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Mi is ry of educa io , scie ce a d cul ure High College of E glish Gradua io Paper o heme: U.S. - Sovie rela io s. S ude : Pavlu i a I.V. Supervisor: Kolpakov A. V. Bishkek 2000 Co e s.I roduc io . 3Chap er 1: he His orical Backgrou d of Cold War. 51.1 he His orical Co ex . 51.2 Causes a d I erpre a io s. 10 Chap er 2: he Cold War Chro ology. 172.1 he War Years. 172.2 he ruma Doc ri e. 252.3 he Marshall Pla . 34Chap er 3: he Role of Cold War i America His ory a d Diplomacy. 373.1 Declara io of he Cold War. 373.2 Сold War Issues. 40Co clusio . 49Glossary. 50 he refere ce lis . 51I roduc io . his gradua io paper is abou U.S. - Sovie rela io s i Cold War period. Our purpose is o fi d ou he causes of his war, posi io s of he cou ries which ook par i i . We also will discuss he mai Cold War's eve s. he Cold War was charac erized by mu ual dis rus , suspicio a d misu ders a di g by bo h he U i ed S a es a d Sovie U io , a d heir allies. A imes, hese co di io s i creased he likelihood of he hird world war. he U i ed S a es accused he USSR of seeki g o expa d Commu ism hroughou he world. he Sovie s, mea while, charged he U i ed S a es wi h prac ici g imperialism a d wi h a emp i g o s op revolu io ary ac ivi y i o her cou ries. Each block's visio of he world co ribu ed o Eas -Wes e sio . he U i ed S a es wa ed a world of i depe de a io s based o democra ic pri ciples. he Sovie U io , however, ried co rol areas i co sidered vi al o i s a io al i eres , i cludi g much of Eas er Europe. hrough he Cold War did o begi u il he e d of World War II, i 1945, U.S.-Sovie rela io s had bee s rai ed si ce 1917. I ha year, a revolu io i Russia es ablished a Commu is dic a orship here. Duri g he 1920's a d 1930's, he Sovie s called for world revolu io a d he des ruc io of capi alism, he eco omic sys em of U i ed S a es. he U i ed S a es did o gra diploma ic recog i io o he Sovie U io u il 1933. I 1941, duri g World War II, Germa y a acked he Sovie U io . he Sovie U io he joi ed he Wes er Allies i figh i g Germa y. For a ime early i 1945, i seemed possible ha a las i g frie dship migh develop be wee he U i ed S a es a d Sovie U io based o heir war ime coopera io . However, major differe ces co i ued o exis be wee he wo, par icularly wi h regard o Eas er Europe. As a resul of hese differe ces, he U i ed S a es adop ed a "ge ough" policy oward he Sovie U io af er he war e ded. he Sovie s respo ded by accusi g he U i ed S a es a d he o her capi alis allies of he Wes of seeki g o e circle he Sovie U io so hey could eve ually over hrow i s Commu is form of gover me . he subjec of Cold War i eres s America his orica s a d jour alis s as well as Russia o es. I par icular, famous jour alis He ryh Borovik fraces his opic i his book. He a alyzes he eve s of Cold War from he poi of view of moder Russia ma . Wi h appeari g of democracy a d freedom of speech we could free ourselves from pas s ereo ype i percep io of Cold War's eve s as well as America as a whole, we also lear some hi g ew abou America people's real life a d perso ali y. A ew developi g s age of rela io s wi h he U i ed S a es has begu wi h he collapse of he Sovie U io o i depe de s a es.
A d i order o direc hese rela io s i he righ way i is ecessary o s udy eve s of Cold War very carefully a d ry o avoid pas mis akes. herefore his subjec is so much popular i our days. his gradua io paper co sis of hree chap ers. he firs chap er mai ai he his orical docume s which comme he origi s of he Cold War. he seco d chap er mai ai i forma io abou he mos popular Cold War's eve s. he hird chap er a alyze he role of Cold War i World policy a d diplomacy. he chap er also adduce he Cold War issues. Chap er 1: he His orical Backgrou d of Cold War. 1.1 he His orical Co ex . he a imosi y of pos war Sovie -America rela io s drew o a deep reservoir of mu ual dis rus . Sovie suspicio of he U i ed S a es we back o America's hos ile reac io o he Bolshevik revolu io i self. A he e d of World War I, Preside Woodrow Wilso had se more ha e housa d America soldiers as par of a expedi io ary allied force o over hrow he ew Sovie regime by force. Whe ha ve ure failed, he U i ed S a es ever heless wi hheld i s recog i io of he Sovie gover me . Back i he U i ed S a es, mea while, he fear of Marxis radicalism reached a hys erical pi ch wi h he Red Scare of 1919-20. A or ey Ge eral A. Mi chell Palmer ordered gover me age s o arres 3,000 purpor ed members of he Commu is par y, a d he a emp ed o depor hem. America a i udes oward he seemed e capsula ed i he comme s of o e mi is er who called for he removal of commu is s i "ships of s o e wi h sails of lead, wi h he wra h of God for a breeze a d wi h hell for heir firs por ." America a i udes oward he Sovie U io , i ur , reflec ed profou d co cer abou Sovie viola io of huma righ s, democra ic procedures, a d i er a io al rules of civili y. Wi h bru al force, Sovie leaders had imposed from above a revolu io of agricul ural collec iviza io a d i dus rializa io . Millio s had died as a co seque ce of forced removal from heir la ds. A yo e who pro es ed was killed or se o o e of he hu dreds of priso camps which, i Alexa der Solzhe i sy 's words, s re ched across he Sovie U io like a gia archipelago. Wha ki d of people were hese, o e rela ive of a priso er asked, "who firs decreed a d he carried ou his mass des ruc io of heir ow ki d?" Fur hermore, Sovie foreig policy seemed commi ed o he spread of revolu io o o her cou ries, wi h i er a io al coordi a io of subversive ac ivi ies placed i he ha ds of he Comi er . I was difficul o imagi e wo more differe socie ies. For a brief period af er he U i ed S a es gra ed diploma ic recog i io o he Sovie U io i 1933, a ew spiri of coopera io prevailed. Bu by he e d of he 1930s suspicio a d alie a io had o ce agai become domi a . From a Sovie perspec ive, he U i ed S a es seemed u willi g o joi collec ively o oppose he Japa ese a d Germa me ace. O wo occasio s, he U i ed S a es had refused o ac i co cer agai s azi Germa y. Whe Bri ai a d Fra ce agreed a Mu ich o appease Adolph Hi ler, he Sovie s gave up o a y possibili y of allied ac io agai s Germa y a d alked of a capi alis effor o e circle a d des roy he Sovie regime. Ye from a Wes er perspec ive, here seemed li le basis for dis i guishi g be wee Sovie yra y a d azi o ali aria ism.
Be wee 1936 a d 1938 S ali e gaged i his ow holocaus , se di g up o 6 millio Sovie ci ize s o heir dea hs i massive purge rials. S ali "saw e emies everywhere," his daugh er la er recalled, a d wi h a ve gea ce frigh e i g i i s irra io ali y, sough o des roy hem. I was a "orgy of error," o e his oria said. Diploma s saw high officials apped o he shoulder i public places, removed from circula io , a d he execu ed. Foreig ers were subjec o co s a surveilla ce. I was as if, George Ke a o ed, ou siders were represe a ives of " he devil, evil a d da gerous, a d o be shu ed." O he basis of such experie ce, ma y Wes er ers co cluded ha Hi ler a d S ali were wo of a ki d, each reflec i g a blood- hirs y obsessio wi h power o ma er wha he cos o huma dece cy. " a io s, like i dividuals," Ke a said i 1938, "are largely he produc s of heir e viro me ." As Ke a perceived i , he Sovie perso ali y was euro ic, co spira orial, a d u rus wor hy. Such impressio s were o ly rei forced whe S ali sudde ly a ou ced a o aggressio rea y wi h Hi ler i Augus 1939, a d la er ha year i vaded he small, eu ral s a e of Fi la d. I seemed ha S ali a d Hi ler deserved each o her. He ce, he reluc a ce of some o cha ge heir a i udes oward he Sovie U io whe sudde ly, i Ju e 1941, Germa y i vaded Russia a d S ali became "U cle Joe." Compou di g he problem of his orical dis rus was he differe way i which he wo a io s viewed foreig policy. Ever si ce Joh Wi hrop had spoke of Bos o i 1630 as "a ci y upo a hill" ha would serve as a beaco for he world, America s had e ded o see hemselves as a chose people wi h a dis i c ive missio o impar heir fai h a d values o he res of huma ki d. Al hough all cou ries a emp o pu he bes face possible o heir mili ary a d diploma ic ac io s, America s have seemed more commi ed ha mos o describi g heir i volveme i he world as pure a d al ruis ic. He ce, eve ve ures like he Mexica War of 1846 - 48 - clearly provoked by he U i ed S a es i a effor o secure huge la d masses - were defe ded publicly as he fulfillme of a divi e missio o ex e d America democracy o hose deprived of i . Relia ce o he rhe oric of moralism was ever more prese ha duri g America's i volveme i World War I. Despi e i s official pos ure of eu rali y, he U i ed S a es had a ves ed i eres i he vic ory of E gla d a d Fra ce over Germa y. America's ow mili ary securi y, her rade li es wi h E gla d a d Fra ce, eco omic a d poli ical co rol over La i America a d Sou h America - all would bes be preserved if Germa y were defea ed. Moreover, America ba ks a d mu i io makers had i ves ed millio s of dollars i he allied cause. ever heless, he issue of a io al self-i eres rarely if ever surfaced i a y preside ial s a eme duri g he war. I s ead, U.S. rhe oric prese ed America's posi io as o ally idealis ic i a ure. he U i ed S a es e ered he war, Preside Wilso declared, o for reaso s of eco omic self-i eres , bu o "make he world safe for democracy." Our purpose was o o res ore a bala ce of power i Europe, bu o figh a war ha would "e d all wars" a d produce "a peace wi hou vic ory."
Richard Harris Smith, «The First Moscow Station: An Espionage Footnote to Cold War History», International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, vol. Ill (1989), No. 3. H.P. Smolka, Forty Thousand Against the Arctic: Russia's Polar Empire, rev. edn. (London: Hutchinson, 1938). Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The Oak and the Calf (London: Collins, 1980). Keith Somerville, «The Soviet Union and Zimbabwe: The Liberation Struggle and After», in R. Craig Nation and Mark V. Kauppi, The Soviet Impact in Africa (Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1984). Boris Souvarine, Stalin: A Critical Survey of Bolshevism (London: Seeker & Warburg, 1939). P.S. Squire, The Third Department (Cambridge University Press, 1968). Robert W. Stephan, «Death to Spies: The Story of Smersh», MA dissertation, American University, Washington DC, 1984. Robert Stephens, Nasser: A Political Biography (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1971). P. Stojanoff, Reichstagbrand: Die Prozesse in London und Leipzig (Vienna: Europa Verlag, 1966). John Stonehouse, Ralph (London: Jonathan Cape, 1982)
1. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
2. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA
3. THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY SINCE THE END OF SECOND WORLD WAR
4. The war of the roses
5. World War I and the Armenian Genocide