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The Tower of London

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heme: “”Ryaza 2002 Co e s: 1. he Developme of he ower 2. he orma s 3. he Medieval ower 4. he ower i udor imes 5. he Res ora io a d Af er 6. he ower i he 19 h Ce ury 7. he 20 h Ce ury he ower of Lo do he His ory of he ower of Lo do For ress, Palace a d Priso his shor his ory of he ower of Lo do char s he differe s ages of i s developme . hroughou i s his ory, he ower has a rac ed a umber of impor a fu c io s a d i s role as armoury, royal palace, priso a d for ress is explai ed, as well as i s moder role as ouris a rac io a d home o a hrivi g commu i y. he developme of he ower he ower of Lo do was begu i he reig of William he Co queror (1066-1087) a d remai ed u cha ged for over a ce ury. he , be wee 1190 a d 1285, he Whi e ower was e circled by wo owered cur ai walls a d a grea moa . he o ly impor a e largeme of he ower af er ha ime was he buildi g of he Wharf i he 14 h ce ury. oday he medieval defe ces remai rela ively u cha ged. he orma s Wes mCas le buildi g was a esse ial par of he orma Co ques : whe Duke William of orma dy i vaded E gla d i 1066 his firs ac io af er la di g a Peve sey o 28 Sep ember had bee o improvise a cas le, a d whe he moved o Has i gs wo days la er he buil a o her. Over he ex few years William a d his suppor ers were e gaged i buildi g hu dreds more, firs o co quer, he subdue a d fi ally o colo ise he whole of E gla d. By he e d of he A glo-Saxo period Lo do had become he mos powerful ci y i E gla d, wi h a rich por , a earby royal palace a d a impor a ca hedral. I was via Lo do ha Ki g Harold II (1066) a d his army sped sou h o mee William, a d o Lo do which he defea ed rabble of he E glish army re ur ed from he Ba le of Has i gs i 1066. Securi g he Ci y was herefore of he u mos impor a ce o William. His co emporary biographer William of Poi iers ells us ha af er receivi g he submissio of he E glish mag a es a Li le Berkhamps ead, William se a adva ce guard i o Lo do o co s ruc a cas le a d prepare for his riumphal e ry. He also ells us ha , af er his coro a io i i s er Abbey o Chris mas Day 1066, he ew Ki g wi hdrew o Barki g (i Essex) ‘while cer ai for ifica io s were comple ed i he ci y agai s he res less ess of he vas a d fierce populace for he realised ha i was of he firs impor a ce o overawe he Lo do ers. hese for ifica io s may have i cluded Bay ard’s Cas le buil i he sou h-wes a gle of he Ci y ( ear Blackfriars) a d he cas le of Mo fiche ( ear Ludga e Circus) a d almos cer ai ly he fu ure ower of Lo do . I i ially he ower had co sis ed of a modes e closure buil i o he sou h-eas cor er of he Roma Ci y walls, bu by he la e 1070s, wi h he i i ial comple io of he Whi e ower, i had become he mos fearsome of all. o hi g had bee see like i i E gla d before. I was buil by orma maso s a d E glish (A glo-Saxo ) labour draf ed i from he cou ryside, perhaps o he desig of Gu dulf, Bishop of Roches er. I was i e ded o pro ec he river rou e from Da ish a ack, bu also a d more impor a ly o domi a e he Ci y physically a d visually. I is difficul o apprecia e oday wha a e ormous impressio he ower a d o her orma buildi gs, such as S Paul’s Ca hedral (as rebuil af er 1086) or he earby Wes mi s er Hall (rebuil af er 1087) mus have made o he a ive Lo do ers.

he Whi e ower was pro ec ed o he eas a d sou h by he old Roma ci y walls (a full heigh fragme ca be see jus by ower Hill U dergrou d s a io ), while he or h a d wes sides were pro ec ed by di ches as much as 7.50m (25f ) wide a d 3.40m (11f ) deep a d a ear hwork wi h a woode wall o op. I he 12 h ce ury a ‘fore-buildi g’ ( ow demolished) was added o he sou h fro of he Whi e ower o pro ec he e ra ce. he Wardrobe ower, a fragme of which ca be see a he sou h-eas cor er of he buildi g, was a o her early addi io or rebuildi g. From very early o he e closure co ai ed a umber of imber buildi gs for reside ial a d service use. I is o clear whe her hese i cluded a royal reside ce bu William he Co queror’s immedia e successors probably made use of he Whi e ower i self. I is impor a for us oday o remember ha he fu c io s of he ower from he 1070s u il he la e 19 h ce ury were es ablished by i s orma fou ders. he ower was ever primarily i e ded o pro ec Lo do from ex er al i vasio , al hough, of course, i could have do e so if ecessary. or was i ever i e ded o be he pri cipal reside ce of he ki gs a d quee s of E gla d, hough ma y did i fac spe d periods of ime here. I s primary fu c io was always o provide a base for royal power i he Ci y of Lo do a d a s ro ghold o which he Royal Family could re rea i imes of civil disorder. he Medieval ower:A refuge a d a base for royal power Whe Richard he Lio hear (1189-99) came o he hro e he depar ed o a crusade o he Holy La d leavi g his Cha cellor, William Lo gchamp, Bishop of Ely, i charge of he ki gdom. Lo gchamp soo embarked o a e largeme a d s re g he i g of he ower of Lo do , he firs of a series of buildi g campaig s which by abou 1350 had crea ed he basic form of he grea for ress ha we k ow oday. he jus ifica io for he vas expe di ure a d effor his i volved was he poli ical i s abili y of he ki gdom a d he Crow ’s co i ui g eed for a impreg able for ress i he Ci y of Lo do . Lo gchamp’s works doubled he area covered by he for ress by diggi g a ew a d deeper di ch o he or h a d eas a d buildi g sec io s of cur ai wall, rei forced by a ew ower ( ow k ow as he Bell ower) a he sou h-wes cor er. he di ch was i e ded o flood a urally from he river, al hough his was o a success. hese ew defe ces were soo pu o he es whe he Ki g’s bro her, Joh , aki g adva age of Richard’s cap ivi y i Germa y, challe ged Lo gchamp’s au hori y a d besieged him a he ower. Lack of provisio s forced Lo gchamp o surre der bu he ower’s defe ces had proved ha hey could resis a ack. he reig of he ex ki g Joh (1199-1216) saw li le ew buildi g work a he ower, bu he Ki g made good use of he accommoda io here. Like Lo gchamp, Joh had o cope wi h freque opposi io hroughou his reig . O ly a year af er sig i g a agreeme wi h his baro s i 1215 ( he Mag a Car a) hey were o ce more a loggerheads a d Pri ce Louis of Fra ce had lau ched a i vasio of E gla d wi h he suppor of some of Joh ’s leadi g baro s. I he mids of his defe ce of he ki gdom, Joh died of dyse ery a d his so , He ry III, was crow ed.

Wi h E gla d a war wi h Fra ce, he s ar of Ki g He ry’s lo g reig (1216-72) could have hardly bee less auspicious, bu wi hi seve mo hs of his accessio he Fre ch had bee defea ed a he ba le of Li col a d he busi ess of securi g he ki gdom could begi . Rei forceme of he royal cas les played a major role i his, a d his work a he ower of Lo do was more ex e sive ha a ywhere o her ha a Wi dsor Cas le. He ry III was o ly e years old i 1216, bu his rege s bega a major ex e sio of he royal accommoda io i he e closure which formed he I mos Ward as we k ow i oday. he grea hall a d ki che , da i g from he previous ce ury, were improved a d wo owers buil o he wa erfro , he Wakefield ower as he Ki g’s lodgi gs a d he La hor ower (rebuil i he 19 h ce ury), probably i e ded as he quee ’s lodgi gs. A ew wall was also buil e closi g he wes side of he I mos Ward. By he mid 1230s, He ry III had ru i o rouble wi h his baro s a d opposi io flared up i bo h 1236 a d i 1238. O bo h occasio s he Ki g fled o he ower of Lo do . Bu as he shel ered i he cas le i March 1238 he weak ess of he ower mus have bee brough home o him; he defe ces o he eas er , wes er a d or her sides co sis ed o ly of a emp y moa , s re ches of pa ched-up a d s re g he ed Roma wall a d a few le g hs of wall buil by Lo gchamp i he previous ce ury. ha year, herefore, saw he lau ch of He ry’s mos ambi ious buildi g programme a he ower, he co s ruc io of a grea ew cur ai wall rou d he eas , or h a d wes sides of he cas le a a cos of over Ј5,000. he ew wall doubled he area covered by he for ress, e closi g he eighbouri g church of S Pe er ad Vi cula. I was surrou ded by a moa , his ime successfully flooded by a Flemish e gi eer, Joh Le Fosser. he wall was rei forced by i e ew owers, he s ro ges a he cor ers ( he Sal , Mar i a d Devereux). Of hese all bu wo ( he Fli a d Brick) are much as origi ally buil . his massive ex e sio o he ower was viewed wi h ex reme suspicio a d hos ili y by he people of Lo do , who righ ly recog ised i as a fur her asser io of royal au hori y. A co emporary wri er repor s heir deligh whe a sec io of ewly-buil wall a d a ga eway o he si e of he Beauchamp ower collapsed, eve s hey a ribu ed o heir ow guardia sai , homas а Becke . Archaeological excava io be wee 1995 a d 1997 revealed he remai s of o e of hese collasped buildi gs. I 1272 Ki g Edward I (1272-1307) came o he hro e de ermi ed o comple e he defe sive works begu by his fa her a d ex e d hem as a mea s of fur her emphasisi g royal au hori y over Lo do . Be wee 1275 a d 1285 he Ki g spe over Ј21,000 o he for ress crea i g E gla d’s larges a d s ro ges co ce ric cas le (a cas le wi h o e li e of defe ces wi hi a o her). he work i cluded buildi g he exis i g Beauchamp ower, bu he mai effor was co ce ra ed o filli g i He ry III’s moa a d crea i g a addi io al cur ai wall o he wes er , or her a d eas er side, a d surrou di g i by a ew moa . his wall e closed he exis i g cur ai wall buil by He ry III a d was pierced by wo ew e ra ces, o e from he la d o he wes , passi g hrough he Middle a d Byward owers, a d a o her u der S homas’s ower, from he river.

Du costume militaire des Francais en 1446. Paris, 1866. [553] Giraud J.-B. Documents pour servir a l'histoire de l'armement au Moyen Age et a la Renaissance. 2 vos. Lyon, 1895. 1904. [553a] Hall B. S. The So-Called «Manuscript of the Hussite War» and its Technological Milieu. A Study and Edition of Codex lat. Monacensis 757. Ann Harbour, 1971. [554] Kyeser C. aus Eichstatt. Bellifortis / Hrsg. G. Quarg. 2 Bd. Dusseldorf 1967. [555] Nickei H. Ullstein Waffenbuch. Berlin, 1974. [556] Taccola M. De Machinis. T. I: The Engineering Treatise of 1449, introduction, latin texts, descriptions of engines and technical Commentaries, par G. Sgaglia; T. II: Fac-simile du Codex latinus Monacensis 28800 de la Bayerische Staatsbibliothek de Munich. Wiesbaden, 1971. Каталоги музейных собраний, описи, словари [557] Angelucci А. Catalogo della armeria reale. Torino, 1890. [558] Blackmore H. L. The Armouries of the Tower of London. T. I: Ordnance. London, 1976. [559] Bоссia L. A. Il Museo Stibbert a Firenze. 2 vos. Milano, 1975. T. II: L'armeriaeuropea. [560] Clayton M

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98. The Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions

99. The map of England


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