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Adam Smith

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Af er wo ce uries, Adam Smi h remai s a oweri g figure i he his ory of eco omic hough . K ow primarily for a si gle work, A I quiry i o he a ure a causes of he Weal h of a io s (1776), he firs comprehe sive sys em of poli ical eco omy, Smi h is more properly regarded as a social philosopher whose eco omic wri i gs co s i u e o ly he caps o e o a overarchi g view of poli ical a d social evolu io . If his mas erwork is viewed i rela io o his earlier lec ures o moral philosophy a d gover me , as well as o allusio s i he heory of Moral Se ime s (1759) o a work he hoped o wri e o “ he ge eral pri ciples of law a d gover me , a d of he differe revolu io s hey have u dergo e i he differe ages a d periods of socie y”, he he Weal h of a io s may be see o merely as a rea ise o eco omics bu as a par ial exposi io of a much larger scheme of his orical evolu io . Early Life U for u a ely, much is k ow abou Smi h’s hough ha abou his life. hough he exac da e of his bir h is u k ow , he was bap ised o Ju e 5, 1723, i Kikcaldy, a small (popula io 1,500) bu hrivi g fishi g village ear Edi burgh, he so by seco d marriage of Adam Smi h, comp roller of cus oms a Kikcaldy, a d Margare Douglas, daugh er of a subs a ial la dow er. Of Smi h’s childhood o hi g is k ow o her ha ha he received his eleme ary schooli g i Kirkcaldy a d ha a he age of four years he was said o have bee carried off by gypsies. Pursui s was mou ed, a d you g Adam was aba do ed by his cap ors. “He would have made, I fear, a poor gypsy”, comme ed his pri cipal biographer. A he age of 14, i 1737, Smi h e ered he u iversi y of Glasgow, already remarkable as a ce re of wha was o become k ow as he Sco ish E ligh e me . here, he was deeply i flue ced by Fra cis Hu cheso , a famous professor of moral philosophy from whose eco omic a d philosophical views he was la er o diverge bu whose mag e ic charac er seems o have bee a mai shapi g force i Smi h’s developme . Gradua i g i 1740, Smi h wo a scholarship ( he S ell Exhibi io ) a d ravelled o horseback o Oxford, where he s ayed a Balliol College. Compared o he s imula i g a mosphere of Glasgow, Oxford was a educa io al deser . His years here were spe largely i self-educa io , from which Smi h ob ai ed a firm grasp of bo h classical a d co emporary philosophy. Re ur i g o his home af er a abse ce of six years, Smi h cas abou for sui able employme . he co ec io s of his mo her’s family, oge her wi h he suppor of he juris a d philosopher Lord He ry Kames, resul ed i a oppor u i y o give a series of public lec ures i Edi burgh - a form of educa io he much i vogue i he prevaili g spiri of “ improveme ”. he lec ures, which ra ged over a wide varie y of subjec s from rhe oric his ory a d eco omics, made a deep impressio o some of Smi h’s o able co emporaries. hey also had a marked i flue ce o Smi h’s ow career, for i 1751, a he age of 27, he was appoi ed professor of logic a Glasgow, from which pos he ra sferred i 1752 o he more remu era ive professorship of moral philosophy, a subjec ha embraced he rela ed fields of a ural heology, e hics, jurisprude ce, a d poli ical eco omy.

Glasgow Smi h he e ered upo a period of ex raordi ary crea ivi y, combi ed wi h a social a d i ellec ual life ha he af erward described as “ by far he happies , a d mos ho ourable period of my life”. Duri g he week he lec ured daily from 7:30 o 8:30 am a d agai hrice weekly from 11 am o oo , o classes of up o 90 s ude s, aged 14 a d 16. (Al hough his lec ures were prese ed i E glish, followi g he precede of Hu cheso , ra her ha i La i , he level of sophis ica io for so you g a audie ce oday s rikes o e as ex raordi arily dema di g.) Af er oo s were occupied wi h u iversi y affairs i which Smi h played a ac ive role, bei g elec ed dea of facul y i 1758; his eve i gs were spe i he s imula i g compa y of Glasgow socie y. Amo g his circle of acquai a ces were o o ly remembers of he aris ocracy, ma y co ec ed wi h he gover me , bu also a ra ge of i ellec ual a d scie ific figures ha i cluded Joseph Black, a pio eer i he field of chemis ry, James Wa , la er of s eam-e gi e fame, Rober Foulis, a dis i guished pri er a d publisher a d subseque fou der of he firs Bri ish Academy of Desig , a d o leas , he philosopher David Hume, a lifelo g frie d whom Smi h had me i Edi burgh. Smi h was also i roduced duri g hese years o he compa y of he grea mercha s who were carryi g o he colo ial rade ha had ope ed o Sco la d followi g i s u io wi h E gla d i 1707. O e of hem, A drew Cochra e, had bee a provos of Glasgow a d had fou ded he famous Poli ical Eco omy Club. From Cochra e a d his fellow mercha s Smi h u doub edly acquired he de ailed i forma io co cer i g rade a d busi ess ha was o give such a se se of he real world o he Weal h of a io s. he heory of Moral Se ime s I 1759 Smi h Published his firs work, he heory of Moral Se ime s. Didac ic, exhor a ive, a d a aly ic by ur s, he heory lays he psychological fou da io o which he Weal h of a io s was la er o be buil . I i Smi h described he pri ciples of “huma a ure “, which, oge her wi h Hume a d he o her leadi g philosophers of his ime, he ook as a u iversal a d u cha gi g da um from which social i s i u io s, as well as social behaviour, could be deduced. O e ques io i par icular i eres ed Smi h i he heory of Moral Se ime s. his was a problem ha had a rac ed Smi h’s eacher Hu cheso a d a umber of Sco ish philosophers before him. he ques io was he source of he abili y o form moral judgeme s, i cludi g judgeme s o o e’s ow behaviour, i he face of he seemi gly overridi g passio s for self-preserva io a d self-i eres . Smi h’s a swer, a co siderable le g h, is he prese ce wi hi each of us of a “i er ma ” who plays he role of he “impar ial spec a or”, approvi g or co dem i g our ow a d o hers’ ac io s wi h a voice impossible o disregard. ( he heory may sou d less aive if he ques io is reformula ed o ask how i s i c ual drives are socialized hrough he superego.) he hesis of he impar ial spec a or, however, co ceals a more impor a aspec of he book. Smi h saw huma s as crea ed by heir abili y o reaso a d - o less impor a - by heir capaci y for sympa hy. his duali y serves bo h o pi i dividuals agai s o e a o her a d o provide hem wi h he ra io al a d moral facul ies o crea e i s i u io s by which he i er eci e s ruggle ca be mi iga ed a d eve ur ed o he commo good.

He wro e i his Moral Se ime s he famous observa io ha he was o repea la er i he Weal h of a io s: ha self-seeki g me are of e “led by a i visible ha d. wi hou k owi g i , wi hou i e di g i , o adva ce he i eres of he socie y.” I should be o ed ha scholars have lo g deba ed whe her Moral Se ime s compleme ed or was i co flic wi h he Weal h of a io s, which followed i . A o e level here is a seemi g clash be wee he heme of social morali y co ai ed i he firs a d largely amoral expla a io of he ma er i which i dividuals are socialized o become he marke -orie ed a d class-bou d ac ors ha se he eco omic sys em i o mo io . ravels o he Co i e he heory quickly brough Smi h wide es eem a d i par icular a rac ed he a e io of Charles ow she d, himself some hi g of a ama eur eco omis , a co siderable wi , a d somewha less of a s a esma , whose fa e i was o be he cha cellor of he exchequer respo sible for he measures of axa io ha ul ima ely provoked he America Revolu io . ow she d had rece ly married a d was searchi g for a u or for his s epso a d ward, he you g Duke of Buccleuch. I flue ced by he s ro g recomme da io s of Hume a d his ow admira io for he heory of Moral Se ime s, he Approached Smi h o ake he Charge. he erms of employme were lucra ive (a a ual salary of &pou d;300 plus ravelli g expe ses a d a pe sio of &pou d;300 a year af er), co siderably more ha Smi h had ear ed as a professor. Accordi gly, Smi h resig ed his Glasgow pos i 1763 a d se off for Fra ce he ex year as he u or of he you g duke. hey s ayed mai ly i oulouse, where Smi h bega worki g o a book (eve ually o be he Weal h of a io s) as a a ido e o he excrucia i g boredom of he provi ces. Af er 18 mo hs of e ui he was rewarded wi h a wo-mo h sojour i Ge eva, where he me Vol aire, for whom he had he profou des respec , he ce o Paris where Hume, he secre ary o he Bri ish embassy, i roduced Smi h o he grea li erary salo s of he Fre ch E ligh e me . here he me a group of social reformers a d heoris s headed by Fra cois Ques ay, who are k ow i his ory as he physiocra s. here is some co roversy as o he precise degree of i flue ce he physiocra s exer ed o Smi h, bu i is k ow ha he hough sufficie ly well of Ques ay o have co sidered dedica i g he Weal h of a io s o him, had o he Fre ch eco omis died before publica io . he s ay i Paris was cu shor by a shocki g eve . he you ger bro her of he Duke of Buccleuch , who had joi ed hem i oulouse, ook ill a d perished despi e Smi h’s fra ic mi is ra io . Smi h a d his charge immedia ely re ur ed o Lo do . Smi h worked i Lo do u il he spri g of 1767 wi h Lord ow she d, a period duri g which he was elec ed a fellow of he Royal Socie y a d broade ed s ill fur her his i ellec ual circle o i clude Edmu d Burke, Samuel Joh so , Edward Gibbo , a d perhaps Be jami Fra kli . La e ha year he re ur ed o Kirkcaldy, where he ex six years were spe dic a i g a d reworki g he Weal h of a io s, followed by a o her s ay of hree years i Lo do , where he work was fi ally comple ed a d published i 1776. he Weal h of a io s Despi e i s re ow as he firs grea work i poli ical eco omy.

Elements d'Ideologie, t. II, p. 284–300. 157 Volney. Les Ruines, Paris, 1971, ch. XIV. 158 Со ndill ас. Grammaire, ch. 2. 159 Adam Smith. Considerations sur l'origine et la formation des langues, p. 424. 160 Т urgo. Tableau des progres successifs de l'esprit humain, 1750 (?uvres, ed. Schelle, p. 215). 161 Со ndill ас. Essai sur l'origine des connaissances (?uvres, t. I, p. 75–87). 162 Du Marsais. Traite de tropes, ed. 1811, p. 150–151. 163 Id., ibid., p. 2. 164 Rousseau. Essai sur l'origine des langues, p. 152–153. 165 De Brosses. Traite de la prononciation mecanique, p. 267. 166 Роман г-жи де Лафайет (1634–1694), опубликованный в 1678 г. — Прим. ред. 167 Роман маркиза де Сада. — Прим. ред. 168 Имеются в виду «Прогулки одинокого мечтателя» Руссо. См.: Ж.-Ж. Руссо. Избранные сочинения, т. III. M., 1961, с. 611. 169 Вуатюр (1597–1648) — фр. писатель. — Прим. ред. 170 Jonston. Historia naturalis de quadpripedidus, Amsterdam, 1657, p. 1–11. 171 Греческое слово??????? означает расспрашивание, исследование, сведения, полученные от других

1. Elsheimer, Adam

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