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Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

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Jealousy as he cause of i er al self-des ruc io I “Kreu zer So a a” by Leo ols oy “Jealousy is a fear of someo e else’s superiori y.” Alexa der Dumas he gra d collec io of he world li era ure grows fai from he vas abu da ce of umerous approaches o he issue of jealousy a d adul ery ha have bee accumula ed hroughou ce uries by differe au hors. his par icular opic was used i Greek comedies, Roma ragedies, i wri i gs of la er Roma icis s a d Realis s. However, o ly i he i e ee h ce ury whe psychology, developed wi hi , he subjec of jealousy i li era ure ha exaggera ed love ales ur ed o deep psychological dramas wi h charac ers soul-searchi g wi hi he me iculous a alysis of eve s. O e of he mos promi e gia s i li era ure Leo ols oy was famous for combi i g de ailed physical descrip io wi h percep ive psychological i sigh . He co veys o a reader he bare huma i imacy of ges ures, deeds a d hough s of he jealous psychic soul. His s ory Kreu zer So a a exami es he basic drives, emo io s a d mo ives of ordi ary people searchi g for a swers o he ques io s of life. O e of hem is ha jealousy causes i er al self-des ruc io . Prior o a a alysis of he arra ive of he s ory, where a jealous husba d is prese ed, he a ure of jealousy eeds o be illumi a ed for he audie ce. Af er heari g he various heories o love by his fellow passe gers o a rai , a i sa ely jealous ma amed Pozd yshev blur s ou ha he killed his wife, whom he suspec ed of carryi g o a affair wi h a violi is . he he reveals he s ory of how he came o such a ex reme ac io . Wha ur ed his life i o a misery full of disappoi me , a ger a d i chy cravi g ha rui ed his life as well as someo e else’s life? Jealousy. his emo io made his gu ache, his blood boil a d his logic disappear alo g wi h commo se se. Pozd yshev ook jealousy a d cas i i o self-doub , i securi y a d despera io . “Duri g he whole of my married life I ever ceased o be orme ed by jealousy,” reveals his co fessio . ( ols oy, p.189) As Webs er’s Dic io ary defi es i , he word jealous mea s “suspiciously wa chful; dis rus ful, or fai hless; e vious; a xiously solici ous.”(Ou cry magazi e, “Maki g he Mos of Jealousy”) All of hese quali ies drove he mai charac er o he murder a d absolu e self-desecra io . His life is wre ched, he has o mo iva i g objec ives lef , o aspira io s o follow, o goals o accomplish. His childre are ake away from him by his sis er-i -law, a d he is aba do ed by he e ire world. I esse ce “ he Kreu zer So a a” prese s a dis or ed view of love, especially of sexual experie ce. Pozd yshev’s igh marish, feverish arra ive of his marriage i i s la er s ages i e sifies i rage a d i ellige ce va ishes as a ravagi g emo io of jealousy cap ures he u mos a e io . Bee hove ’s “Kreu zer So a a” hrus s Pozd yshev i o ul ima e degree of jealousy ha drives him o immi e self-des ruc io a d o he villai murder. Music is he mos perfec form of ar o grasp jealousy over he mi d. I is de ached from he hierarchy of all o her ar s by o dwelli g above hem bu by crea i g i s ow u ique world.

Music does o reflec ei her ugli ess of life or sufferi gs ge era ed by i . Music, hrough he fac of i s exis e ce drives off every hi g ha is a xious a d a oyi g. Music is he rhy hm of life, a e der, cari g rhy hm ha ba ishes a y orme . I deed, i is o overly complica ed o draw a parallel be wee music a d huma emo io s i ge eral. Ye , music was he ca alys ha accelera ed he breakdow of Pozd yshev’s marriage. he musical rela io ship be wee rukhachevskiy a d Pozd yshev’s wife is i self a se sual, sexual o e. he i ercourse be wee pia o a d violi i Bee hove ’s so a a is sugges ive of his – a d al hough here is o o io of a y explici ly physical co ac be wee he wo, he co ac be wee violi a d pia o, as i is described makes Pozd yshev’s jealousy look well-fou ded. Pozd yshev claims ha i was jus o e par of Bee hove ’s mas erpiece ha propels his suspicio o grow i o a firm belief i his wife i fideli y. Psychologis s sugges ha me reac o jealousy wi h a ger owards heir sexual par er a d he hird par y a d are more miserable by sexual improprie y ha by me al perfidious ess. Sexual jealousy is he hrea or perceived hrea o a rela io ship be wee wo i dividuals who are physically or sexually i volved. (Fi al Exam: Sociobiological Aspec s of Sexual Jealousy) Jealousy a d murder grow ou of a d are really a o e wi h, he sexual a rac io , which brough Pozd yshev a d his wife oge her i he firs place, a d which held heir marriage oge her. Pozd yshev acce ua es ha specifically he firs pres o of he “Kreu zer So a a” is he “exquisi e volup uous ess of he se ses” a d “ he li k be wee hem.” ( ols oy, p. 218) He is o par icularly impressed wi h he “commo a d u origi al a da e’ a d “ he very weak fi ale.” However, he firs allegro ur s ou o be a allega io of his wife’s adul ery. Wha a ima ed slide show is ru i g i Pozd yshev’s i flamed imagi a io whe he lis e s o he piece so mas erfully performed by his wife a d rukhachevsky? “Kreu zer So a a” is a very solid, ye u ob rusive piece of music. I is flowi g i o he mood, brigh e s i up a d sof e s dow . he firs pres o is o lo g, ye i reflec s a si ful abu da ce of passio . I deed, he dialogue of he violi a d he pia o amazes wi h i s vivaci y a d glorifica io of feeli gs. I overwhelms a d subdues emo io s from he very firs loud pia o’s accords a d violi si gi g i s seco d par o pia o o he co rary i a e der, wi eri g o e. he pia o is flyi g i o cresce do a d as if wai i g for he immi e amalgama io of wo hear s i o swee harmo y of a i creasi g rhy hm, i decides o cease o a volup uous re rea . Bu prior o he immedia e wi hdrawal i se ds se suous hi s of he ear vic ory o he violi . A d if hough he violi se ses his hesi a io i falls i o flir i g, mischievous playful ess. he ex swif ur s i o calami y, swee exhaus io of pia o a d violi , whe a dialogue of wo is almos sou d. hey are ques io i g, comfor i g each o her, a d perhaps seeki g a a swer o “maybe o ?” Bu i does o las lo g, because he ex accords of pia o are asser ive a d irresis ibly i vi i g.

here is a o io of violi specula io s a d bala ce upo a hi li e while maki g he righ decisio , bu he crow i g par of he allegro is he riumph over obs acles, doub s a d moral orms. I is a celebra io of feeli gs, glory of ero icism a d deligh of lus . his professedly was he Pozd yshev’s visio of he Kreu zer So a a a d his i erpre a io of he performa ce. Was i correc ? ols oy ever gives a y explici a d clear depic io of he alleged affair. However, very a ima i g a d prese i Pozd yshev’s mi d, his re di io of music ge era ed i o u res rai ed beas of jealousy ha drove him gradually ye i evi ably o self-des ruc io a d a murder as a co seque ce of ow moral degrada io . 5

This consciousness is attached to milliards of circuits: it would be destroyed if the computer exploded. Our computer is highly intelligent and capable of, ultra-rapid combinations. There is nothing it does not know. In spite of its consciousness and omniscience the thinking computer is not 'happy', for in spite of its tremendous performance there is something it cannot think out, reckon out or work out, namely experience. But it wants to amass experience. As it has no rival of anything like the same calibre to obtain experience from, it decides to send the hundred milliard bits off its central body out to get information by exploding itself knowing perfectly well that it would definitely lose its personal consciousness by so doing ... if it had not in its insuperable cleverness programmed the future after its self-destruction long beforehand. Before the bits are catapulted on their long journey to gain experience, the clever computer has programmed magnetic impulses inside them with the order to reassemble at x place at y time

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