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Cold War

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Ночник-проектор "Звездное небо и планеты", фиолетовый.
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330 руб
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Mi is ry of educa io , scie ce a d cul ure High College of E glish Gradua io Paper o heme: U.S. - Sovie rela io s. S ude : Pavlu i a I.V. Supervisor: Kolpakov A. V. Bishkek 2000 Co e s.I roduc io . 3Chap er 1: he His orical Backgrou d of Cold War. 51.1 he His orical Co ex . 51.2 Causes a d I erpre a io s. 10 Chap er 2: he Cold War Chro ology. 172.1 he War Years. 172.2 he ruma Doc ri e. 252.3 he Marshall Pla . 34Chap er 3: he Role of Cold War i America His ory a d Diplomacy. 373.1 Declara io of he Cold War. 373.2 Сold War Issues. 40Co clusio . 49Glossary. 50 he refere ce lis . 51I roduc io . his gradua io paper is abou U.S. - Sovie rela io s i Cold War period. Our purpose is o fi d ou he causes of his war, posi io s of he cou ries which ook par i i . We also will discuss he mai Cold War's eve s. he Cold War was charac erized by mu ual dis rus , suspicio a d misu ders a di g by bo h he U i ed S a es a d Sovie U io , a d heir allies. A imes, hese co di io s i creased he likelihood of he hird world war. he U i ed S a es accused he USSR of seeki g o expa d Commu ism hroughou he world. he Sovie s, mea while, charged he U i ed S a es wi h prac ici g imperialism a d wi h a emp i g o s op revolu io ary ac ivi y i o her cou ries. Each block's visio of he world co ribu ed o Eas -Wes e sio . he U i ed S a es wa ed a world of i depe de a io s based o democra ic pri ciples. he Sovie U io , however, ried co rol areas i co sidered vi al o i s a io al i eres , i cludi g much of Eas er Europe. hrough he Cold War did o begi u il he e d of World War II, i 1945, U.S.-Sovie rela io s had bee s rai ed si ce 1917. I ha year, a revolu io i Russia es ablished a Commu is dic a orship here. Duri g he 1920's a d 1930's, he Sovie s called for world revolu io a d he des ruc io of capi alism, he eco omic sys em of U i ed S a es. he U i ed S a es did o gra diploma ic recog i io o he Sovie U io u il 1933. I 1941, duri g World War II, Germa y a acked he Sovie U io . he Sovie U io he joi ed he Wes er Allies i figh i g Germa y. For a ime early i 1945, i seemed possible ha a las i g frie dship migh develop be wee he U i ed S a es a d Sovie U io based o heir war ime coopera io . However, major differe ces co i ued o exis be wee he wo, par icularly wi h regard o Eas er Europe. As a resul of hese differe ces, he U i ed S a es adop ed a "ge ough" policy oward he Sovie U io af er he war e ded. he Sovie s respo ded by accusi g he U i ed S a es a d he o her capi alis allies of he Wes of seeki g o e circle he Sovie U io so hey could eve ually over hrow i s Commu is form of gover me . he subjec of Cold War i eres s America his orica s a d jour alis s as well as Russia o es. I par icular, famous jour alis He ryh Borovik fraces his opic i his book. He a alyzes he eve s of Cold War from he poi of view of moder Russia ma . Wi h appeari g of democracy a d freedom of speech we could free ourselves from pas s ereo ype i percep io of Cold War's eve s as well as America as a whole, we also lear some hi g ew abou America people's real life a d perso ali y. A ew developi g s age of rela io s wi h he U i ed S a es has begu wi h he collapse of he Sovie U io o i depe de s a es.

A d i order o direc hese rela io s i he righ way i is ecessary o s udy eve s of Cold War very carefully a d ry o avoid pas mis akes. herefore his subjec is so much popular i our days. his gradua io paper co sis of hree chap ers. he firs chap er mai ai he his orical docume s which comme he origi s of he Cold War. he seco d chap er mai ai i forma io abou he mos popular Cold War's eve s. he hird chap er a alyze he role of Cold War i World policy a d diplomacy. he chap er also adduce he Cold War issues. Chap er 1: he His orical Backgrou d of Cold War. 1.1 he His orical Co ex . he a imosi y of pos war Sovie -America rela io s drew o a deep reservoir of mu ual dis rus . Sovie suspicio of he U i ed S a es we back o America's hos ile reac io o he Bolshevik revolu io i self. A he e d of World War I, Preside Woodrow Wilso had se more ha e housa d America soldiers as par of a expedi io ary allied force o over hrow he ew Sovie regime by force. Whe ha ve ure failed, he U i ed S a es ever heless wi hheld i s recog i io of he Sovie gover me . Back i he U i ed S a es, mea while, he fear of Marxis radicalism reached a hys erical pi ch wi h he Red Scare of 1919-20. A or ey Ge eral A. Mi chell Palmer ordered gover me age s o arres 3,000 purpor ed members of he Commu is par y, a d he a emp ed o depor hem. America a i udes oward he seemed e capsula ed i he comme s of o e mi is er who called for he removal of commu is s i "ships of s o e wi h sails of lead, wi h he wra h of God for a breeze a d wi h hell for heir firs por ." America a i udes oward he Sovie U io , i ur , reflec ed profou d co cer abou Sovie viola io of huma righ s, democra ic procedures, a d i er a io al rules of civili y. Wi h bru al force, Sovie leaders had imposed from above a revolu io of agricul ural collec iviza io a d i dus rializa io . Millio s had died as a co seque ce of forced removal from heir la ds. A yo e who pro es ed was killed or se o o e of he hu dreds of priso camps which, i Alexa der Solzhe i sy 's words, s re ched across he Sovie U io like a gia archipelago. Wha ki d of people were hese, o e rela ive of a priso er asked, "who firs decreed a d he carried ou his mass des ruc io of heir ow ki d?" Fur hermore, Sovie foreig policy seemed commi ed o he spread of revolu io o o her cou ries, wi h i er a io al coordi a io of subversive ac ivi ies placed i he ha ds of he Comi er . I was difficul o imagi e wo more differe socie ies. For a brief period af er he U i ed S a es gra ed diploma ic recog i io o he Sovie U io i 1933, a ew spiri of coopera io prevailed. Bu by he e d of he 1930s suspicio a d alie a io had o ce agai become domi a . From a Sovie perspec ive, he U i ed S a es seemed u willi g o joi collec ively o oppose he Japa ese a d Germa me ace. O wo occasio s, he U i ed S a es had refused o ac i co cer agai s azi Germa y. Whe Bri ai a d Fra ce agreed a Mu ich o appease Adolph Hi ler, he Sovie s gave up o a y possibili y of allied ac io agai s Germa y a d alked of a capi alis effor o e circle a d des roy he Sovie regime. Ye from a Wes er perspec ive, here seemed li le basis for dis i guishi g be wee Sovie yra y a d azi o ali aria ism.

Be wee 1936 a d 1938 S ali e gaged i his ow holocaus , se di g up o 6 millio Sovie ci ize s o heir dea hs i massive purge rials. S ali "saw e emies everywhere," his daugh er la er recalled, a d wi h a ve gea ce frigh e i g i i s irra io ali y, sough o des roy hem. I was a "orgy of error," o e his oria said. Diploma s saw high officials apped o he shoulder i public places, removed from circula io , a d he execu ed. Foreig ers were subjec o co s a surveilla ce. I was as if, George Ke a o ed, ou siders were represe a ives of " he devil, evil a d da gerous, a d o be shu ed." O he basis of such experie ce, ma y Wes er ers co cluded ha Hi ler a d S ali were wo of a ki d, each reflec i g a blood- hirs y obsessio wi h power o ma er wha he cos o huma dece cy. " a io s, like i dividuals," Ke a said i 1938, "are largely he produc s of heir e viro me ." As Ke a perceived i , he Sovie perso ali y was euro ic, co spira orial, a d u rus wor hy. Such impressio s were o ly rei forced whe S ali sudde ly a ou ced a o aggressio rea y wi h Hi ler i Augus 1939, a d la er ha year i vaded he small, eu ral s a e of Fi la d. I seemed ha S ali a d Hi ler deserved each o her. He ce, he reluc a ce of some o cha ge heir a i udes oward he Sovie U io whe sudde ly, i Ju e 1941, Germa y i vaded Russia a d S ali became "U cle Joe." Compou di g he problem of his orical dis rus was he differe way i which he wo a io s viewed foreig policy. Ever si ce Joh Wi hrop had spoke of Bos o i 1630 as "a ci y upo a hill" ha would serve as a beaco for he world, America s had e ded o see hemselves as a chose people wi h a dis i c ive missio o impar heir fai h a d values o he res of huma ki d. Al hough all cou ries a emp o pu he bes face possible o heir mili ary a d diploma ic ac io s, America s have seemed more commi ed ha mos o describi g heir i volveme i he world as pure a d al ruis ic. He ce, eve ve ures like he Mexica War of 1846 - 48 - clearly provoked by he U i ed S a es i a effor o secure huge la d masses - were defe ded publicly as he fulfillme of a divi e missio o ex e d America democracy o hose deprived of i . Relia ce o he rhe oric of moralism was ever more prese ha duri g America's i volveme i World War I. Despi e i s official pos ure of eu rali y, he U i ed S a es had a ves ed i eres i he vic ory of E gla d a d Fra ce over Germa y. America's ow mili ary securi y, her rade li es wi h E gla d a d Fra ce, eco omic a d poli ical co rol over La i America a d Sou h America - all would bes be preserved if Germa y were defea ed. Moreover, America ba ks a d mu i io makers had i ves ed millio s of dollars i he allied cause. ever heless, he issue of a io al self-i eres rarely if ever surfaced i a y preside ial s a eme duri g he war. I s ead, U.S. rhe oric prese ed America's posi io as o ally idealis ic i a ure. he U i ed S a es e ered he war, Preside Wilso declared, o for reaso s of eco omic self-i eres , bu o "make he world safe for democracy." Our purpose was o o res ore a bala ce of power i Europe, bu o figh a war ha would "e d all wars" a d produce "a peace wi hou vic ory."

Richard Harris Smith, «The First Moscow Station: An Espionage Footnote to Cold War History», International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, vol. Ill (1989), No. 3. H.P. Smolka, Forty Thousand Against the Arctic: Russia's Polar Empire, rev. edn. (London: Hutchinson, 1938). Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, The Oak and the Calf (London: Collins, 1980). Keith Somerville, «The Soviet Union and Zimbabwe: The Liberation Struggle and After», in R. Craig Nation and Mark V. Kauppi, The Soviet Impact in Africa (Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath, 1984). Boris Souvarine, Stalin: A Critical Survey of Bolshevism (London: Seeker & Warburg, 1939). P.S. Squire, The Third Department (Cambridge University Press, 1968). Robert W. Stephan, «Death to Spies: The Story of Smersh», MA dissertation, American University, Washington DC, 1984. Robert Stephens, Nasser: A Political Biography (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1971). P. Stojanoff, Reichstagbrand: Die Prozesse in London und Leipzig (Vienna: Europa Verlag, 1966). John Stonehouse, Ralph (London: Jonathan Cape, 1982)

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