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Искусство, Культура, Литература
Селеменева А. ММА-91US S yle a d desig (20 h ce ury) – Pop Ar , Commercial Pho ography he we ie h ce ury is he firs ce ury of self-co scious, o al desig a every level of our livi g a d e viro me . Care a d visio i applica io of desig have come o be dema ded i every aspec of moder life – from our ki che s a d ba hrooms, o our fac ories a d workshops, from our clo hes a d domes ic objec s, o he packagi g of pocke calcula ors or he s ruc uri g of plas ic di i g chairs. Al hough he word has bee used si ce a leas he fif ee h ce ury, whe I alia wri ers spoke of 'diseg o' i describi g he quali y of li e possessed by a image or ar ifac , i all esse ials 'desig ' is a i dus rial or pos -i dus rial co cep . Wi h he i roduc io of mass- produc io , he people who i ve ed ideas for objec s became separa ed from he people who made hem who, agai , were separa ed from he people who sold hem. he i dus rial revolu io also crea ed he co cep of he marke . Perso al eed, or he whims of a pa ro , were replaced by a more abs rac dema d: he as es of a large, amorphous body of co sumers. he moder desig er came i o bei g as a i ermediary be wee i dus ry a d he co sumer. His role was o adap he produc s of i dus ry o he mass marke , o make hem more useful a d durable, perhaps, bu o make hem more appeali g a d commercially successful, cer ai ly. Commercial success is he ouchs o e of achieveme i desig , al hough desig ers i differe cul ures have of e ake differe views as o how he achieveme is measured or he success valida ed. So, desig i busi ess a d adver iseme mea s much. he s ory of s yle i he applied ar s si ce he mid- o la e fif ies has bee domi a ed by various ew forces, i cludi g social a d eco omic fac ors a d cer ai aspec s of ech ical a d scie ific progress. ow we have compu er desig , web desig , adver iseme desig ( for example co sumer-produc bra di g desig ) a d he whole fashio of differe ypes of ad, colors a d so o . he la e fif ies saw he bir h of adver isi g as we k ow i oday, a high-powered busi ess dedica ed o he developme effec ive marke i g ech iques; i i volved ew desig co cep s a d a whole ew professio al jargo of produc packagi g, marke research, corpora e images a d house s yle. he POP Ar moveme embraced he work of a ew ge era io of ar is s of la e fif ies a d early six ies of bo h sides of he A la ic. I Bri ai , i addi io o he I depe de Group, here were Pe er Blake, Alle Jo es. I USA Jasper Joh s, om Wesselma , Claes Olde burg a d o her formalized he la guage of produc packagi g, from beer ca s o Campbell's Soup i s of s rip car oo s, fas food, adver isi g hoardi gs a d pi -ups. Pop Ar a o ce reflec ed a d glorified mass-marke cul ure a d i jec ed a ew vigour i o he applied ar s. Pop a d he ar s yles which were i s a ural successors, o ably America Hard-Edge Abs rac io a d he Hyper- or Pho o-realis school of arou d 1970, sugges ed a ew pale e o colours a d gave a fresh, iro ical edge o he imagery of popular cul ure. he Pop e hic posi lively e couraged desig ers o exploi vulgari y brash ess a d brigh colour, a d o use sy he ic or disposable ma erials i co ex s i which hey would formerly have bee u accep able.
Pop has had a las i g effec o desig i a wide varie y of media, i cludi g i eriors, graphics a d fashio . Pop has spaw ed fur i ure i brigh , primary-coloured plas ics a d i boldly pri ed fold-away cardboard; i has i spired, o ably i Bri ai a d I aly, wi y sculp ural fur i ure i brash, sy he ic ma erials remi isce of he sculp ures of Claes Olde burg. he fashio a d fur i ure shop Mr Freedom, ope ed i Lo do i 1969 by ommy Rober s, was a veri able shri e o he Pop cul , wi h lively fur i ure desig s by Jo Wealla s. I alia Pop fur i ure was o e aspec of he I alia desig commu i y's wide-ra gi g i ellec ual approach which, si ce he six ies, has made I aly he mos progressive cou ry i ma y areas of he applied ar s. he i flue ce of Pop ca be see i graphic desig i he six ies i he work of he America Pushpi S udios, fou ded by Mil o Glaser a d Seymour Chwas . Pop a d he Hyper-Realis s also i spired he slick airbrush work of a umber of graphic ar is s worki g i he seve ies a d eigh ies, o ably he Bri ish ar is s Philip Cas le a d Michael E glish. Pop imagery is s ill, oday, a par of he s aple die of graphic desig . Pop's mos o able impac o he world of fashio was i Lo do i he la e six ies a d early seve ies, a d i I aly i he achieveme s of Elio Fioruccii he seve ies. Fiorucci brough fu i o fashio , a d his shops, firs i Mila a d he i er a io ally, became k ow for heir Pop- i spired clo hes a d graphics. A d i 's i flue ce ca be see also a d o a graphic desig i USA. POP is everywhere, we see everyday objec s a d images of America popular cul ure – Coca-Cola bo les, soup ca s, sigare e packages a d comic s rips. Commercial pho ography Commercial pho ographic images are a major i gredie of our visual life, assimila ed from magazi es, hoardi gs a d such co ex s as brochures, ca alogues, cale dars, packagi g a d poi -of-sale promo io al ma erial. Commercial pho ography hrives as a mea s of crea i g highly polished images of a s ylized, glamourized a d idealized view of he World i order o sell a produc or a service. he major ca egories of commercial pho ography are adver isi g i i s cou less guises, i cludi g produc pho ography a d pho o-illus ra io , fashio , beau y a d cer ai ca egories of pho ography which are ei her repor age or aspire o be fi e ar , ye which ca be fasci a i g social docume s of co siderable aes he ic quali y. Irvi g Pe has co i ued o be a mas er i each of hese ge res a d has se s a dards o which ma y aspire. His career has spa ed for y years, duri g which his work, from his early fashio a d s ill-life composi io s o curre s ill-life produc s udies such as his series for he cosme ics ma ufac urers Cli ique, has show a i imi able visio a d co sis e aes he ic rigour. Be S er , hough far from bei g Pe 's ar is ic equal, became he arche ypal commercial pho ographer i he fif ies a d six ies, ru i g a vas s udio i ew York a d showi g co siderable skill a d versa ili y i i erpre i g he briefs of ar direc ors a d clie s. I he six ies he professio of commercial a d, i par icular, fashio pho ography became grea ly glamourized: he successful you g pho ographer became a popular folk hero, as if he camera were a passpor o he illusory world which i could depic —A o io i's film Blow-Up (1966-7) defi ed he role model.
Amo g he mos i eres i g magazi es o be lau ched i he six ies, he pho ography of which cap ured he you hful exci eme of ha period, were he Bri ish ova, which commissio ed some of he bes fashio pho ography of i s day, a d he Germa we , brillia ly ar direc ed by Willy Fleckhaus. I he six ies adver isi g played a seco dary role o edi orial pho ography i magazi es. oday he reverse seems rue, for he charac er of ma y magazi es is dic a ed by he marke eeds of adver isers a d ma y pho ographers bemoa he grea er res ric io s his imposes. he seve ies a d eigh ies have, o e heless, brough for h a ew roll-call of ale . Ou s a di g co emporary figures i clude Helmu ew o a d Guy Bourdi , who have domi a ed he field of fashio pho ography; Ha s Feurer, Ar hur Elgor , De is Piel a d o hers, a few of he less celebra ed bu ale ed fashio pho ographers; adver isi g a d glamour pho ographers such as Fra cis Giacobe i, James Baes Commercial pho ographers play a grea role i our co sumer socie y, crea i g he images of a life-s yle o which we are co s a ly e couraged o aspire. hey crea e glamourized images of wome a d give a heigh e ed visual appeal o he produc s which are eco omic mai s ay of our socie y, be i a hamburger, a perfume or a au omobile.
Помимо этих - глобальных проблем человечества на новый уровень поднимаются и старые проблемы. Внутренние противоречия капиталистического мира достигают предела своего развития, происходит обострение классовой борьбы между рабочим классом и капиталом. Разворачивающаяся упорная борьба буржуазных и коммунистических тенденций находит свое выражение во многих областях общественной жизни. Особенно ярко видна она в области культуры, где буржуазная массовая культура ( pop art) борется с культурой протеста (контркультурой) и набирающей силу революционной культурой социализма. Помимо противоречий капиталистического мира появляются и противоречия между коммунистическими тенденциями развития и капиталистическими отношениями. Так, рост творческой составляющей труда, научно-технический прогресс, увеличение роли трудовых коллективов в управлении предприятиями, складывание коммунистических отношений, формирование социалистической психики, морали, ценностей, норм поведения и культуры, указывает на все большое созревание нового общества в недрах капитализма
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