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Will Russia be a Rising State a Great Failure?

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Subjec : . ? Collec io : Eco omics, World Eco omy a d Poli ics or ype of paper: erm paper Forma : . Wi Word Au hor a d email: . Rus am ashpula ov ash rus am@ho mail.com Da e a d place of prese me : .May 2001 h. homas Aqui as College, Y, USA Depar me of Huma i ies. Professor ame: Dr. James Ve de i Comme s: he work i i E glish prese ed o he America professor. he work was assessed as 3.5 o a 4.0 scale a d gave me B as a fi al grade. America professor liked he work. he E glish was OK oo. Will Russia be a risi g s a e or a grea Failure? he collapse of he Sovie U io lead o crea io of he ew I depe de Republic. World poli ics drama ically cha ged i 1991 whe Commu ism e ded i Eas er Europe a d Russia. hese republics are ryi g o rebuild heir eco omies a d fi d he way oward he democra ic regimes. he larges cou ry i he pos -Sovie borders Russia has i heri ed a legacy of he Sovie U io . Ma y fea ures i flue ce he Russia socie y a d eco omy which are Russia media, Russia-US rela io s a d he problems Russia faces i i s ra si io o he democra ic socie y wi h a marke eco omy. Russia s are ryi g o reco s ruc heir eco omy a d social sys em. Russia has ma y challe ges a d obs acles o overcome duri g heir period of reco s ruc io . hese obs acles i clude he des ruc io of he eco omic ies wi h i s former suppliers a d cus omers i he U i ed Republics, corrup io , war i Chech ya as well as “Cheche y sy drome”. Russia will cope wi h hese obs acles a d fi ally rise as a world power wi h a marke eco omy a d s ro g democra ic i s i u io s. I s po e ial is based o i s vas la ds full of a ural resources, grea his ory, a d, mos impor a ly, he i ellec ual po e ial of he Russia people. Russia erri ory has his orically had a reme dous impac o he Russia eco omy, poli ical si ua io , cul ure, radi io s, a d me ali y of Russia people. Vas space has helped Russia ma y imes o defe d i self from o her more developed a io s. For example, apoleo froze his army o dea h duri g his i vasio o Moscow. Russia is very rich i a ural resources. Almos all he eleme s of periodic able are i Russia. Russia is rich i gold, silver, gas a d oil, lumber, alumi um, ura ium a d ma y o her valuable mi erals. hese resources ca be very a rac ive prospec s for fu ure i ves me s. His orically, Russia has bee regarded as a major world power. Slavic peoples se led i Eas er Europe duri g he early Chris ia era. Ma y co ver ed o Chris ia i y i he i h a d e h ce uries. I 988, Pri ce Vladimir declared Chris ia i y he s a e's official religio . Early i he 13 h ce ury, Mo gols co quered he Slavs a d ruled for 240 years. he Slavs fi ally defea ed he Mo gols i 1480 o regai heir sovereig y. I 1547, Iva he errible (1533-84) was he firs Russia ruler crow ed Czar of Russia. He expa ded Russia's erri ory, as did Pe er he Grea (1682-1724) a d Ca heri e he Grea (1762-96). he empire reached from Warsaw i he wes o Vladivos ok i he eas . I 1814, Russia roops ha had defea ed Fra ce's apoleo marched o Paris, a d Russia ook i s place as o e of he mos powerful s a es o ear h. Whe Czar icholas II abdica ed duri g World War 1, Vladimir Le i , head of he Bolshevik Par y, led he 1917 revol ha brough dow he provisio al gover me a d pu he Commu is s i power.

Le i disba ded he legisla ure a d ba ed all o her poli ical par ies. A civil war be wee Le i 's Red Army a d he Whi e Army las ed u il 1921, wi h Le i vic orious. I 1922, he Bolsheviks formed he U io of Sovie Socialis Republics (USSR) a d forcibly i corpora ed Arme ia, Azerbaija , Georgia, Ukrai e, Belarus a d Ce ral Asia republic i o he u io . he u ifica io of urkes a a d separa io of he U i ed Republics gave a bir h o he moder s a es of Uzbekis a , Kazaks a , adjikis a a d urkme is a . Duri g Le i 's rule, which e ded wi h his dea h i 1924, ma y died as a resul of his radical social res ruc uri g. U der Le i , a pla o rise he a io al eco omics of he U i ed Republic as well as i self was impleme ed. If before Russia had below ha 10% li eracy level ha af er World War II due o reforms s ar ed by Le i almos all popula io could read a d wri e. Curre ly, Russia li eracy level equals o 99%. Le i was followed by Joseph S ali , a dic a or who forced i dus rializa io a d collec ive agricul ure o he people. Millio s died i labor camps a d from s arva io . he obel Price laurea e, Alexa dr Solje ici , i O e Day of Iva De isovich charac erizes his period as “ he mos devas a i g rial falle o Russia soul”. While ma y his oria s argue ha hese sacrifices were ecessary o mee he ew challe ges a d make Russia equal o o her developed a io s a d fi ally wi he Seco d World War, Russia ’s sacrifices were so large ha eve ow Russia feels he co seque ces of ha war. Germa y i vaded he Sovie U io i 1941, a d World War II ha was called “Grea Pa rio ic War&quo ; i USSR eve ually ook more ha 26 millio Sovie lives. Duri g he WWII he reme dous amou of i dus rial pla s were reloca ed o eas due o he Germa occupa io of he Wes er par of he Sovie U io . Ma y ew i dus ries were developed i Uzbekis a duri g WW II such as pla e a d ruck assembli g, gas a d oil i dus ries. o supply he i creased eed for silk a d co o , Fergha a Ca al was co s ruc ed. iki a Khrushchev, who ook over af er S ali 's dea h i 1953, declared his i e io s o build real commu ism wi hi 20 years. Hard li ers, people opposed o his reforms a d policy of peaceful coexis e ce wi h he Wes , replaced Khrushchev i 1964 wi h Leo id Brezh ev. U il his dea h i 1982, Brezh ev orches ra ed he expa sio of Sovie i flue ce i he developi g world, ordered he i vasio of Afgha is a , a d buil up he Sovie uclear arse al. his i vasio proved o be a errible mis ake. he co seque ces of his i vasio had a devas a i g impac o rela io s wi h he wes a d i er al s abili y. Ma y millio s of people los heir lives i here. Moreover, he lo g- erm resul of his i vasio is he co i uous civil war i Afgha is a a d as a resul i s abili y i he regio . Whe he ex wo leaders died i quick successio , a you ger ma , Mikhail Gorbachev, rose o power i 1986. Gorbachev soo i roduced he reform co cep s of peres roika (res ruc uri g) a d glas os (ope ess). Ma y of his reforms failed a d he eco omy of he Sovie U io duri g i s las years was de eriora i g. he u io quickly u raveled i 1991 af er several republics declared i depe de ce.

Russia's leader a he ime was Boris Yel si . I 1993, af er Yel si dissolved a comba ive parliame , his oppo e s vo ed o impeach him a d seized he &quo ;Whi e House&quo ; (parliame buildi g) i a a emp ed coup. Followi g s ree rio s, he showdow ur ed viole a d mili a s were forced from he buildi g by a k fire. ha vic ory a d he approval of Yel si 's ew co s i u io were wo highligh s of a o herwise difficul erm i office. Commu is s a d ul ra- a io alis s mou ed a s ro g challe ge o him i he 1996 elec io s. Despi e poor heal h, Yel si prevailed i he vo i g o become Russia's firs ever freely elec ed preside . A viole 21-mo h war wi h separa is s i he Chech ya regio ar ished Yel si 's image a home a d abroad. Fi di g a solu io was complica ed by i er al rivalries, rebellious mili ary comma ders, a d Yel si 's faili g heal h. e s of housa ds died before a cease-fire fi ally res ored peace i Augus 1996. Russia wi hdrew i s roops i 1997 a d Cheche s elec ed heir ow local leaders. hey have de fac o co rol over i er al affairs u il 200 1, whe he wo par ies make a fi al decisio o Chech ya's bid for i depe de ce. However, he war was o over. he i vasio of Cheche rebels o he Russia erri ory, Dages a made Vladimir Pu i , ac i g Prime Mi is er lau ch a ew a ack o Cheche rebels. Pu i ’s i i ial war successes brough his a success i he Preside ’s elec io s i 2000. Af er becomi g a preside Vladimir Pu i s ar ed a ew wave of res ori g he “co s i u io al order” i Chech ya. Russia gover me made several a emp s o resolve he difficul ies be wee Russia a d o her Republics of CIS. I 1996, Russia a d Belarus agreed o closely li ki g heir socie ies wi hou ac ually mergi g. he preside s of each a io he sig ed a u io char er i 1997 ou li i g, amo g o her hi gs, how Russia a d Belarus would coopera e a d heir e h ic groups. Also i 1997, Russia made peace wi h Ukrai e, over ow ership of he Sovie U io ’s Black Sea aval flee , helped a peace agreeme i adjikis a , par icipa ed i i er a io al summi s, a d a ou ced ha i would o lo ger arge uclear weapo s a former Cold War e emies. Russia played a impor a role i Commo weal h of I depe de S a es (CIS). Russia has peacekeepi g forces i adjiskis a a d much helped he res ora io of peace i his republic. Russia helps he adjikis a ia gover me o pro ec i s borders of illegal drug a d gu smuggli g from Afgha is a . Russia peace keepi g forces made a umber of joi rai i g wi h he mili ary represe a ives from he Republics of Ce ral Asia a d A O. Grea Russia his ory shows ha ma y imes Russia had o face he difficul a d challe gi g imes a d s ill was ma aged o survive as a a io a d was o dissolved by foreig i vaders. he problems i Russia are immese, bu Russia will be able o cope wi h all i s problems a d will rise agai as a grea power o he world s age. Russia’s popula io , he crux of Russia reform, of 148 millio is shri ki g a ually by 0.7 perce . E h ic Russia s form 82 perce of he e ire popula io . O her groups i clude ar ars (4 perce ), Ukrai ia s (3 perce ), Chuvashes (I perce ), Byelorussia s (almos I perce ), Udr ur s, Kazaks, Burya s, uvi ia s, Yaku ia s, Bashkirs, a d o hers.

The real issue is not just employment, but increasingly productive employment that allows living standards to rise.” State-owned enterprises and state-subsidized private firms usually have not delivered sustainable productivity growth, and neither have a lot of other approaches that people assume are elixirs of growth, they add. Just attracting more foreign investment into a country also doesn't automatically do it. And even massive investments in education won't guarantee it. “Productivity growth and, hence, the way out of poverty, is not simply a matter of throwing resources at the problem,” say Klein and Hadjimichael. “More important, it is a matter of using resources well.” In other words, countries grow out of poverty not only when they manage their fiscal and monetary policies responsibly from above, i.e., reform wholesale. They grow out of poverty when they also create an environment below that makes it very easy for their people to start businesses, raise capital, and become entrepreneurs, and when they subject their people to at least some competition from beyond-because companies and countries with competitors always innovate more and faster

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