Semantic Changes

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Pla : Page: Foreword .3 Chap er I. Sema ic cha ges. ypes of Sema ic cha ges . 4 Defi i io .4 Me aphor 7 Me o ymy .9 O her ypes of Sema ic cha ges . 10 Chap er II. Causes of sema ic cha ge . 12 Co clusio 15 Li era ure . 16 FOREWORD he mea i g of a word ca cha ge i he course of ime. Cha ges of lexical mea i gs ca be proved by compari g co ex s of differe imes. ra sfer of he mea i g is called lexico-sema ic word-buildi g. I such cases he ou er aspec of a word does o cha ge. he causes of sema ic cha ges ca be ex ra-li guis ic a d li guis ic, e.g. he cha ge of he lexical mea i g of he ou pe was due o ex ra-li guis ic causes. Primarily pe comes back o he La i word pe a (a fea her of a bird). As people wro e wi h goose pe s he ame was ra sferred o s eel pe s which were la er o used for wri i g. S ill la er a y i s rume for wri i g was called a pe . O he o her ha d causes ca be li guis ic, e.g. he co flic of sy o yms whe a perfec sy o ym of a a ive word is borrowed from some o her la guage o e of hem may specialize i i s mea i g, e.g. he ou ide i Old E glish was polisema ic a d de o ed ime, seaso , hour. Whe he Fre ch words ime, seaso , hour were borrowed i o E glish hey ous ed he word ide i hese mea i gs. I was specialized a d ow mea s regular rise a d fall of he sea caused by a rac io of he moo . he mea i g of a word ca also cha ge due o ellipsis, e.g. he word-group a rai of carriages had he mea i g of a row of carriages, la er o of carriages was dropped a d he ou rai cha ged i s mea i g, i is used ow i he fu c io a d wi h he mea i g of he whole word-group. Sema ic cha ges have bee classified by differe scie is s. he mos comple e classifica io was sugges ed by a Germa scie is Herma Paul i his work Pri zipie des Sprachgeschich e. I is based o he logical pri ciple. He dis iguishes wo mai ways where he sema ic cha ge is gradual ( specializa io a d ge eraliza io ), wo mome ary co scious sema ic cha ges (me aphor a d me o ymy) a d also seco dary ways: gradual (eleva io a d degrada io ), mome ary (hyperbole a d li o e). CHAP ER I. SEMA IC CHA GES. YPES OF SEMA IC CHA GES. 1. Defi i io . he developme a d cha ge of he sema ic s ruc ure of a word is always a source of quali a ive a d qua i a ive developme of he vocabulary. All he ypes discussed depe d upo some compariso be wee he earlier (whe her ex i c or s ill i use) a d he ew mea i g of he give word. his compariso may be based o he differe ce be wee o io s expressed or refere s i he real world ha are poi ed ou , o he ype of psychological associa io a work, o evalua io of he la er by he speaker or, possibly, o some o her fea ure. he order i which various ypes are described will follow more or less closely he diachro ic classifica io s of M. Breal a d H. Paul. o a emp a a ew classifica io is co sidered ecessary. here seems o be o poi i augme i g he umber of u sa isfac ory schemes already offered i li era ure. he rea me is herefore radi io al. M. Breal was probably he firs o emphasize he fac ha i passi g from ge eral usage i o some special sphere of commu ica io a word as a rule u dergoes some sor of specialisa io of i s mea i g.

he word case, for i s a ce, alo gside i s ge eral mea i g of 'circums a ces i which a perso or a hi g is' possesses special mea i gs: i law ('a law sui '), i grammar (e.g. he Possessive case), i medici e ('a pa ie ', 'a ill ess'). Compare he followi g: O e of Charles's cases had bee a child ill wi h a form of diph heria. (C. P. S OW) (case = a pa ie ). he Solici or whom I me a he Holfords’ se me a case which a y you g ma a my s age would have hough himself lucky o ge . (Idem) (case = a ques io decided, i a cour of law, a law sui ) he ge eral, o specialized mea i g is also very freque i prese -day E glish. For example: A las we ip oed up he broad slippery s aircase, a d we o our rooms. Bu i my case o o sleep, immedia ely a leas . (Idem) (case = circums a ces i which o e is) his differe ce is revealed i he differe ce of co ex s i which hese words occur, i heir differe vale cy. Words co ec ed wi h ill esses a d medici e i he firs example, a d words co ec ed wi h law a d cour procedures i he seco d, form he sema ic paradigm of he word case. he word play sugges s differe o io s o a child, a playwrigh , a foo baller, a musicia or a chess-player a d has i heir speech differe sema ic paradigms. he same applies o he ou cell as used by a biologis , a elec ricia , a u or a represe a ive of he law; or he word gas as u ders ood by a chemis , a housewife, a mo oris or a mi er. I all he examples co sidered above a word which formerly represe ed a o io of a broader scope has come o re der a o io of a arrower scope. Whe he mea i g is specialized, he word ca ame fewer objec s, i.e. have fewer refere s. A he same ime he co e of he o io is bei g e riched, as i i cludes -a grea er umber of releva fea ures by which he o io is charac erized. Or as S . Ullma pu s i : &quo ; he word is ow applicable o more hi gs bu ells us less abou hem.&quo ; he reduc io of scope accou s for he erm &quo ; arrowi g of he mea i g&quo ; which is eve more of e used ha he erm &quo ;specializa io &quo ;. We shall avoid he erm &quo ; arrowi g&quo ;, si ce i is somewha misleadi g. Ac ually i is ei her he mea i g or he o io , bu he scope of he o io ha .is arrowed. here is also a hird erm for he same phe ome o , amely &quo ;differe ia io &quo ;, bu i is o so widely used as he firs wo erms. H. Paul, as well as ma y o her au hors, emphasizes he fac ha his ype of sema ic cha ge is par icularly freque i vocabulary of professio al a d rade groups. H. Paul's examples are from he Germa la guage bu i is very easy o fi d parallel cases i E glish. So his ype of cha ge is fairly u iversal a d fails o disclose a y specifically E glish proper ies. he bes k ow examples of specializa io i he ge eral la guage are as follows: OE dēor 'wild beas ' > ModE deer 'wild rum,i a of a par icular species' ( he origi al mea i g was s ill alive i Shakespeare's ime as is proved by he followi g quo a io : Ra s a d mice a d such small deer); OE me e 'food' >ModE mea 'edible flesh', i.e. o ly a par icular species of food ( he earlier mea i g is s ill o iceable i he compou d swee mea ).

his las example deserves special a e io because he e de cy of fixed co ex o preserve he origi al mea i g is very marked as is co s a ly proved by various examples. O her well-wor examples are: OE fuol 'bird' (cf. Germ Vogel) > ModE foal 'domes ic birds'. he old, mea i g is s ill preserved i poe ic dic io a d i se expressio s, like fowls of he air. Amo g i s deriva ives, fowler mea s 'a perso who shoo s or raps wild birds for spor or food'; he shoo i g or rappi g i self is called fowli g; a fowli g piece is a gu . OE hu d 'dog' (cf. . Germ Hu d) >hou d 'a species of hu i g dog'. Ma y words co ec ed wi h li eracy also show similar cha ges: hus, each

Doing so may eliminate a considerable amount of unnecessary client-server traffic. The fact that few files are shared argues for client caching. As we have seen already, caching makes the semantics more complicated, but if files are rarely shared, it may well be best to do client caching and accept the consequences of session semantics in return for the better performance. Finally, the clear existence of distinct file classes suggests that perhaps different mechanisms should be used to handle the different classes. System binaries need to be widespread but hardly ever change, so they should probably be widely replicated, even if this means that an occasional update is complex. Compiler and other temporary files are short, unshared, and disappear quickly, so they should be kept locally wherever possible. Electronic mailboxes are frequently updated but rarely shared, so replication is not likely to gain anything. Ordinary data files may be shared, so they may need still other handling. 5.2.2. System Structure In this section we will look at some of the ways that file servers and directory servers are organized internally, with special attention to alternative approaches

1. Continuity and change in Stravinskiy`s ballets.

2. Climate change

3. Lexico-semantic characteristics of business letter correspondence

4. Demographic Changes - Overpopulation

5. Economic system. Changes in economic situation of Russia  ,          (,   )?      . ,   -     ,    ,    . 
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