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Экономика и Финансы Экономика и Финансы     Банковское дело и кредитование Банковское дело и кредитование

Banking services in Russia: theory and fact

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Ex e ded essay. Eco omics. Ba ki g services i Russia: heory a d fac . Ca dida e ame: Alexa der. Ca egory a d Ca dida e umber: .0-0460-013 Abs rac . he opic of my essay is he ba ki g sys em of Russia. he si ua io i Russia owadays, due o he his oric a d u precede ed cha ges occurri g i his cou ry, is o e of he mos i eres i g fields of a alysis a d research. While s udyi g he ma erials o he ba ki g sys em i Russia I came across ma y devia io s from he well-es ablished s a dards of he ba ki g sys em i Europe a d some fac s showi g ha i real life ba ks i Russia do o follow laws a d regula io s. So i my research I ry o a swer wo ques io s. Is he ba ki g sys em i Russia fully developed? Ba k services i Russia: heory a d fac . Do hey differ? I order o a swer he firs ques io I compared he Europea ba ki g sys em o he curre ba ki g sys em i Russia as i is regula ed by laws a d by gover me al ac s a d decisio s.    I order o a swer he seco d ques io I a alyzed he i forma io I received while s udyi g he ac ivi y of he ‘’I comba k’’ bra ch i Chelyabi sk a d while i erviewi g clie s of o her ba ks i Chelyabi sk i he summer of 1997. I have a alyzed he heory a d fac of he ba ki g sys em from he defi i io of o - radi io al opera io s a d could s a e ha ou of seve posi io s  I have looked i o, o ly i four does he ba ki g sys em i Russia agree wi h he Europea ba ki g sys em. he differe ces lie i he limi a io s for he priva e sec or a d i prolo gi g ba k opera io s for compa ies. From his i forma io , we ca co clude ha he Russia ba ki g sys em has o fully developed ye . Evalua i g he ac ivi y of Russia ba ks i prac ice I could s a e ha heory a d fac differ alo g all li es. he Russia gover me should review i s ba ki g regula io s a d ba ks should e force hese laws wi hou breaki g hem. Ba ki g services i Russia: heory a d fac . he eco omic si ua io i Russia, due o he his oric a d u precede ed o -goi g cha ges i his cou ry, is o e of he mos i eres i g fields of a alysis a d research. I have chose he ba ki g sys em for he opic of my essay as i is o e of he mos impor a i s rume s of he eco omy. While s udyi g ma erials o he ba ki g sys em i Russia I came across ma y devia io s from he well-es ablished s a dards of he ba ki g sys em i Europe a d some fac s showi g ha i real life ba ks i Russia does o follow he laws a d regula io s. I my research I have ried o a swer wo ques io s. Is he ba ki g sys em i Russia fully developed? Ba ki g services i Russia: heory a d fac . Do hey differ? I order o a swer he firs ques io I compared he Europea ba ki g sys em a d  he curre ba ki g sys em i Russia as i is regula ed by laws a d by gover me al ac s a d decisio s.  I order o a swer he seco d ques io I a alyzed he i forma io I received while s udyi g he ac ivi y of he ‘’I comba k’’ bra ch i Chelyabi sk a d while i erviewi g clie s of o her ba ks i Chelyabi sk i he summer of 1997. Ba ks are he mos impor a li k i he world of mo ey. his is because, firs of all, ba ks owadays perform he mai par of he work of ra sferri g mo ey from a cus omer o a seller, by opera i g he sys em of payme s i he eco omy.

Almos everyo e i he world uses or has used ba ki g services. Families keep heir savi gs here, a d ba ks pay hem i eres ra es o heir deposi s a d give hem loa s o buy expe sive goods. Compa ies co duc payme s hrough hem. Commercial orga iza io s, which work a he marke a d i produc io , ake loa s for  heir eeds a d co duc all payme s wi h buyers a d sellers hrough hem. La dow ers a d ow ers of real es a e ake loa s from he ba ks o buy a es a e or o make use of i a d pay back loa ed mo ey. As we ca see, every hi g i he eco omy is co rolled by mo ey, a d ba ks are a ool-ki for he eco omy - co rolli g he mo ey circula io be wee firms, deposi ors a d loa ers, a d offeri g services o make ha circula io easier for hem. Ba ki g services also have a produc ive a ure. Eve   such a simple opera io as he admissio of mo ey o deposi s from people a d compa ies i volves a huge produc ive force. A ba k does o jus collec mo ey - i co ver s o -worki g, u used mo ey resources, o worki g asse s. his is also rue of credi s give o compa ies a d firms for he developme of heir produc ive a d fi a cial ac ivi y. A heal hy a d s able eco omy of a y cou ry depe ds o heal hy ba ki g services. ow we will see if he ba ki g sys em i Russia a d, i par icular, i my home ci y of Chelyabi sk gives a y cha ces for our eco omy o develop. All ba ki g services ca be divided i o specific a d o specific services. Specific services i clude: 1) deposi opera io s; 2) credi opera io s; 3) payme opera io s. Deposi opera io s  are he opera io s of placi g clie s’ mo ey i o he ba k o deposi . While keepi g mo ey for i s clie s, he ba k pays hem i eres . Credi opera io s  are he opera io s of givi g loa s o ba k clie s a d receivi g, i excha ge i eres ra es o hose loa s. Credi opera io s are he mai opera io s of a ba k. Ba ks are he bigges ce er of credi . Credi opera io s form he mai specific weigh of a y ba k’s asse s because hey give he bigges profi o he ba ks. Payme opera io s  by ba ks ca be fulfilled i cash or i ra sfer payme s. Ba ks ca ope differe accou umbers for heir clie s a d ca fulfill heir payme orders rela ed o buyi g or selli g goods, payi g wages, ra sferri g ax payme s a d maki g all o her impor a payme s. I issui g payme s he ba k is ac i g as a i ermediary be wee sellers a d buyers, compa ies, ax age cies, ci ize s, a d he budge . hese hree ypes of ba k opera io s are commo ly called radi io al ba k opera io s. he erm ‘ radi io al’ is applied because all of hese opera io s oge her es ablish  wha we call a ba k. Cash opera io s  ca also be regarded as radi io al opera io s. hey are he opera io s of givi g ou cash mo ey o he clie s from heir accou s a d cash excha gi g cash curre cy. Accordi g o he law, hese opera io s have o bee i cluded i he basic opera io s ha form up a ba k, bu i heir mea i g hey reflec he esse ce of he ba k sys em. I is difficul o imagi e a ba k ha has deposi s, gives loa s a d co duc s payme s, bu does o have cash opera io s. Addi io al opera io s ca be placed be wee radi io al a d o radi io al opera io s. hey i clude curre cy opera io s, a d opera io s wi h securi ies - wi h gold, precious me als a d i go s.

A ba k does o have o i clude hese opera io s i i s ac ivi ies. I 1994  he majori y of ba ks did o have a curre cy lice se, a d eve owadays i our ci y ba ks are o allowed o make opera io s wi h gold, precious me als a d i go s, ye hey have o los he righ o be called ba ks. All o her services are i cluded i o - radi io al services. here are ma y of hem, such as: i ermediary services; services direc ed o he compa ies’ developme (i culca io of he s ock excha ge, placi g shares, juridical help, i forma io services e c.); givi g guara ies a d colla eral; rus i g opera io s (i cludi g co sul a io s a d help i he ma ageme of he clie s’ proper y); providi g accou i g help o he compa ies; prese i g he clie s’ i eres s i he cour ; ouris s services e c. All ba ki g services are also subdivided i o paid a d free services. A ba k ca decide which services will be paid for a d which o , bu u il ow every si gle ac ivi y of he ba k has bee paid for by clie s a d all services  have bee divided i o very expe sive a d i expe sive services. I hi k ha his is due o he fac ha i he ew Russia i was easy o make mo ey a d everyo e wa ed o do i as quickly as possible. Compa ies, herefore, had owhere else o go a d hey had o pay ex remely high i eres ra es a d charges for services. owadays every hi g is cha gi g because of i creased compe i io be wee ba ks a d some of hem are ryi g o a rac ew clie s by loweri g he charges for heir services. ow, for every service, we will compare how i should work accordi g o he law a d how i really works. All fur her i forma io will be prese ed i fac s ake from he ac ivi y of he ‘’I comba k’’ bra ch i Chelyabi sk for he 1997 year. I order o illus ra e he problem of deposi opera io s I have o dwell upo some fac s of he his ory of our eco omic sys em. Firs of all, i 1992, af er he fixed prices were ‘’freed’’ i Russia, a crisis occurred wi h mo ey circula io . I also led o hyperi fla io . So he mo ey wi h which you could buy a car i 1985, cha ged i 1993 o wor hless paper wi h which you could hardly buy a book. he si ua io became eve worse whe he ba ks decided o give ou he limi ed amou of mo ey o a y clie ( o more ha 500 roubles i o e mo h) eve if his clie had a larger sum of mo ey o his accou . herefore, wi h hyperi fla io , 5000 roubles o a y accou i 1985 (5319$), i 1993 became 12$ wi h i eres ra es. So everyo e who had a lo g- erm deposi los all his mo ey. Also, i was popular amo g Russia s o ope savi g deposi s, for 1000 roubles (1063$), for heir ew-bor childre which were paid o he ba k for several years a d could be ake ou o ly whe he childre who were i sured reached he age of 18. Everyo e who was oo you g o ake his mo ey los i . Eve ow, while I am wri i g his work, he ce ral ba k a d he gover me are pu i g i o ac io a o her his orical swi dle, erasi g hree zeroes o ba k o es. Eve af er he ce ral ba k had promised heir clie s o recalcula e he savi gs made before he ‘90s accordi g o he level of i fla io all mo ey will loose hree zeros. So ha which was 1000 roubles (1063$) i 1985, will ow become 1 rouble (16 ce s). he ce ral ba k has fooled everyo e i he cou ry.

When the financial meltdown came in September 2008, the Chinese found themselves relatively little exposed. Nonetheless, the enormous funds enjoyed by Chinese banks, based on the fact that the average household saves more than a quarter of its income and has nowhere else to invest it, mean that Chinese banks will become an increasingly formidable global force. The relationship between the United States and China needs to be set in a broader global and historical context. The belated acceptance of China as a member of the WTO in 2001 marked the biggest extension of the world trading system since the beginning of the contemporary phase of globalization in the late 1970s. As the largest recipient of foreign direct investment and soon to be the biggest trading nation, China ’s admission immediately transformed the nature and dynamics of the trading system. By acquiring a low-cost manufacturing base and extremely cheap imports, the developed world has been a major beneficiary of China ’s accession. But China itself has also been a big gainer, achieving wider access to overseas markets for its exports and receiving huge flows of inward investment, thereby helping it to sustain its double-digit growth rate. [580] Thus, so far, China ’s integration into the global economy has been perceived in terms of a win-win situation

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100. Control in management


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