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The Tower of London

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heme: “”Ryaza 2002 Co e s: 1. he Developme of he ower 2. he orma s 3. he Medieval ower 4. he ower i udor imes 5. he Res ora io a d Af er 6. he ower i he 19 h Ce ury 7. he 20 h Ce ury he ower of Lo do he His ory of he ower of Lo do For ress, Palace a d Priso his shor his ory of he ower of Lo do char s he differe s ages of i s developme . hroughou i s his ory, he ower has a rac ed a umber of impor a fu c io s a d i s role as armoury, royal palace, priso a d for ress is explai ed, as well as i s moder role as ouris a rac io a d home o a hrivi g commu i y. he developme of he ower he ower of Lo do was begu i he reig of William he Co queror (1066-1087) a d remai ed u cha ged for over a ce ury. he , be wee 1190 a d 1285, he Whi e ower was e circled by wo owered cur ai walls a d a grea moa . he o ly impor a e largeme of he ower af er ha ime was he buildi g of he Wharf i he 14 h ce ury. oday he medieval defe ces remai rela ively u cha ged. he orma s Wes mCas le buildi g was a esse ial par of he orma Co ques : whe Duke William of orma dy i vaded E gla d i 1066 his firs ac io af er la di g a Peve sey o 28 Sep ember had bee o improvise a cas le, a d whe he moved o Has i gs wo days la er he buil a o her. Over he ex few years William a d his suppor ers were e gaged i buildi g hu dreds more, firs o co quer, he subdue a d fi ally o colo ise he whole of E gla d. By he e d of he A glo-Saxo period Lo do had become he mos powerful ci y i E gla d, wi h a rich por , a earby royal palace a d a impor a ca hedral. I was via Lo do ha Ki g Harold II (1066) a d his army sped sou h o mee William, a d o Lo do which he defea ed rabble of he E glish army re ur ed from he Ba le of Has i gs i 1066. Securi g he Ci y was herefore of he u mos impor a ce o William. His co emporary biographer William of Poi iers ells us ha af er receivi g he submissio of he E glish mag a es a Li le Berkhamps ead, William se a adva ce guard i o Lo do o co s ruc a cas le a d prepare for his riumphal e ry. He also ells us ha , af er his coro a io i i s er Abbey o Chris mas Day 1066, he ew Ki g wi hdrew o Barki g (i Essex) ‘while cer ai for ifica io s were comple ed i he ci y agai s he res less ess of he vas a d fierce populace for he realised ha i was of he firs impor a ce o overawe he Lo do ers. hese for ifica io s may have i cluded Bay ard’s Cas le buil i he sou h-wes a gle of he Ci y ( ear Blackfriars) a d he cas le of Mo fiche ( ear Ludga e Circus) a d almos cer ai ly he fu ure ower of Lo do . I i ially he ower had co sis ed of a modes e closure buil i o he sou h-eas cor er of he Roma Ci y walls, bu by he la e 1070s, wi h he i i ial comple io of he Whi e ower, i had become he mos fearsome of all. o hi g had bee see like i i E gla d before. I was buil by orma maso s a d E glish (A glo-Saxo ) labour draf ed i from he cou ryside, perhaps o he desig of Gu dulf, Bishop of Roches er. I was i e ded o pro ec he river rou e from Da ish a ack, bu also a d more impor a ly o domi a e he Ci y physically a d visually. I is difficul o apprecia e oday wha a e ormous impressio he ower a d o her orma buildi gs, such as S Paul’s Ca hedral (as rebuil af er 1086) or he earby Wes mi s er Hall (rebuil af er 1087) mus have made o he a ive Lo do ers.

he Whi e ower was pro ec ed o he eas a d sou h by he old Roma ci y walls (a full heigh fragme ca be see jus by ower Hill U dergrou d s a io ), while he or h a d wes sides were pro ec ed by di ches as much as 7.50m (25f ) wide a d 3.40m (11f ) deep a d a ear hwork wi h a woode wall o op. I he 12 h ce ury a ‘fore-buildi g’ ( ow demolished) was added o he sou h fro of he Whi e ower o pro ec he e ra ce. he Wardrobe ower, a fragme of which ca be see a he sou h-eas cor er of he buildi g, was a o her early addi io or rebuildi g. From very early o he e closure co ai ed a umber of imber buildi gs for reside ial a d service use. I is o clear whe her hese i cluded a royal reside ce bu William he Co queror’s immedia e successors probably made use of he Whi e ower i self. I is impor a for us oday o remember ha he fu c io s of he ower from he 1070s u il he la e 19 h ce ury were es ablished by i s orma fou ders. he ower was ever primarily i e ded o pro ec Lo do from ex er al i vasio , al hough, of course, i could have do e so if ecessary. or was i ever i e ded o be he pri cipal reside ce of he ki gs a d quee s of E gla d, hough ma y did i fac spe d periods of ime here. I s primary fu c io was always o provide a base for royal power i he Ci y of Lo do a d a s ro ghold o which he Royal Family could re rea i imes of civil disorder. he Medieval ower:A refuge a d a base for royal power Whe Richard he Lio hear (1189-99) came o he hro e he depar ed o a crusade o he Holy La d leavi g his Cha cellor, William Lo gchamp, Bishop of Ely, i charge of he ki gdom. Lo gchamp soo embarked o a e largeme a d s re g he i g of he ower of Lo do , he firs of a series of buildi g campaig s which by abou 1350 had crea ed he basic form of he grea for ress ha we k ow oday. he jus ifica io for he vas expe di ure a d effor his i volved was he poli ical i s abili y of he ki gdom a d he Crow ’s co i ui g eed for a impreg able for ress i he Ci y of Lo do . Lo gchamp’s works doubled he area covered by he for ress by diggi g a ew a d deeper di ch o he or h a d eas a d buildi g sec io s of cur ai wall, rei forced by a ew ower ( ow k ow as he Bell ower) a he sou h-wes cor er. he di ch was i e ded o flood a urally from he river, al hough his was o a success. hese ew defe ces were soo pu o he es whe he Ki g’s bro her, Joh , aki g adva age of Richard’s cap ivi y i Germa y, challe ged Lo gchamp’s au hori y a d besieged him a he ower. Lack of provisio s forced Lo gchamp o surre der bu he ower’s defe ces had proved ha hey could resis a ack. he reig of he ex ki g Joh (1199-1216) saw li le ew buildi g work a he ower, bu he Ki g made good use of he accommoda io here. Like Lo gchamp, Joh had o cope wi h freque opposi io hroughou his reig . O ly a year af er sig i g a agreeme wi h his baro s i 1215 ( he Mag a Car a) hey were o ce more a loggerheads a d Pri ce Louis of Fra ce had lau ched a i vasio of E gla d wi h he suppor of some of Joh ’s leadi g baro s. I he mids of his defe ce of he ki gdom, Joh died of dyse ery a d his so , He ry III, was crow ed.

Wi h E gla d a war wi h Fra ce, he s ar of Ki g He ry’s lo g reig (1216-72) could have hardly bee less auspicious, bu wi hi seve mo hs of his accessio he Fre ch had bee defea ed a he ba le of Li col a d he busi ess of securi g he ki gdom could begi . Rei forceme of he royal cas les played a major role i his, a d his work a he ower of Lo do was more ex e sive ha a ywhere o her ha a Wi dsor Cas le. He ry III was o ly e years old i 1216, bu his rege s bega a major ex e sio of he royal accommoda io i he e closure which formed he I mos Ward as we k ow i oday. he grea hall a d ki che , da i g from he previous ce ury, were improved a d wo owers buil o he wa erfro , he Wakefield ower as he Ki g’s lodgi gs a d he La hor ower (rebuil i he 19 h ce ury), probably i e ded as he quee ’s lodgi gs. A ew wall was also buil e closi g he wes side of he I mos Ward. By he mid 1230s, He ry III had ru i o rouble wi h his baro s a d opposi io flared up i bo h 1236 a d i 1238. O bo h occasio s he Ki g fled o he ower of Lo do . Bu as he shel ered i he cas le i March 1238 he weak ess of he ower mus have bee brough home o him; he defe ces o he eas er , wes er a d or her sides co sis ed o ly of a emp y moa , s re ches of pa ched-up a d s re g he ed Roma wall a d a few le g hs of wall buil by Lo gchamp i he previous ce ury. ha year, herefore, saw he lau ch of He ry’s mos ambi ious buildi g programme a he ower, he co s ruc io of a grea ew cur ai wall rou d he eas , or h a d wes sides of he cas le a a cos of over Ј5,000. he ew wall doubled he area covered by he for ress, e closi g he eighbouri g church of S Pe er ad Vi cula. I was surrou ded by a moa , his ime successfully flooded by a Flemish e gi eer, Joh Le Fosser. he wall was rei forced by i e ew owers, he s ro ges a he cor ers ( he Sal , Mar i a d Devereux). Of hese all bu wo ( he Fli a d Brick) are much as origi ally buil . his massive ex e sio o he ower was viewed wi h ex reme suspicio a d hos ili y by he people of Lo do , who righ ly recog ised i as a fur her asser io of royal au hori y. A co emporary wri er repor s heir deligh whe a sec io of ewly-buil wall a d a ga eway o he si e of he Beauchamp ower collapsed, eve s hey a ribu ed o heir ow guardia sai , homas а Becke . Archaeological excava io be wee 1995 a d 1997 revealed he remai s of o e of hese collasped buildi gs. I 1272 Ki g Edward I (1272-1307) came o he hro e de ermi ed o comple e he defe sive works begu by his fa her a d ex e d hem as a mea s of fur her emphasisi g royal au hori y over Lo do . Be wee 1275 a d 1285 he Ki g spe over Ј21,000 o he for ress crea i g E gla d’s larges a d s ro ges co ce ric cas le (a cas le wi h o e li e of defe ces wi hi a o her). he work i cluded buildi g he exis i g Beauchamp ower, bu he mai effor was co ce ra ed o filli g i He ry III’s moa a d crea i g a addi io al cur ai wall o he wes er , or her a d eas er side, a d surrou di g i by a ew moa . his wall e closed he exis i g cur ai wall buil by He ry III a d was pierced by wo ew e ra ces, o e from he la d o he wes , passi g hrough he Middle a d Byward owers, a d a o her u der S homas’s ower, from he river.

Du costume militaire des Francais en 1446. Paris, 1866. [553] Giraud J.-B. Documents pour servir a l'histoire de l'armement au Moyen Age et a la Renaissance. 2 vos. Lyon, 1895. 1904. [553a] Hall B. S. The So-Called «Manuscript of the Hussite War» and its Technological Milieu. A Study and Edition of Codex lat. Monacensis 757. Ann Harbour, 1971. [554] Kyeser C. aus Eichstatt. Bellifortis / Hrsg. G. Quarg. 2 Bd. Dusseldorf 1967. [555] Nickei H. Ullstein Waffenbuch. Berlin, 1974. [556] Taccola M. De Machinis. T. I: The Engineering Treatise of 1449, introduction, latin texts, descriptions of engines and technical Commentaries, par G. Sgaglia; T. II: Fac-simile du Codex latinus Monacensis 28800 de la Bayerische Staatsbibliothek de Munich. Wiesbaden, 1971. Каталоги музейных собраний, описи, словари [557] Angelucci А. Catalogo della armeria reale. Torino, 1890. [558] Blackmore H. L. The Armouries of the Tower of London. T. I: Ordnance. London, 1976. [559] Bоссia L. A. Il Museo Stibbert a Firenze. 2 vos. Milano, 1975. T. II: L'armeriaeuropea. [560] Clayton M

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3. The development of the Tower

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5. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

6. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom
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9. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

10. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

11. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

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16. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

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21. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

22. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.
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23. The New-York City, Places of interest
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25. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

26. The history of Old English and its development

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35. The fastest computers of the world

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37. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

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42. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

43. The Taming of the Shrew

44. The teaching of Hugo Gratius

45. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

46. History of the USA

47. The United States of America

48. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

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58. The commonwealth of Australia

59. The Commonwealth of Australia

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83. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character

84. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

85. Prominent People of the Belarus

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92. Establishment of the Federal judicial system

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99. The map of England


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