of alcohol, because i ca be fa al. "Alcoholism is a primary, chro ic disease wi h ge e ic, psychosocial, a d e viro me al fac ors i flue ci g i s developme a d ma ifes a io s. he disease is of e progressive a d fa al. I is charac erized by co i uous or periodic: impaired co rol over dri ki g, preoccupa io wi h he drug alcohol, use of alcohol despi e adverse co seque ces, a d dis or io s i hi ki g, mos o ably de ial." ( Alcoholism is some imes charac erized by he followi g eleme s: 1. Cravi g: A s ro g eed, or compulsio , o dri k. 2. Loss of co rol: he freque i abili y o s op dri ki g o ce a perso has begu . 3. Physical depe de ce: he occurre ce of wi hdrawal symp oms, such as ausea, swea i g, shaki ess, a d a xie y, whe alcohol use is s opped af er a period of heavy dri ki g. hese symp oms are usually relieved by dri ki g alcohol or by aki g a o her seda ive drug. 4. olera ce: he eed for i creasi g amou s of alcohol i order o ge "high. "Mos of he psychologis s co sider alcoholism as a progressive disease, whe a urally progressi g has 3 s ages ha go o e af er a o her. he ra si io be wee hose s ages is smoo h a d u o iceable for a perso . ha disease ever appears sudde ly. You ca sudde ly ge flue, appe dici is, go orrhea, or a y o her disease, bu o alcoholism. Firs s age is always i roduced by pleasa regular “cul ural” dri ki g ha las s from 1 o 10 years. People predisposed o alcoholism cover ha s age very quickly, some imes i a several mo hs. So a popular co cep of “cul ural” dri ki g is far o perfec . All alcoholics bega “cul urally”. Every perso co sumi g regularly alcohol is i a risk of becomi g a alcoholic. O ly o al sobrie y ( o -dri ki g) ca s op his disease. Bu eve if a perso af er givi g up dri ki g ge s i use of alcohol jus some imes, he disease will s eadily progress. A y relapse o jus hrows he perso back, bu makes alcohol abuse heavier a d heavier. Firs s age: A perso likes dri ki g, bu does ’ really k ow how o dri k. Feeli g a rac io o he alcohol dri ks o o he poi a d wi hou measure. Bei g dru k ca make some “bad” hi gs. Psychologis s call i “ he loss of si ua io al a d measure co rol”. he “heal h” i he mor i g is sa isfac ory, o eed i a ha gover ye .
Am esias begi appeari g. he perso is o a professio al ye , bu already a high-degree ama eur. As a rule obody gives up dri ki g o ha s age, as he overall heal h is s ill good. Firs s age las s for several years, he ra si io o he seco d s age is almos u avoidable. Seco d s age: he “alcohol depe de ce sy drome” is added o he symp oms of he firs s age. I o severe cases a alcoholic ca e dure o he eve i g a d “improve” his heal h o ly af er his work. he seco d s age of depe de ce begi s whe a alcoholic ca ’ already wai ill he eve i g a d cures a ha gover a he midday. La er i happe s earlier a d earlier. Curi g he ha gover early i he mor i g or a igh mea s goi g o a bi ge. Problems i he family a d a work (if hey’re o los already) are i escapable. Life goes dow , becomes u co rolled, bu i ’s oo frigh e i g for a abuser o admi ha . Alcohol akes he major place i he mi d, life becomes seemi g useless wi hou dri ki g. Family, childre , job – all go o he backgrou d. Some dri k almos co s a ly, o hers do breaks, bu i bo h cases he disease is progressi g, because o ly o al sobrie y ca s op he progress of alcoholism. Ma y ry o give up dri ki g o ha s age, because heal h is far o as good as i was before. hird s age: A predic able fi al of ma y-year’s abuse of alcohol – s age of degrada io a d payoff for dri ki g. Alcohol wi hdrawal sy dromes, liver disease, gas ri is, a emia, eurological disorders, impairme s i cog i io , cha ges i mood a d behaviour, mari al problems a d child abuse, impaired social rela io ships, scholas ic or job problems a d legal, fi a cial, or spiri ual problems. A perso is o a perso a y more he is a wreck ( More of ha is ha “alcoholism causes prema ure dea h hrough overdose, orga ic complica io s i volvi g he brai , liver, hear a d ma y o her orga s, a d by co ribu i g o suicide, homicide, mo or vehicle crashes, a d o her rauma ic eve s”. “Ca alcoholism be cured? While alcoholism is a rea able disease, a cure is o ye available. ha mea s ha eve if a alcoholic has bee sober for a lo g while a d has regai ed heal h, he or she remai s suscep ible o relapse a d mus co i ue o avoid all alcoholic beverages. "Cu i g dow " o dri ki g does ' work; cu i g ou alcohol is ecessary for a successful recovery. However, eve i dividuals who are de ermi ed o s ay sober may suffer o e or several "slips," or relapses, before achievi g lo g- erm sobrie y. Relapses are very commo a d do o mea ha a perso has failed or ca o eve ually recover from alcoholism. Keep i mi d, oo, ha every day ha a recoveri g alcoholic has s ayed sober prior o a relapse is ex remely valuable ime, bo h o he i dividual a d o his or her family. If a relapse occurs, i is very impor a o ry o s op dri ki g o ce agai a d o ge wha ever addi io al suppor is eeded o abs ai from dri ki g.” ( I Li hua ia people have bee always dri ki g i big amou s. ow we co sume more a d more alcohol despi e of he widespread public a d media aware ess of he social co seque ces a d heal h problems caused by alcoholism. “Alcohol co sump io duri g he Sovie period i Li hua ia, whe dri ki g was widely olera ed eve i he workplace, alcohol co sump io i creased co sis e ly.
Co sump io reached a level of hree li res of alcohol per head i 1960, 8 li res i 1970, 10.1 li res i 1975, 10.5 li res i 1980, a d approxima ely 11 li res i 1984. By he begi i g of he 1990s, alcoholism had become a serious social a d heal h problem. As early as 1966, special i s i u io s, called “ rea me -work herapy ce res”, were es ablished as par of he law a d order sys em for he compulsory rea me of alcoholism. People who were heavy dri kers a d did o seek rea me were forcibly co fi ed for rea me i such ce res for up o wo years. I a a emp o solve he urge alcohol problem, i 1985 a s ric a i-alcohol campaig was e forced i wha was he he Sovie U io . he campaig i volved igh limi s o he availabili y of alcoholic dri ks, a d s ric er co rols i he work place. Official s a is ics i dica e ha , i 1995, he average co sump io of alcohol per capi a i Li hua ia was 8-9 li res. hese official s a is ics are u likely o reflec reali y accura ely, a d some i direc exper es ima es, based o cases of alcoholic psychosis, i dica e ha he average alcohol co sump io per perso ca reach 17-20 li res, al hough hese da a are o co firmed by household expe di ure s a is ics. Mai reaso s ci ed for he i crease i alcohol co sump io i clude de eriora io i livi g s a dards, u employme , pover y, a i creased feeli g of i securi y, he crisis i “values” a d he lack of a social-psychological suppor sys em. As a co seque ce, dema d for alcoholic dri ks has i creased.” ( Alcoholism, chro ic a d usually progressive ill ess. Alcoholism is hough o arise from a combi a io of a wide ra ge of physiological, psychological, social, a d ge e ic fac ors. I is charac erized by a emo io al a d of e physical depe de ce o alcohol, a d i freque ly leads o brai damage or early dea h. More males ha females are affec ed by alcoholism, bu dri ki g amo g he you g a d amo g wome is i creasi g. Co sump io of alcohol is appare ly o he rise i he U i ed S a es, as is he o al alcohol co sump io a d prevale ce of alcohol-rela ed problems i he former commu is cou ries of Eas er Europe a d he former Sovie U io . his i crease is paralleled i o her cou ries, i cludi g developi g a io s. Af er 1980, however, co sump io remai ed rela ively s able i ma y wes er Europea a io s. Alcoholism, as opposed o merely excessive or irrespo sible dri ki g, has bee hough of as a symp om of psychological or social s ress or as a lear ed, maladap ive copi g behaviour. More rece ly, a d probably more accura ely, i has come o be viewed as a complex disease i i s ow righ . Alcoholism usually develops over a period of years. Alcohol comes o be used more as a mood-cha gi g drug ha as a foods uff or beverage served as a par of social cus om or religious ri ual. I i ially, he alcoholic may demo s ra e a high olera ce o alcohol, co sumi g more a d showi g fewer adverse effec s ha o hers. Subseque ly, however, he perso begi s o dri k agai s his or her ow bes i eres s, as alcohol comes o assume more impor a ce ha perso al rela io ships, work, repu a io , or eve physical heal h. he perso commo ly loses co rol over dri ki g a d is i creasi gly u able o predic how much alcohol will be co sumed o a give occasio or, if he perso is curre ly abs ai i g, whe he dri ki g will resume agai .
В этом поможет программа B!M, из которой вы узнаете, что начинать гуляния можно было еще за две недели до Нового года - с Дня ракетных войск стратегического назначения, плавно перетекающего в День святого Николая Чудотворца, затем в День работника органов государственной безопасности, затем в День энергетика и т. д. Определившись с важным вопросом «в честь чего пить?», нужно выяснить «сколько?» и через какое время можно будет снова ходить и садиться за руль. В этом поможет программа Bodun2 или более подробная и сложная (но на английском языке) Alcohol Blood Level Counter v1.2. Программы подсчитывают уровень алкоголя в крови, принимая в расчет вес и пол человека, количество, тип и градусы спиртного. Софтины подскажут, сколько еще можно принять, не рискуя оказаться в положении риз, и через какое время алкоголь будет выведен из организма (иными словами, наступит протрезвление). Кроме того, в Alcohol Blood Level Counter есть допустимые значения содержания алкоголя в крови для вождения автомобиля в разных странах. Также в Интернете можно найти аналогичные программы для наладонников Pocket PC и Palm OS - Emhylometer и Alcolator соответственно
1. Drinking: Alcoholism