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Искусство, Культура, Литература Литература, Лингвистика
Ya ka Kupala Kupala is he pe ame of he ou s a di g Byelorussia poe , Iva Lulsevich. Accordi g o folk lege ds, he shor July igh of Iva Kupala (S . Joh he Bap is ) - a very popular Slavic holiday -is whe fer begi s o bloom i he hick of he fores . his herb is believed o possess some magic power. He who fi ds i a d ears away i s flower shall forever be happy. he so of a la dless Byelorussia peasa , Domi ik Lu sevich, Iva (or simply Ya ka) sough he lege dary'flower of happi ess o i he hick of he fores bu i he dep hs of huma life. o for himself, bu for his dow rodde people who for ce uries had bee des i ed o bear he u bearable yoke of a io al a d social oppressio . For he firs ime, he ame of Ya ka Kupala appeared o May 15, 1905, i he ewspaper Severo-Zapad y Krai ( he or h-Wes er La d), u der his poem A Muzhik. Bo h he period a d he circums a ces surrou di g his poe ic debu seem u usual a d sig ifica , as oke s of he fu ure asce d, above he horizo of Byelorussia a d world cul ure, of o simply a o her li erary s ar, bu of a whole galaxy. oge her wi h Kupala, or ha ks o him, such ex raordi arily e dowed perso ali ies as sio ka, Maxim Bogda ovich a d Yakub Kolas emerged. However, Ya ka Kupala was he firs , he fou der of a ew Byelorussia li era ure, i s archi ec a d co s ruc or. He was ha railblazer which is fou d i he cul ure of every a io , as Pushki was i Russia cul ure, Shevche ko i Ukrai ia , Mickiewicz i Polish, a d so o . he special place which Kupala occupies i Byelorussia li era ure may be de ermi ed from he words of Yakub Kolas, his dis i guished co emporary; &quo ;Differe ces i ge re o wi hs a di g, he crea io s of Ya ka Kupala seem o me as a si gle book, eve as o e so g glorifyi g he work of he people. &quo ;Half of his so g is a gry a d sad - hese are he works of he pre-Oc ober period, whe he poe used his i spired verse o place himself, courageously a d selflessly, i he camp of hose figh i g for he social a d a io al libera io of heir people. &quo ; he seco d half is cheerful, permea ed wi h he e husiasm of crea ive ess. I belo gs o he period whe he Byelorussia people achieved heir s a ehood a d, guided by cxoerie ced leaders, embarked upo he road leadi g o socialism a d, fur her, o commu ism.&quo ; Kupala lau ched Byelorussia li era ure o high world-embraci g orbi s, reei g i from he ri e ess of u imagi a ive ess, s ylish ess a d bookish ess. His civic de ermi a io a d arde e husiasm of a i ova r gave bir h o ew ideas a d, more impor a ly, o ew poe ic forms, ge res, rhy hms a do es, ll marked by fi esse a d s ylis ic flair. Ya ka Kupala However, Kupala's major co ribu io o li era ure i he period before 19l7 was his voice of social pro es . I his poem he So g of a Free Ma , he ope ly calls o he people wage a s ruggle. Czaris ce sors qualified i as &quo ;a iS a e,&quo ; si ce, readi g i , &quo ;o e ca o bu o ice a ope e courageme of obviously rebellious ac io s.&quo ; His huma e verse, his &quo ;love of he su &quo ; (&quo ;I bow o he Ear h a d he Su , / I'm a so of he Ear h, a free so of he Su .&quo ;) brough him close o his grea co emporaries like Maxim Gorky, Iva Fra ko a d Lesya Ukrai ka.
Af er he Oc ober Revolu io , he poe e visio ed his a io libera ed, free from i s social a d a io al shackles. I place of zhaleika folk so gs of grief, he poe , wi h rumpe i ha d, urges his ki oward buildi g a ew life. Livi g for we y years u der Sovie rule proved a impor a la dmark o he poe 's road oward crea ive accomplishme . his period dic a ed ew poe ic hemes, ideas a d images. O e by o e, his collec io s of verse were published, havi g heir effec o ex e sive readi g circles. His works were ra sla ed i o o her la guages -par icularly i o Russia which made Ya ka Kupala k ow i er a io ally. I his verse af er he Revolu io , his lyrical hero seems o merge wi h he masses, reachi g ha supreme u i y of which Pavlo ychy a, a celebra ed Sovie Ukrai ia poe , o ce said, &quo ;I'm he people.&quo ; A he same ime, Ya ka Kupala paid much a e io o he i dividuali y of his charac ers, hus asser i g he impe uous progress of he perso ali y a d he rich ess of he soul of he people, as revealed i he ew social epoch. he bard of rejuve a ed Byelorussia, Kupala was amo gs he firs o lay golde bridges be wee his a d o her a io s. I 1921, he ra sla ed i o Byelorussia he I er a io ale a d he Lay of he Hos oflgor. He was a i er a io alis poe . As a admirer of Pushki , Shevcheriko, Mickiewicz a d Slowacki, as a kee i erpre er of he I dia epic Mahabhara a a d he Arme ia David Sasu ski. he Byelorussia poe glorified bro herhood of a io s a d li era ures i he Ukrai e, Georgia, o Djambul, o Shi i g Sho a Rus aveli, O he Memory of Suleima S alski. Whe he Sovie cou ry was i vaded by he azi hordes, he poe raised his wra hful voice a he All-Slavic Assembly i Moscow. oge her wi h ou s a di g Ukrai ia cul ural figures Maxym Rylsky a d Olexa der Dovzhe ko, he sig ed he Appeal o Bro her Slavs. Ya ka Kupala was bou d o he Ukrai e a d her li era ure by ies of u breakable, fra er al affec io . Ukrai ia hemes, a io al colora io a d Ukrai ia folk images are fou d i such works as Am I a Cossack?, I Saw I . Bo dariv a, e c. Shevehe ko's Kobzar was o e of he books Kupala read i his you h. La er, he Byelorussia poe admi ed ha his book became ha s imulus which s irred him o crea ive awake i g, o becomi g aware of himself as a so of a oppressed a io . I 1909, Ya ka Kupala wro e wo poems he Memory of Shevche ko (February 25. 1909) a d Shevche ko's Memory - which s ar ed he Byelorussia Shevche kia a poe ic series. I he firs of hese impassio ed crea ive ribu es, he Byelorussia bard ack owledges he ruly bou dless i flue ce of he Kobzar's revolu io ary Muse o vas social s ra a a d expresses hear fel admira io of his impac as a so of he Byelorussia people: I he or h, i he sou h, i he eas , I he wes , where he su se s, he Kobzar plucks he s ri gs of huma souls. I a cabi , a palace, a priso cell, a aver , He s irs hear s as a warde does wi h his bells. &quo ;His verse reaches us every ime, We lis e happily o our eighbor, We add our flowers o his garla d. Bro her, dear, Byelorussia s salu e you&quo ; his mo if is s ressed eve more i he seco d poem. Kupala refers o he Kobzar as he fa her of o o ly Ukrai ia s bu also Byelorussia s.
Shevche ko's image promp ed Kupala o wri e he epic poem he Fa e of aras. I ur ed ou as a ki d of life s ory of he grea Ukrai ia bard, full of charmi g lyricism, a sof poe ic arra io . he me er of he Fa e of aras is charac eris ic of Shevche ko's kolomiyka - a lively Wes er Ukrai ia folk so g or da ce. Maxim Gorky, he grea Russia au hor, o ed a o e ime ha he k ew of o o her poe , excep Ya ka Kupala, who had so comple ely a d profou dly u ilized he Kobzar's crea ive pri ciples. Early i his poe ic career, Ya ka Kupala ra sla ed A hough , o Gogol a d o her work5 of Shevche ko. I he pos -Oc ober period, Kupala edi ed his earlier ra sla io s of Shevche ko a d bega o work o o hers wi h grea e husiasm. His pe le ew sple dor o such poems as A Dream. My es ame , he Caucasus, Kaleri a. he igh of aras a d Iva Pidkova, I fac , mos of Kupala's ra sla io s of Shevche ko served as he basis of he firs comple e Byelorussia versio of Kobzar which he edi ed. I 1939, Byelorussia celebra ed Shevche ko's 125 h bir h a iversary, oge her wi h he res of he cou ry. Ya ka Kupala appeared wi h a umber of speeches a d ar icles, dedica ed o he occasio . I he 1930's a d 1940's, Kupala of e visi ed he Ukrai e. He readily admi ed, &quo ;I love Ukrai ia li era ure - perhaps, more ha a y o her. eedless o say, Shevche ko remai s my umber o e Ukrai ia poe . Of modem poe s, Pavlo ychy a akes firs place.&quo ;. His perso al co ac s wi h Ukrai ia li era i co ribu ed frui fully o he e ha ceme of u i y be wee Byelorussia a d Ukrai ia li era ure. O e of he firs Byelorussia academicia s, Kupala was vo ed a member of he Academy of Scie ces of he Ukrai ia SSR. o his e d, o e is remi ded of Maxym Rylsky who said, &quo ;I do ' exaggera e whe I say ha , o Ya ka Kupala, he Ukrai e was like a seco d homela d.&quo ; Begi i g i he 1900's, his ame appeared i he, Ukrai ia readi g circles. A promi e Ukrai ia Slavis , Ilario Sve si sky, i cluded Kupala's Why Do You Sleep? a d here, i he la guage of he origi al, i o his book he Re aissa ce of Byelorussia Li era ure (1908). He kep i ouch wi h he poe who supplied him wi h his books a d ma uscrip s. Much was also do e o popularize Ya ka Kupala by sio ka (li . Au ie, pe ame of Aloiza Pashkevich, a promi e Byelorussia revolu io ary poe ess) who spe some ime i Lviv. Maxim Gorky se Mikhailo Ko syuby sky his ra sla io of Kupala's A d Who Goes here oge her wi h he o es, poi i g ou ha &quo ; his Byelorussia hym &quo ; had exci ed him reme dously. I 1916, his poem was reci ed, i Byelorussia , a a poe ry eve i g i Pol ava. Accordi g o hose prese , i made a grea impressio . Ma y of Kupala's books were pri ed doze s of imes i he Ukrai e. A umber of leadi g Ukrai ia me of le ers co ribu ed heir ra sla io s of he poe a d dedica ed o him heir ow verse. he u forge able Maxym Rylsky perhaps mos eloque ly prese ed he image of his Byelorussia cou erpar . He wro e a poe ic rip ych, e i led o Ya ka Kupala, For Ya ka Kupa a a d Ya ka Kupala. he las of he hree has he followi g li es: . hose i acquai a ce wi h him Shall ever forge he huma warm h i his eyes; He was he k igh of a lof y dream A d fough wha was false a d sly.
1. Yanka Kupala