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ǡ-Ӽ߬ ӫԿ ҡ ӫ 󫮡. ӫԴѡ XIX Ѭ ǡ ᡿ ѡү ѡ ӫ Ѽ . ġ ٽ ԫ ߿, ԫ ӫ Կ "ԴѮ " - ᬽ ӫ ߫ ߿ ߫ѡ ߫. ǡ ӿѪὫ ᬪ ԫ ӫ Կ ӫ, 󿺡 ԫӫ. ޿ , ѡ ǡѮ Ӵ ߽Կ Ӫ, 󽴽 Ѫټ ١ ߬ ԫӫ, ᬪ Ἷ ߬ ӫ޽ѡԿ. 񫽯 ǡ ӿի 1/3 ӫ ӫ޽ѡ ӫҬ 2/5 ӫ ӫ޽ѡ ݬ߻ (6). ӫ ԫ, Կҽӫ὿ ӡٮ ӫ ޡѮ ԫ, ԫ ѻ ߬ ҡԫ ѻᵿ Ἣ Ѫ Ὧ , 﫡񫡫 - ӫ ӫ ߫ ѡ. XIX Ѭ ѡ ѽӿ᡿ ѡ, Ӫ ѡߴ Ѽ. ᡫ ԫ ݬ߬ Կ߬ Ѽ ӿ὿Կ߬ Ӫ - Ӽ᡿. Կ Ѽ ӫ ӫ޽ѡԿ ٽ , Ѽ ǡ; ѻ ᵿ Ӫế ߬ ١ ԫӫ ԫ ѽἿ , ݻ ӿ὿ Ѽ ӿߴ, ԫ Ὣ ѽ ѻѽѡ ӿԫӿ. Ѻҽ ߴ ѽ , ߫Ӵѡ Ἷ Ѫ һѮ޿ ỿ὿Կ߬ ӪἿ. Ἣ 󫺡ѡ Կ ӫԿ ᡫ ߫ Ѽѽټ ѡѡѼ ӫӵ ݬ߬ ӿ὿Կ߬ , ү , ӫ޽ѡԿ. ӫ޽ѡ ǡ ի ߫ԫ ԫ: Ѽ ӫ ٽ ѽ, ӿѽ. ὿ ӫ ѽ ѽӿ᡿ ѽ, ӿѽ ԫӫ. ǡ߬ү Ӫế ӿѬ὿ ԫ ԫ , ӫټ ӿٽ 󽫪ѡ ᡿Ѯ ỿ. Ѻҽ Ѽ ỿ ӫ߽ Ѽ ӫ ݬ߻ ǡ: ԫ ߬ ԫӡ ݬ߻ 1900 1912 . ѽ 77%, ԫ ݬ߻ ỿ ԫ ӿ ӫ 624%. Ҽ ߬ ỿὫ󽫪ѡ ᡿Ѯ ӿ 1902-1914 . ӫ߽ ӿӡ ԫ (6,.34). Կ ᡿Ѯ ӿ߿ ӿٽ (ӿ, ỿ, 󽫪ѡٮ ԫү ӫ޽ѡ ὴ, ӿ߿ ӿٽ 500%), Ѭ὿ ỿ ѡ ӫ޽ѡԿ. Ѻҽ ߬ ӫ޽ѡ ᡫ Ѯ. ӫ ԫ, ǡ ếߴ Դ ӿ, Դ޿ߴ Կ 20 , ԫ Ѽ Ӽ᡿ ӿ 1900 1914 ٽ Ѻ ӿ. ߽ 1900 . 񫽯 ǡ ӿի񿽫 29,7% ӫ 22,1% ӫ ӫ ҡ, ԫ 1913 . 񫽴 һ ߫ѡ 21,8% 13,2%. (6, .34). ӫ ԫ, ǡ Կ ٽ , ԫ ԫ ѡ Կ ߻߫὿ ߬ѡ ӫ ӫ޽ѡԿ.

ԫ Ѽ, ߬ ӫ޽ѡ Ӵ ի, Ӽ߬ ӿ Ѽѽ ӫ߽. ԫ ӫ Կ߬, ݬ߬ ٽἿ. ӫү ӫ ᡫѡ ݬ߬ Ӽ᡿ Ὣ ѽ ѡ Ἣ ᡿ᡡ ԫ Կ - ߿ Ѻҽ ᡬ-߬ 󫮡 1870 . ū߽ ᡵҺ߬ ӫ ѵѼ ӿ ӿӿ ӽ ߬: " 񿽿 ; ѻ Ҫ ӫߴ Ӫ Կ ӫѡԿ" (5,.6). ԫ ҡ ٽ ߽ Ѽѵ ӪếѮ. ᡬ-߬ 󫮡 Ӽ᡿ ӿԫӿ ӿѡ - ؽ ӿ. ӿ, Ӵ ӫ, ᪡Ѯү ӫ ԫ ѽѺ Դѽ ӫ޽ѡԿ - ԡԿ, һ. ѽү ӫ ὿ ݬ߬ ԫ - ӿҵ 5 . ᡬ, ѡ ᡵ ߫ ѡᵿ ỿὫ ӫ޽ѡԿ Ҭ . 14 - 1900 1913 . - ٻ ҡ Ӽ᡿ ӫ߽ Ѽ , Կ 󿡫 񡴽 ٻ ὿ - Ѻҽ, ҡ 󫮡 Ӽ᡿ Ѽ ӫ ѡ ѽѺ , Ѽ ٻ ὿ Կ 1,7 ի񿽿 ߬.ѡ Ѻѡ ǡ ߻ӿ὿ Ѽ ӫ Ӽ߬ ޡѮ ԫ. ߡټ Ἷ ݬ߻ Ӽ᡿ ٽ Ҽѡ, ޿, ݽѬӫա߬ ѽ, տ߬ ӼԿ߬ ӫҬ, ѽ ӫ޽ѡԿ, .., Ӽ᡿ ߡ Ὣ ߬ ԫ, ӿѼ ӿԫӿ, ޿ ߡ 󴺿 ǡѮ. ߻ Ѽѵ ޡѮ ԫ ߻߫ ߿Ѽ ӿ ӿ߬ ӿ, ԫ Ѽ Ӽ᡿ 70- XIX Ѭ ٽ ѡ ߿Ѽ ӫѬ - ѡ Ἣѡ ޽ 󫺿 - Ѫ ԫ. 1900 . Ӽ߬ 󽫪ѡ ᡿Ѯ ߫󽴽 15 . ӫ, 1914 . Կ Ҫ 35 . ӫ ߫󽴽 ߬ 2/3 ᡵҺ߬"(6, .34). ӿ 1871 1889 . ԫ Ӽ᡿ ѽ 1400%, ԫ Ѽ ߬ ѽ 25%. ߽ Ѭԫټ ᪡ټ , ԫ ԫ ӿ ӫ Ѽѵ ԫ ӫ 300%, ߬ - 125%, Ѽ ٿ὿ 300%, Ӵ 11%, ὿ Ӵ 20%, Ѽ - ٿ὿ 400% (5, .6). ߻ Ӽᡵ ߻߫Ὣ ԫ , ԫ Ӽ᡿ ӫѡ ѡ , ӫѡ ޿ӫ ߽ ѽѡ, ٽ ԫ , ԫ 󽴽 Ѽѵ ӿѽѮ ߬ ١ ԫӫ ᡿Ѯ.Ӽ᡿ ӿ 񫽪 ٽ ߿ٮ ᡿ ߫ . 󫺼 Կѡ ᬿ- ѽ Ѻҽԫ ӫ Կ Ѻ 񡫮 ߽ 񿻽Կ߬ ѡ Ӽ᡿ ҽᪿ᡿ ӫ߬ ӿ 1905 ١Ҫѡ ӫ ǡѮ ߬ ӫ.

󫺡 Ѻѡ ӫԿ ߫ ѮѮ ӿѮ - ǡѮ. ӫԴѡ ԫԿ ǡ Ѻѽ ߻ . ԫ 󿽫 ߽Ѽ ԫ, ԫ ǡ - ӫ, ԫ Ѯ ٽ ߫Ӫ , Ѽ իԡү Ӽ. Ӽ᡿ , ӫԿ, ٽ Կѡ ᡫ, ߡү ӫ 񫽪 ٽ իԡ Ӽ. ѡѼ Ӽ߬ ӿ, ѡ, ԫ "߬ ӫ ߻" (4,.581) Ὣ ὿ ߿ ѡ-߬ ѡ. ӫ ԫ ߫Կ, ԫү 񫽪ѡ ٽ Ӽ᡿, ٽ ѫի Ѽѵ ԫ ӿ Ӽ᡿ ѽѺ ӫ ߽ 󫮡. ٽ Լѡ , Ӵ ӫԫ ӫ޽ѡԿ, ӫի񿽫 ᡿ ѡ ߬ҽ Ӽ᡿. Ѻҽ Ӽ᡿Ѯ ѽ ѡ ǡ . 1908 1912 . Ӽ᡿ ᬽὫ Ѫ 4 Ѯ , ԫ 2 ҿ (6, .131). ǡ߬ ѽ Ὣ, ԫ ѡ-߬ Ӽ᡿ ǡ ԫ ߴ Ѽѵ Ἷ ӫ, ߫ ӫ ߬ ҡᵿ ӿ߬ ӿ ߽ 󫮡. ԫ ٽ Ѻ ߡ, ǡ, ᬪ Ӽ᡿, ѽ ӫ . 櫺 ԫ, ǡ Դҽ ѡ-߬ Ҫѡ, ԫ ӫ񫽪 󻽫 ӫ 󫮡. Ԭ ѡ ѡ Ѯ - "ԫ" ߿ ӫᵿ Ѫ Ҽ ӪἿ, Ѯ, ԫ ǡ ѽ 񿵿 ѿ, ὿ ѡү ӫ. , 1908 . ǡ ѽ 8 ԫ, Ӽ᡿ - 7. 櫫ԡѡ ӫѡߵ ӫ Կ ٽ ᬿ: 51 - ǡ 24 - Ӽ᡿ (6, . 131). Ѻҽ Ӽ᡿ ߿ ԡ߿ѽ ߬, ߫ԡѡ ѡ-߬ ߿ ὿ ӿߴ ӿԡ. ԫ ԫ ߽, ӫ, ߿ Ҫѡ, ԫ ߻߫Ὣ Ӽ὿ᵿ Ѫҡӫ ԡѡ. ѼὫ ѻѡ ᡿ ᡫ ٽ 󿡫ԫ Ѽѵ ѽ, ԫӫ Ѻ ߬ ӡ ѡ 񽫪ѡ ߬ ѽѮ ᡿ѡ ߬ Ҫѡ. ԫ Ӫ ѡ, Ѯ ǡ ӿ ӿ " ߬ Ѽѵ ", ߼Ӵ ԫ ӫ 󫮡 ǡ Ὣ ߫᡿ ޫ ի Ѽѵ.󫺼 ޿ѽ ի ѡ ߿ ԫ ǡ Ӽ᡿ ߬ ߫ 񻫽Ѽ 󫮡, ӿѼ Ӫ ӿѽ ߻ի. 佴 ǡ ᬿ ߫ ᡵ. ߡ ѡ Ѫ ߫: ǡ, ᡵ ٽ ټ ټ ӪἿ, ᯿ ѡ ạ Դ ; ӫ ԫ, ᡵ, ǡ ὿ ߿ѡ ѡ Ӽ᡿ - ǡ ٽ ѡ Ѽѵ , ᡵ, Ѯ ү ᡿ Ӽ᡿Ѯ, ٽ ߡ իԡ Ӽ.

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