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Реферат по теме:«BUSI ESS ASSOCIA IO S» BUSI ESS ASSOCIA IO S Corpora e bargai --limi ed liabili y I.CHARAC ERIS ICS OF A CORPORA IO A.PRI CIPAL CHARAC ERIS ICS OF A CORPORA IO a)E i y S a us--a corpora io is a legal e i y crea ed u der he au hori y of legisla ure b)Limi ed Liabili y--as a legal e i y, a corp is respo sible for i s ow deb s; i s sh’s liabili y is limi ed o heir i ves me ; c)Free ra sferabili y of I eres --shares, represe i g ow ership i eres s, are freely ra sferable; d)Ce ralized Ma ageme a d Co rol--a corp’s ma ageme is ce ralized i a board of dirs a d officers. Shs have o direc co rol over he board’s ac ivi ies; e)Dura io --Co i ui y of Exis e ce--a corp is capable of perpe ual exis e ce; f) axa io --a corp, as a e i y, pays axes o i s ow i come; shs are axed o ly o divide ds; g)Remember A ribu es of he Corpora io --CLIFF: 1)Ce raliza io of ma ageme ; 2)Limi ed liabili y; 3)Forever (perpe ual dura io ); 4)Freely alie able (shares ca be sold). B.CORPORA IO S DIS I GUISHED FROM O HER FORMS OF BUSI ESS ASSOCIA IO S. 1.GE ERAL PAR ERSHIPS--i mos s a es, p’ships are gover ed by he U iform Par ership Ac (UPA). However, he Revised UPA (RUPA) has bee adop ed by a few s a es a)Aggrega e S a us--a p’ship is a aggrega io of wo or more perso s who are e gaged i busi ess as co-ow ers. Al hough o a legal e i y, a p’ship is rea ed as o e for cer ai purposes, e.g., ow ership a d ra sfer of proper y. RUPA co fers e i y s a us o p’ships; b)U limi ed Liabili y--every par er is subjec o u limi ed perso al liabili y o p’ship deb s; c) ra sferabili y of I eres s--a par er ca o make a ra sferee a member of he p’ship. She ca , however, assig his i eres i he p’ship, hus permi i g he assig ee o receive dis ribu io s of profi s. Because he assig ee does o become a member of he p’ship, he is o e i led o par icipa e i p’ship busi ess or ma ageme . d)Dura io a d Dissolu io --a p’ship ca o have perpe ual exis e ce. I is ermi able a will u less a defi i e erm is expressed or implied, a d is also dissolved by dea h, i capaci y, or wi hdrawal of a y par er. 1)Wro gful dissolu io --p’ships ca also be dissolved i co rave io of he p’ship agreeme , by he express will of a y par er, by a cour or by a par er’s co duc . Upo wro gful dissolu io , o breachi g par ers may seek damages for breach a d, if hey choose o do so, may co i ue he p’ship upo payme o he breachi g par er of he value of his i eres . 1)Compare--dissocia io u der RUPA-- ermi a io resul s i ei her he wi di g up of he p’ship or buyou of he dissocia i g par er, depe di g o he eve riggeri g he ermi a io . A buyou may be reduced by damages if dissocia io was wro gful. e)Ma ageme a d Co rol--abse a co rary agreeme , every par er has a righ o par icipa e equally i he par ership ma ageme . f)Au ori y--each par er, as a age of he firm, may bi d he p’ship by ac s do e for he carryi g o , i he usual way, he busi ess of he p’ship. 1)RUPA--a p’ship is bou d by a par er’s ac for carryi g o i he usual way ei her he ac ual p’ship busi ess or a busi ess of he ki d carried o by he p’ship.

g)Ow ership of Proper y-- i le may be held i he ame of he p’ship, bu proper y is ow ed by he i dividual par ers as e a s i p’ship. here is o e a cy i p’ship u der RUPA, which provides ha proper y acquired by p’ship is ow ed by p’ship, o i dividual par ers. h)Capaci y o Sue a d be Sued--u der he UPA, a lawsui may be brough by or agai s i dividual par ers, ra her ha p’ship. Par ers are joi ly a d severally liable for wro gful ac s a d breaches of rus ; hey are o ly joi ly liable for deb s a d obliga io s of he p’ship. 1)S a u ory reforms--ma y s a e s a u es specifically allow a p’ship o be sued i i s ow ame. O her s a es make all p’ship liabili ies joi a d several. O her reforms provide ha o all joi obligors eed o be joi ed i a sui . 2)RUPA--a p’ship may sue a d be sued i i s ow ame, a d par ers are joi ly a d severally liable for all p’ship obliga io s. A claim agai s he p’ship ca o be sa isfied from a par er’s perso al asse s u less p’ship asse s have bee exhaus ed. 2.JOI VE URE--a p’ship formed for some limi ed i ves me or opera io , as opposed o a co i ued busi ess e erprise. Joi ve ures are gover ed by he rules applicable o p’ships 3.LIMI ED PAR ERSHIP-- his is a p’ship co sis i g of wo classes of par ers: ge eral par ers (wi h righ s a d obliga io s as i a ordi ary p’ship) a d limi ed par ers (wi h o co rol a d limi ed liabili y). 4.LIMI ED LIABILI Y PAR ERSHIPS--i a LLP, a ge eral par er is O perso ally liable for all p’ship obliga io s arisi g from eglige ce, wro gful ac s, a d misco duc abse his i volveme i he misco duc . here is o exclusio for liabili y for co rac ual obliga io s. 5.LIMI ED LIABILI Y COMPA IES--LLC is a o -corpora e busi ess e i y whose ow ers (members) have limi ed liabili y a d ca par icipa e ac ively i i s ma ageme . A LLC may be ei her for a erm or a will. I ca be ma aged ei her by i s members or o member ma agers. Depe di g o he s a u e, dis ribu io s are made ei her equally o each member or i propor io o each member’s co ribu io . a)Wi hdrawal a d Dissolu io --some s a u es provide ha a y eve ha ermi a es a member’s membership (dea h, resig a io ) causes dissolu io . O her s a u es dis i guish be wee faul eve s(member misco duc .) a d o -faul eve s (dea h, ba krup cy), a d some provide ha dissolu io ca be avoided by payi g he wi hdrawi g member fair value for his i eres . b)Adva ages of LLCs--A LLC for a busi ess associa io , o publicly held, has s ro g adva ages: par ership axa io , vir ually o res ric io s i s ruc uri g ow ership i eres s a d ma ageme , limi ed liabili y for ow ers a d ma agers, a d o limi a io s o he umber or a ure of ow ers. C.DISREGARD OF CORPORA E E I Y--si ce a corp is a dis i c legal e i y, shs are ormally shielded from corpora e obliga io s. I cer ai i s a ces, however, he corpora e e i y will be disregarded. 1.PIERCI G HE CORPORA E VEIL--(Sui s by corpora e credi ors agai s shs)--i ’s more commo i co rac claims ha i or claims. he mos impor a eleme s co sidered by he cour s: a)Commi gli g of Asse s--commi gli g of corp asse s a d perso al asse s of shs (e.g

., payi g priva e deb s wi h corp fu ds) may lead o pierci g of he corpora e veil; b)Lack of Corpora e Formali ies--whe her basic corp formali ies (e.g., regular mee i gs, corpora e records mai ai ed, issua ce of s ock) were followed is also releva . S a u ory close corps are permi ed more flexibili y regardi g corp formali ies; c)U dercapi aliza io --if he corp was orga ized wi hou sufficie capi al or liabili y i sura ce o mee obliga io s reaso ably expec ed o arise, he corp veil may be pierced; d)Domi a io a d Co rol By Shareholder-- he corp veil is of e pierced whe a i dividual or o her corp ow s mos or all of he s ock, so ha i comple ely domi a es policy or busi ess decisio s. e)”Al er Ego,” “I s rume ali y,” “U i y of I eres ”--whe o separa e e i y exis s a d he corp is merely he al er ego or i s rume ali y of i s shs (could be a corpora e shareholder), or whe here is a u i y of i eres be wee he corp a d i s shs, he corp veil is of e pierced. hese erms are usually applied o ly if o her grou ds are prese ; f)Fraud, Wro g, Disho es y, or I jus ice--ge erally, he veil will be pierced o ly if o e of hese eleme s is available, e.g., o pierci g of veil if here is a lack of corp formali ies wi hou resul a i jus ice. Pierci g he veil usually i volves corps wi h a small umber of shs. 2.PIERCI G HAPPE S MOS OF E WHE : 1) he umber of shs is small-- he cha ce of o e sh domi a i g he corp is grea er; 2)Decep io -- here is some ki d of decep io ; 3)Age cy--i dividual is a “pri cipal” a d corp is his “age ” 4)Es oppel--ou sider was led o believe ha he was deali g wi h a i dividual, while i fac he was deali g wi h he corpora io . 5)Direc or --i dividual a d corp ac ed oge her a d should be joi ly/severally liable 6)I s rume ali y requireme is sa isfied: I)co rol of a subsidiary by pare ii) o commi fraud iii) o cause loss or i jury. 3.PIERCI G HE WALL BE WEE AFFILIA ED CORPORA IO S-- his occurs whe a P wi h a claim agai s o e corp a emp s o sa isfy he claim agai s he asse s of a affilia ed corp u der commo ow ership. his ype of aggrega io is permi ed o ly whe each affilia ed corp is O a free-s a di g e erprise bu merely a fragme of a e i y composed of affilia ed corps. 4.USE OF CORPORA E FORM O EVADE S A U ORY OR CO RAC OBLIGA IO S-- he corp form may be ig ored whe i is used o evade a s a u ory or co rac ual obliga io . he issue is whe her he co rac or s a u e was i e ded o apply o he shs as well as he corpora io . O ly hird par ies, o he corp or i s shs, are ge erally allowed o disregard he corp e i y. 5. WO EX REMES O AVOID I PIERCI G HE CORPORA E WALL: a)Old model--Superma (sh) used corp as his puppe ; b) ew Model--Superma (sh) a d corp are i separable (al er ego) D.SUBORDI A IO OF SHAREHOLDER DEB S--”DEEP ROCK” DOC RI E--if a corp goes i o ba krup cy, deb s o i s co rolli g shs may be subordi a ed o claims of o her credi ors. Whe subordi a io occurs, shareholder loa s are rea ed as if hey were i ves ed capi al (s ock). Major fac ors i de ermi i g whe her o subordi a e i clude fraud, misma ageme , u dercapi aliza io , commi gli g, excessive co rol, e c.

I rememberБЂ”or at least my PDA remembersБЂ”personal events like birthdays and anniversaries, and I make a special point of reaching out to people during these times. When it comes to relationship maintenance, you have to be on your game 24/7, 365 days a year. There's no doubt you have to bring a certain vigor to this part of the system. But hey, this is just my way of doing things. You'll figure out your own way. The governing principle here is repetition; find a way to ensure that you'll contact people regularly without putting too much strain on your schedule. One way I've found to make maintaining my network of contacts, colleagues, and friends easier is to create a rating system for the network that corresponds to how often I reach out. First, I divide my network into five general categories: Under "Personal," I include my good friends and social acquaintances. Because I'm generally in contact with these people organically, I don't include them on a contact list. The relationship is established, and when we talk, it's as if we'd been in touch every day. "Customers" and "Prospects" are self-explanatory. "Important Business Associates" is reserved for people I'm actively involved with professionally

1. Business relation ships in japan

2. Лингвистический фон деловой корреспонденции (Linguistic Background of Business Correspondence)

3. Associated press

4. Business Plan

5. Business at work

6. Business Ethics
Business Ethics
7. Review of Bill Gates’s book ”Business @ the Speed of Thought”
8. Business Аssociations

9. Organizing forms of business activity

10. Organizing forms of business activity

11. Business communication

12. Business

13. Business finance

14. Reminiscences of Janet A. Mattei, former director of the American Associations of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO)


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